Abstract

The field of low-cost flexible displays has attracted an enormous amount of interest in the past few years. This paper analyzes the challenges associated with designing a backplane for an electrophoretic front plane and develops a general model which relates semiconductor and lithographic performance metrics to display qualities such as speed, uniformity, and resolution. Specific examples are given for all ink-jet printed displays as well as for partially or all photolithographically patterned displays.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. A. Kattamis, I.-C. Cheng, K. Long, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Cherenack, S. Wagner, J. Sturm, S. Venugopal, D. Loy, S. O'Rourke, D. Alle, "Amorphous silicon thin-film transistor backplanes deposited at 200 C on clear plastic for lamination to electrophoretic displays," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 304-308 (2007).
  2. S. Burns, W. Reeves, B. Pui, K. Jacobs, S. Siddique, K. Reynolds, M. Banach, D. Barclay, K. Chalmers, N. Cousins, P. Cain, L. Dassas, M. Etchells, C. Hayton, S. Markham, A. Menon, P. Too, C. Ramsdale, J. Herod, K. Saynor, J. Watts, T. von Werne, J. Mills, C. Curling, H. Sirringhaus, K. Amundson, M. McCreary, "A flexible plastic SVGA e-paper display," SID Int. l Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 74-76.
  3. W. Jackson, M. Almanza-Workman, A. Chaiken, R. Garcia, A. Jeans, O. Kwon, H. Luo, P. Mei, C. Perlov, C. Taussig, "Active-matrix backplanes produced by roll-to-roll self-aligned imprint lithography (SAIL)," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 322-325.
  4. A. Arias, J. Daniel, B. Krusor, S. Ready, V. Sholin, R. Street, "All-additive ink-jet-printed display backplanes: Materials development and integration," J. Soc. Inf. Display 15, 485-490 (2007).
  5. G. Gelinck, H. Huitema, M. Van Mil, E. Van Veenendaal, P. Van Lieshout, F. Touwslager, "Rollable QVGA active-matrix displays based on organic electronics," Soc. Inf. Display Dig. (2005) pp. 6-9.
  6. H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, E. Woo, "High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits," Science 290, 2123-2126 (2000).
  7. D. Redinger, S. Molesa, S. Yin, R. Farschi, V. Subramanian, "An ink-jet-deposited passive component process for RFID," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1978-1983 (2004).
  8. S. M. Molesa, A. de la Fuente Vornbrock, P. C. Chang, V. Subramanian, "Low-voltage inkjetted organic transistors for printed RFID and display applications," IEDM Tech. Dig. (2005) pp. 5.4.1-5.4.4.
  9. M. Leufgen, A. Lebib, T. Muck, U. Bass, V. Wagner, T. Borzenko, G. Schmidt, J. Geurts, L. W. Molenkamp, "Organic thin-film transistors fabricated by microcontact printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1582-1584 (2004).
  10. L. Libioulle, A. Bietsh, H. Schmid, B. Michel, E. Delamar Che, "Contact-inking stamps for microcontact printing of alkanethiols on gold," Langmuir 15, 300-304 (1999).
  11. G. B. Blanchet, Y.-L. Loo, J. A. Rogers, F. Gao, C. R. Finch er, "Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for or ganic electronics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 463-465 (2003).
  12. D. Huang, F. Liao, S. Molesa, D. Redinger, V. Subramanian, "Plastic-compatible low-resistance printable gold nanoparticle conductors for flexible electronics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, 412-417 (2003).
  13. C. Edwards, J. Howarth, A. James, "The ink jet printing of high conductivity circuits on various substrates using polymer capped nano-particle silver," Proc. Int. Meeting on Inf. Display (2006) pp. 814-816.
  14. J. Anthony, J. Brooks, D. Eaton, S. Parkin, "Functionalized pentacene: Improved electronic properties from control of solid-state order," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 123, 9482-9483 (2001).
  15. I. McCulloch, M. Heeney, C. Bailey, K. Genevicius, I. MacDonald, M. Shkunov, D. Sparrowe, S. Tierney, R. Wagner, W. Zhang, M. Chabinyc, R. J. Kline, M. McGehee, M. Toney, "Liquid-crystalline semiconducting polymers with high charge-carrier mobility," Nature Mater. 5, 328-333 (2006).
  16. S.-H. Paek, K.-L. Kim, H.-S. Seo, Y.-S. Jeong, S.-Y. Yi, S.-Y. Lee, N.-B. Choi, S.-H. Kim, C.-D. Kim, I.-J. Chung, M. McCreary, H. Gates, J. Au, "A flexible e-book display fabricated on a stainless-steel-foil substrate," Inf. Display 22, 16-19 (2006).
  17. A. Henzen, J. Van De Kamer, "The present and future of electronic paper," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 437-442 (2006).
  18. M. Johnson, G. Zhou, B. Zehner, K. Amundson, A. Henzen, J. Van De Kamer, "High-quality images on electrophoretic displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 175-180 (2006).
  19. A. Inoue, H. Kawai, S. Kanbe, T. Saeki, T. Shimoda, "High-resolution microencapsulated electrophoretic display EPD driven by poly-Si TFTs with four-level grayscale," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1532-1539 (2002).
  20. S. Yang, H. Jing, "Simulation of active-matrix electrophoretic display response time optimization by dual-gate a-Si:H TFT with common gate structure," J. Display Technol. 4, 245-249 (2008).
  21. P. Servati, A. Nathan, "Modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 1038-1042 (2002).
  22. E. Leuder, Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects (Wiley, 2001).
  23. F. Morin, "Amorphous silicon TFTs and their applications," Microelectron. Eng. 19, 171-177 (1992).

