Abstract

We discuss a thin-film spin-coating and patterning process of a conductive polymer electrode for flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). For the polymeric anode, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been spin coated on a non-ionic surfactant layer that was pre-coated on the polyethersulfone (PES) substrate. A peel-off method has then been employed to pattern the conductive polymer anode without UV irradiation or heat treatment involved. A peel-off pattern is induced by different adhesion energy among a hydrophobic flexible substrate, a hydrophilic polymeric anode layer, and an adhesive film peeler that is in contact with the polymer anode. With this process technology, we have successfully fabricated solution-processed flexible green OLEDs, showing a peak luminescence of 6000 ${\hbox{cd/m}}^{2}$ and a maximum current efficiency of 16.2 cd/A.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. G. P. Grawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005).
  2. J. W. Park, J. H. Lee, D. C. Shin, S. H. Park, "Luminance uniformity of large-area OLEDs with an auxiliary metal electrode," J. Display Technol. .
  3. L. Ke, R. S. Kumar, S. J. Chua, A. P. Burden, "Degradation study in flexible substrate organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. A 81, 969-974 (2005).
  4. K. Fehse, K. Walzer, K. Leo, W. Lövenich, A. Elschner, "Highly conductive polymer anodes as replacements for inorganic materials in high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 441-444 (2007).
  5. S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, "Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1-7 (2008).
  6. J. Y. Kim, J. H. Jung, D. E. Lee, J. Joo, "Enhancement of electrical conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonate) by a change of solvents," Synth. Met. 126, 311-316 (2002).
  7. J. Huang, P. F. Miller, J. S. Wilson, A. J. de Mello, C. de Mello, D. D. C. Bradley, "Investigation of the effects of doping and post-deposition treatments on the conductivity, morphology, and work function of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) films," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 290-296 (2005).
  8. L. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, O. Inganäs, "Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate)," Org. Electron. 3, 143-148 (2002).
  9. G. B. Blanchet, Y.-L. Loo, J. A. Rogers, F. Gao, C. R. Fincher, "Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 463-465 (2003).
  10. H. Kang, T. I. Kim, H. H. Lee, "Self-aligned flexible all-polymer transistor: Ultraviolet printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203308-1-203308-3 (2008).
  11. A. Kumar, G. M. Whitesides, "Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol “ink” followed by chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002-2004 (1993).
  12. T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, L. S. Roman, M. Svensson, O. Inganäs, "Patterning of polymer light-emitting diodes with soft lithography," Adv. Mater. 12, 269-273 (2000).
  13. L. S. Roman, O. Inganäs, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Adersson, J. C. Hummelen, "Trapping light in polymer photodiodes with soft embossed gratings," Adv. Mater. 12, 189-195 (2000).
  14. Y. Yoshioka, G. E. Jabbour, "Desktop inkjet printer as a tool to print conducting polymers," Synth. Met. 156, 779-783 (2006).
  15. T. Okamatsu, Y. Yasuda, M. Ochi, "Thermodynamic work of adhesion and peel adhesion energy of dimethoxysilyl-terminated polypropylene oxide/epoxy resin system jointed with polymeric substrates," J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 80, 1920-1930 (2001).
  16. Y. C. Yim, "Enhanced light emission from one-layered organic light-emitting devices doped with organic salt by simultaneous thermal and electrical annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 103507-1-103507-3 (2006).

2008 (2)

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, "Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1-7 (2008).

H. Kang, T. I. Kim, H. H. Lee, "Self-aligned flexible all-polymer transistor: Ultraviolet printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203308-1-203308-3 (2008).

2007 (1)

K. Fehse, K. Walzer, K. Leo, W. Lövenich, A. Elschner, "Highly conductive polymer anodes as replacements for inorganic materials in high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 441-444 (2007).

2006 (2)

Y. Yoshioka, G. E. Jabbour, "Desktop inkjet printer as a tool to print conducting polymers," Synth. Met. 156, 779-783 (2006).

Y. C. Yim, "Enhanced light emission from one-layered organic light-emitting devices doped with organic salt by simultaneous thermal and electrical annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 103507-1-103507-3 (2006).

2005 (2)

L. Ke, R. S. Kumar, S. J. Chua, A. P. Burden, "Degradation study in flexible substrate organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. A 81, 969-974 (2005).

