Abstract

We propose a digital driving technique using pulse-density modulation (PDM) for an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) to effectively suppress the false image contour in conventional pulsewidth modulation (PWM) while achieving considerably low operating frequency. A compact first-order digital $\Delta \Sigma $ modulator provides the PDM signal to the panel. A 2.2-inch QVGA AMOLED system using the proposed technique shows no false image contour problem while allowing relaxed minimum gate scan time.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. R. Dawson, Z. Shen, D. Furst, S. Connor, J. Hsu, M. Kane, R. Stewart, A. Ipri, C. King, P. Green, R. Flegal, S. Pearson, W. Barrow, E. Dickey, K. Ping, S. Robinson, C. Tang, S. Slyke, F. Chen, J. Shi, M. Lu, J. Sturm, "Impact of the transient response of organic light emitting diodes on the design of active matrix OLED displays," Int. Electron Devices Meeting Tech. Dig. (1998) pp. 875-878.
  2. M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1323-1325 (1989).
  3. Y. W. Kim, S. R. Lee, O. K. Kwon, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Park, S. A. Yang, D. Y. Shin, B. H. Kim, H. K. Chung, "A new pixel structure for AMOLED panel with 6-bit gray scale," SID Conf. Rec. Int. Display Res. Conf. (2002) pp. 613-616.
  4. N. Komiya, C. Oh, K. Eom, Y. Kim, S. Park, S. Kim, "A 2.0-in. AMOLED panel with voltage programming pixel circuits and point scanning data driver circuits," Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops (2004) pp. 283-286.
  5. H. J. In, P. S. Kwag, J. S. Kang, O. K. Kwon, H. K. Chung, "Voltage-programming method with transimpedance-feedback technique for threshold voltage and mobility compensations in large-area high-resolution AMOLED displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 665-671 (2006).
  6. S. W.-B. Tam, Y. Matsueda, H. Maeda, M. Kimura, T. Shimoda, P. Migliorato, "Improved polysilicon TFT drivers for light emitting polymer displays," Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops (2000) pp. 243-246.
  7. T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, T. Urabe, "24.4l: Late-news paper: A 13.0-inch am-oled display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC)," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2001) pp. 384-387.
  8. D. Y. Shin, Y. Matsueda, H. K. Chung, "New current demultiplexer TFT circuits for AMOLED," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 2051-2056 (2005).
  9. S. Ono, K. Miwa, Y. Maekawa, T. Tsujimura, "${V}_{T}$ compensation circuit for AM OLED displays composed of two TFTs and one capacitor," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 462-467 (2007).
  10. M. Mizukami, K. Inukai, H. Yamagata, T. Konuma, T. Nishi, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, T. Tsutsui, "6-bit digital VGA OLED," SID Int. Symp. Tech. Dig. (2000) pp. 912-915.
  11. G. de Haan, J. Kettenis, A. Loning, B. D. Loore, "IC for motion-compensated 100 Hz TV with natural-motion movie-mode," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 42, 165-173 (1996).
  12. G. de Haan, "IC for motion-compensated de-interlacing, noise reduction, and picture-rate conversion," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 45, 617-624 (1999).
  13. Y. P. Eo, S. J. Ahn, S. U. Lee, "Histogram-based subfield LUT selection for reducing dynamic false contour in PDPs," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 606-609.
  14. J. S. Lee, B. S. Kang, Y. H. Kim, "Image-dependent code optimization to improve motion picture quality of plasma displays," IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 1400-1405 (2006/10).
  15. J. W. Lee, B. R. Lim, R.-H. Park, J. S. Kim, W. Ahn, "Two-stage false contour detection algorithm using re-quantization and directional contrast features and its application to adaptive false contour reduction," Int. Conf. Consum. Electron. Tech. Dig. (2006) pp. 377-8.
  16. S. W.-B. Tam, M. Kimura, R. Fried, T. Shimoda, P. Migliorato, "A self-biased TFT-OLED pixel driver circuit," Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops (2002) pp. 243-246.
  17. H. Akimoto, H. Kageyama, Y. Shimizu, H. Awakura, S. Nishitani, T. Sato, "An innovative pixel driving scheme for 64-level gray-scale full-color active matrix OLED displays," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2002) pp. 972-975.
  18. T. Shigeta, N. Saegusa, H. Honda, T. Nagakubo, T. Akiyama, "Improvement of moving-video image quality on pdps by reducing the dynamic false contour," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (1998) pp. 287-290.
  19. T. Yamaguchi, K. Toda, S. Mikoshiba, T. Nagakubo, T. Akiyama, "Improvement in PDP picture quality by three-dimensional scattering of dynamic false contour," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (1996) pp. 291-294.
  20. J. Jang, M. Kwon, E. Tjandranegara, K. Lee, B. Jung, "A digital driving technique for an 8 b QVGA AMOLED display using $\Delta \Sigma $ modulation," IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers (2009) pp. 270-271, 271a.
  21. C. W. Byun, B. D. Choi, "Hybrid 8-bit digital-to-analog converter for mobile active matrix flat panel displays using low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. (Japan) 46, 1380-6 (2007/03).
  22. Y.-S. Son, S.-K. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, Y.-J. Woo, J.-Y. Jeon, G.-H. Lee, G.-H. Cho, "A novel data driving method and circuits for AMOLED displays," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 343-346.
  23. K. Kawabe, T. Tsujimura, S. Mizukoshi, N. Mori, K. Onomura, S. A. V. Slyke, J. P. Spindler, A. Pleten, K. M. Fallon, "3.2: Digital drive with white oleds," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2009) pp. 5-8.
  24. J. C. Candy, S. R. Northworthy, R. Schreier, G. C. Temes, Delta-Sigma Data Converters (IEEE, 1997) pp. 1-43.
  25. C. Higgins, Z. Rivera-Alvidrez, "Contrast saturation in a neuronally-based model ofelementary motion detection," Neurocomputing 173-179 (2005).
  26. C. Higgins, H. Douglass, "The computational basis of an identified neuronal circuit for elementary motion detection in dipterous insects," Visual Neurosci. 567-586 (2004).
  27. R. Görtelmeyer, P. Zimmermann, Flicker Techniques in Psychopharmacologies (Beltz, 1982) pp. 23-38.
  28. Y. Matsueda, H. K. Kim, H. K. Chung, "Driving technologies for AMOLEDs," Proc. Int. Meeting Inf. Display (2006) pp. 393-398.