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

A. Kattamis, I.-C. Cheng, K. Long, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Cherenack, S. Wagner, J. Sturm, S. Venugopal, D. Loy, S. O'Rourke, D. Alle, "Amorphous silicon thin-film transistor backplanes deposited at 200 C on clear plastic for lamination to electrophoretic displays," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 304-308 (2007).

A. Arias, J. Daniel, B. Krusor, S. Ready, V. Sholin, R. Street, "All-additive ink-jet-printed display backplanes: Materials development and integration," J. Soc. Inf. Display 15, 485-490 (2007).

2006 (4)

I. McCulloch, M. Heeney, C. Bailey, K. Genevicius, I. MacDonald, M. Shkunov, D. Sparrowe, S. Tierney, R. Wagner, W. Zhang, M. Chabinyc, R. J. Kline, M. McGehee, M. Toney, "Liquid-crystalline semiconducting polymers with high charge-carrier mobility," Nature Mater. 5, 328-333 (2006).

S.-H. Paek, K.-L. Kim, H.-S. Seo, Y.-S. Jeong, S.-Y. Yi, S.-Y. Lee, N.-B. Choi, S.-H. Kim, C.-D. Kim, I.-J. Chung, M. McCreary, H. Gates, J. Au, "A flexible e-book display fabricated on a stainless-steel-foil substrate," Inf. Display 22, 16-19 (2006).

A. Henzen, J. Van De Kamer, "The present and future of electronic paper," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 437-442 (2006).

M. Johnson, G. Zhou, B. Zehner, K. Amundson, A. Henzen, J. Van De Kamer, "High-quality images on electrophoretic displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 175-180 (2006).

2004 (2)

D. Redinger, S. Molesa, S. Yin, R. Farschi, V. Subramanian, "An ink-jet-deposited passive component process for RFID," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1978-1983 (2004).

M. Leufgen, A. Lebib, T. Muck, U. Bass, V. Wagner, T. Borzenko, G. Schmidt, J. Geurts, L. W. Molenkamp, "Organic thin-film transistors fabricated by microcontact printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1582-1584 (2004).

2003 (2)

G. B. Blanchet, Y.-L. Loo, J. A. Rogers, F. Gao, C. R. Finch er, "Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for or ganic electronics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 463-465 (2003).

D. Huang, F. Liao, S. Molesa, D. Redinger, V. Subramanian, "Plastic-compatible low-resistance printable gold nanoparticle conductors for flexible electronics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, 412-417 (2003).

2002 (2)

A. Inoue, H. Kawai, S. Kanbe, T. Saeki, T. Shimoda, "High-resolution microencapsulated electrophoretic display EPD driven by poly-Si TFTs with four-level grayscale," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1532-1539 (2002).

P. Servati, A. Nathan, "Modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 1038-1042 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Anthony, J. Brooks, D. Eaton, S. Parkin, "Functionalized pentacene: Improved electronic properties from control of solid-state order," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 123, 9482-9483 (2001).

2000 (1)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, E. Woo, "High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits," Science 290, 2123-2126 (2000).

1999 (1)

L. Libioulle, A. Bietsh, H. Schmid, B. Michel, E. Delamar Che, "Contact-inking stamps for microcontact printing of alkanethiols on gold," Langmuir 15, 300-304 (1999).

1992 (1)

F. Morin, "Amorphous silicon TFTs and their applications," Microelectron. Eng. 19, 171-177 (1992).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Leufgen, A. Lebib, T. Muck, U. Bass, V. Wagner, T. Borzenko, G. Schmidt, J. Geurts, L. W. Molenkamp, "Organic thin-film transistors fabricated by microcontact printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1582-1584 (2004).

G. B. Blanchet, Y.-L. Loo, J. A. Rogers, F. Gao, C. R. Finch er, "Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for or ganic electronics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 463-465 (2003).