J. Huang, P. F. Miller, J. S. Wilson, A. J. de Mello, C. de Mello, D. D. C. Bradley, "Investigation of the effects of doping and post-deposition treatments on the conductivity, morphology, and work function of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) films," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 290-296 (2005).

2003 (1)

G. B. Blanchet, Y.-L. Loo, J. A. Rogers, F. Gao, C. R. Fincher, "Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 463-465 (2003).

2002 (2)

L. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, O. Inganäs, "Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate)," Org. Electron. 3, 143-148 (2002).

J. Y. Kim, J. H. Jung, D. E. Lee, J. Joo, "Enhancement of electrical conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonate) by a change of solvents," Synth. Met. 126, 311-316 (2002).

2001 (1)

T. Okamatsu, Y. Yasuda, M. Ochi, "Thermodynamic work of adhesion and peel adhesion energy of dimethoxysilyl-terminated polypropylene oxide/epoxy resin system jointed with polymeric substrates," J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 80, 1920-1930 (2001).

2000 (2)

T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, L. S. Roman, M. Svensson, O. Inganäs, "Patterning of polymer light-emitting diodes with soft lithography," Adv. Mater. 12, 269-273 (2000).

L. S. Roman, O. Inganäs, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Adersson, J. C. Hummelen, "Trapping light in polymer photodiodes with soft embossed gratings," Adv. Mater. 12, 189-195 (2000).

1993 (1)

A. Kumar, G. M. Whitesides, "Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol “ink” followed by chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002-2004 (1993).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. Huang, P. F. Miller, J. S. Wilson, A. J. de Mello, C. de Mello, D. D. C. Bradley, "Investigation of the effects of doping and post-deposition treatments on the conductivity, morphology, and work function of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) films," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 290-296 (2005).

Adv. Mater. (4)

K. Fehse, K. Walzer, K. Leo, W. Lövenich, A. Elschner, "Highly conductive polymer anodes as replacements for inorganic materials in high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 441-444 (2007).

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, "Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1-7 (2008).

T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, L. S. Roman, M. Svensson, O. Inganäs, "Patterning of polymer light-emitting diodes with soft lithography," Adv. Mater. 12, 269-273 (2000).

L. S. Roman, O. Inganäs, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Adersson, J. C. Hummelen, "Trapping light in polymer photodiodes with soft embossed gratings," Adv. Mater. 12, 189-195 (2000).

Appl. Phys. A (1)

L. Ke, R. S. Kumar, S. J. Chua, A. P. Burden, "Degradation study in flexible substrate organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. A 81, 969-974 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. C. Yim, "Enhanced light emission from one-layered organic light-emitting devices doped with organic salt by simultaneous thermal and electrical annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 103507-1-103507-3 (2006).

G. B. Blanchet, Y.-L. Loo, J. A. Rogers, F. Gao, C. R. Fincher, "Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 463-465 (2003).

H. Kang, T. I. Kim, H. H. Lee, "Self-aligned flexible all-polymer transistor: Ultraviolet printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203308-1-203308-3 (2008).

A. Kumar, G. M. Whitesides, "Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol “ink” followed by chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002-2004 (1993).

J. Appl. Poly. Sci. (1)

T. Okamatsu, Y. Yasuda, M. Ochi, "Thermodynamic work of adhesion and peel adhesion energy of dimethoxysilyl-terminated polypropylene oxide/epoxy resin system jointed with polymeric substrates," J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 80, 1920-1930 (2001).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. W. Park, J. H. Lee, D. C. Shin, S. H. Park, "Luminance uniformity of large-area OLEDs with an auxiliary metal electrode," J. Display Technol. .

Org. Electron. (1)

L. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, O. Inganäs, "Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate)," Org. Electron. 3, 143-148 (2002).

Synth. Met. (2)

J. Y. Kim, J. H. Jung, D. E. Lee, J. Joo, "Enhancement of electrical conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonate) by a change of solvents," Synth. Met. 126, 311-316 (2002).

Y. Yoshioka, G. E. Jabbour, "Desktop inkjet printer as a tool to print conducting polymers," Synth. Met. 156, 779-783 (2006).

Other (1)

G. P. Grawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005).

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