2007 (1)

S. Ono, K. Miwa, Y. Maekawa, T. Tsujimura, "${V}_{T}$ compensation circuit for AM OLED displays composed of two TFTs and one capacitor," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 462-467 (2007).

2006 (1)

H. J. In, P. S. Kwag, J. S. Kang, O. K. Kwon, H. K. Chung, "Voltage-programming method with transimpedance-feedback technique for threshold voltage and mobility compensations in large-area high-resolution AMOLED displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 665-671 (2006).

2005 (2)

D. Y. Shin, Y. Matsueda, H. K. Chung, "New current demultiplexer TFT circuits for AMOLED," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 2051-2056 (2005).

C. Higgins, Z. Rivera-Alvidrez, "Contrast saturation in a neuronally-based model ofelementary motion detection," Neurocomputing 173-179 (2005).

2004 (1)

C. Higgins, H. Douglass, "The computational basis of an identified neuronal circuit for elementary motion detection in dipterous insects," Visual Neurosci. 567-586 (2004).

1999 (1)

G. de Haan, "IC for motion-compensated de-interlacing, noise reduction, and picture-rate conversion," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 45, 617-624 (1999).

1996 (1)

G. de Haan, J. Kettenis, A. Loning, B. D. Loore, "IC for motion-compensated 100 Hz TV with natural-motion movie-mode," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 42, 165-173 (1996).

1989 (1)

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1323-1325 (1989).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1323-1325 (1989).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (2)

G. de Haan, J. Kettenis, A. Loning, B. D. Loore, "IC for motion-compensated 100 Hz TV with natural-motion movie-mode," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 42, 165-173 (1996).

G. de Haan, "IC for motion-compensated de-interlacing, noise reduction, and picture-rate conversion," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 45, 617-624 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

S. Ono, K. Miwa, Y. Maekawa, T. Tsujimura, "${V}_{T}$ compensation circuit for AM OLED displays composed of two TFTs and one capacitor," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 462-467 (2007).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (2)

D. Y. Shin, Y. Matsueda, H. K. Chung, "New current demultiplexer TFT circuits for AMOLED," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 2051-2056 (2005).

J. S. Lee, B. S. Kang, Y. H. Kim, "Image-dependent code optimization to improve motion picture quality of plasma displays," IEICE Trans. Electron. E89-C, 1400-1405 (2006/10).

J. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

H. J. In, P. S. Kwag, J. S. Kang, O. K. Kwon, H. K. Chung, "Voltage-programming method with transimpedance-feedback technique for threshold voltage and mobility compensations in large-area high-resolution AMOLED displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 665-671 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. (Japan) (1)

C. W. Byun, B. D. Choi, "Hybrid 8-bit digital-to-analog converter for mobile active matrix flat panel displays using low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. (Japan) 46, 1380-6 (2007/03).