IEEE J. Display Technol. (1)

A. Kattamis, I.-C. Cheng, K. Long, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Cherenack, S. Wagner, J. Sturm, S. Venugopal, D. Loy, S. O'Rourke, D. Alle, "Amorphous silicon thin-film transistor backplanes deposited at 200 C on clear plastic for lamination to electrophoretic displays," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 304-308 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

D. Redinger, S. Molesa, S. Yin, R. Farschi, V. Subramanian, "An ink-jet-deposited passive component process for RFID," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1978-1983 (2004).

A. Inoue, H. Kawai, S. Kanbe, T. Saeki, T. Shimoda, "High-resolution microencapsulated electrophoretic display EPD driven by poly-Si TFTs with four-level grayscale," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1532-1539 (2002).

Inf. Display (1)

S.-H. Paek, K.-L. Kim, H.-S. Seo, Y.-S. Jeong, S.-Y. Yi, S.-Y. Lee, N.-B. Choi, S.-H. Kim, C.-D. Kim, I.-J. Chung, M. McCreary, H. Gates, J. Au, "A flexible e-book display fabricated on a stainless-steel-foil substrate," Inf. Display 22, 16-19 (2006).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. Anthony, J. Brooks, D. Eaton, S. Parkin, "Functionalized pentacene: Improved electronic properties from control of solid-state order," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 123, 9482-9483 (2001).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

D. Huang, F. Liao, S. Molesa, D. Redinger, V. Subramanian, "Plastic-compatible low-resistance printable gold nanoparticle conductors for flexible electronics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, 412-417 (2003).

J. Soc. Inf. Display (3)

A. Henzen, J. Van De Kamer, "The present and future of electronic paper," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 437-442 (2006).

M. Johnson, G. Zhou, B. Zehner, K. Amundson, A. Henzen, J. Van De Kamer, "High-quality images on electrophoretic displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 175-180 (2006).

A. Arias, J. Daniel, B. Krusor, S. Ready, V. Sholin, R. Street, "All-additive ink-jet-printed display backplanes: Materials development and integration," J. Soc. Inf. Display 15, 485-490 (2007).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

P. Servati, A. Nathan, "Modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 1038-1042 (2002).

Langmuir (1)

L. Libioulle, A. Bietsh, H. Schmid, B. Michel, E. Delamar Che, "Contact-inking stamps for microcontact printing of alkanethiols on gold," Langmuir 15, 300-304 (1999).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

F. Morin, "Amorphous silicon TFTs and their applications," Microelectron. Eng. 19, 171-177 (1992).

Nature Mater. (1)

I. McCulloch, M. Heeney, C. Bailey, K. Genevicius, I. MacDonald, M. Shkunov, D. Sparrowe, S. Tierney, R. Wagner, W. Zhang, M. Chabinyc, R. J. Kline, M. McGehee, M. Toney, "Liquid-crystalline semiconducting polymers with high charge-carrier mobility," Nature Mater. 5, 328-333 (2006).

Science (1)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, E. Woo, "High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits," Science 290, 2123-2126 (2000).

Other (6)

C. Edwards, J. Howarth, A. James, "The ink jet printing of high conductivity circuits on various substrates using polymer capped nano-particle silver," Proc. Int. Meeting on Inf. Display (2006) pp. 814-816.

E. Leuder, Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects (Wiley, 2001).

S. M. Molesa, A. de la Fuente Vornbrock, P. C. Chang, V. Subramanian, "Low-voltage inkjetted organic transistors for printed RFID and display applications," IEDM Tech. Dig. (2005) pp. 5.4.1-5.4.4.

G. Gelinck, H. Huitema, M. Van Mil, E. Van Veenendaal, P. Van Lieshout, F. Touwslager, "Rollable QVGA active-matrix displays based on organic electronics," Soc. Inf. Display Dig. (2005) pp. 6-9.

S. Burns, W. Reeves, B. Pui, K. Jacobs, S. Siddique, K. Reynolds, M. Banach, D. Barclay, K. Chalmers, N. Cousins, P. Cain, L. Dassas, M. Etchells, C. Hayton, S. Markham, A. Menon, P. Too, C. Ramsdale, J. Herod, K. Saynor, J. Watts, T. von Werne, J. Mills, C. Curling, H. Sirringhaus, K. Amundson, M. McCreary, "A flexible plastic SVGA e-paper display," SID Int. l Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 74-76.

W. Jackson, M. Almanza-Workman, A. Chaiken, R. Garcia, A. Jeans, O. Kwon, H. Luo, P. Mei, C. Perlov, C. Taussig, "Active-matrix backplanes produced by roll-to-roll self-aligned imprint lithography (SAIL)," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 322-325.

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