Neurocomputing (1)

C. Higgins, Z. Rivera-Alvidrez, "Contrast saturation in a neuronally-based model ofelementary motion detection," Neurocomputing 173-179 (2005).

Visual Neurosci. (1)

C. Higgins, H. Douglass, "The computational basis of an identified neuronal circuit for elementary motion detection in dipterous insects," Visual Neurosci. 567-586 (2004).

Other (18)

R. Görtelmeyer, P. Zimmermann, Flicker Techniques in Psychopharmacologies (Beltz, 1982) pp. 23-38.

Y. Matsueda, H. K. Kim, H. K. Chung, "Driving technologies for AMOLEDs," Proc. Int. Meeting Inf. Display (2006) pp. 393-398.

Y. P. Eo, S. J. Ahn, S. U. Lee, "Histogram-based subfield LUT selection for reducing dynamic false contour in PDPs," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 606-609.

Y.-S. Son, S.-K. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, Y.-J. Woo, J.-Y. Jeon, G.-H. Lee, G.-H. Cho, "A novel data driving method and circuits for AMOLED displays," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 343-346.

K. Kawabe, T. Tsujimura, S. Mizukoshi, N. Mori, K. Onomura, S. A. V. Slyke, J. P. Spindler, A. Pleten, K. M. Fallon, "3.2: Digital drive with white oleds," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2009) pp. 5-8.

J. C. Candy, S. R. Northworthy, R. Schreier, G. C. Temes, Delta-Sigma Data Converters (IEEE, 1997) pp. 1-43.

J. W. Lee, B. R. Lim, R.-H. Park, J. S. Kim, W. Ahn, "Two-stage false contour detection algorithm using re-quantization and directional contrast features and its application to adaptive false contour reduction," Int. Conf. Consum. Electron. Tech. Dig. (2006) pp. 377-8.

S. W.-B. Tam, M. Kimura, R. Fried, T. Shimoda, P. Migliorato, "A self-biased TFT-OLED pixel driver circuit," Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops (2002) pp. 243-246.

H. Akimoto, H. Kageyama, Y. Shimizu, H. Awakura, S. Nishitani, T. Sato, "An innovative pixel driving scheme for 64-level gray-scale full-color active matrix OLED displays," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2002) pp. 972-975.

T. Shigeta, N. Saegusa, H. Honda, T. Nagakubo, T. Akiyama, "Improvement of moving-video image quality on pdps by reducing the dynamic false contour," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (1998) pp. 287-290.

T. Yamaguchi, K. Toda, S. Mikoshiba, T. Nagakubo, T. Akiyama, "Improvement in PDP picture quality by three-dimensional scattering of dynamic false contour," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (1996) pp. 291-294.

J. Jang, M. Kwon, E. Tjandranegara, K. Lee, B. Jung, "A digital driving technique for an 8 b QVGA AMOLED display using $\Delta \Sigma $ modulation," IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers (2009) pp. 270-271, 271a.

S. W.-B. Tam, Y. Matsueda, H. Maeda, M. Kimura, T. Shimoda, P. Migliorato, "Improved polysilicon TFT drivers for light emitting polymer displays," Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops (2000) pp. 243-246.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, T. Urabe, "24.4l: Late-news paper: A 13.0-inch am-oled display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC)," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2001) pp. 384-387.

Y. W. Kim, S. R. Lee, O. K. Kwon, K. N. Kim, Y. S. Park, S. A. Yang, D. Y. Shin, B. H. Kim, H. K. Chung, "A new pixel structure for AMOLED panel with 6-bit gray scale," SID Conf. Rec. Int. Display Res. Conf. (2002) pp. 613-616.

N. Komiya, C. Oh, K. Eom, Y. Kim, S. Park, S. Kim, "A 2.0-in. AMOLED panel with voltage programming pixel circuits and point scanning data driver circuits," Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops (2004) pp. 283-286.

R. Dawson, Z. Shen, D. Furst, S. Connor, J. Hsu, M. Kane, R. Stewart, A. Ipri, C. King, P. Green, R. Flegal, S. Pearson, W. Barrow, E. Dickey, K. Ping, S. Robinson, C. Tang, S. Slyke, F. Chen, J. Shi, M. Lu, J. Sturm, "Impact of the transient response of organic light emitting diodes on the design of active matrix OLED displays," Int. Electron Devices Meeting Tech. Dig. (1998) pp. 875-878.

M. Mizukami, K. Inukai, H. Yamagata, T. Konuma, T. Nishi, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, T. Tsutsui, "6-bit digital VGA OLED," SID Int. Symp. Tech. Dig. (2000) pp. 912-915.

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