Abstract

Liquid crystals have been extensively studied and are massively used in display technology. Their recent use to provide optical shutters in active glasses for 3D cinema has focused the attention on new specific requirements. Recent improvements in the quality of 3D movies production and projection (e.g., involving triple flash projectors) resulted in the need for high quality glasses with no ghosting, no color banding, large viewing angle and good residual light. We present here the main relevant parameters to assess the quality required today by the studios and we compare the main liquid crystal options which can be used with their respective advantages.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. L. Lipton, "Selection devices for field-sequential stereoscopic displays: A brief history," Proc. SPIE (1991) pp. 274.
  2. N. A. Dodgson, "Autostereoscopic 3-Ddisplays," IEEE Computer 38, 31-36 (2005).
  3. G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3-D displays and application infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).
  4. H. Jorke, M. Fritz, "Stereo projection using interference filters," Proc. SPIE, Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIII (2006) pp. 60550G.16.
  5. B. MacNaughton, "Changes in the stereoscopic display industry," SID Stereoscopic and 3-D Displays (2007).
  6. M. Starks, “The future of digital 3-D projection, 3-D displays and projection,” Stereoscopic 3D DigitalStudio CityCA (2008).
  7. K. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, K. H. Park, S. J. Jang, I. C. Park, J. Y. Lee, "A novel outdoor readability of portable TFT-LCD with AFFS technology," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1079-1082.
  8. P. J. Bos, K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
  9. P. Yeh, C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals Displays (Wiley, 1999) pp. 14-16.
  10. C. Z. Van Droorn, "Dynamic behavior of twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers in switched fields," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3738 (1975).
  11. I. Dierking, M. A. Osipovc, S. T. Lagerwall, "The effect of a polymer network on smectic phase structure as probed by polarization measurements on a ferroelectric liquid crystal," Eur. Phys. J. E 2, 303-309 (2000).
  12. B. Caillaud, B. Bellini, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "High speed, large viewing angle shutters for triple-flash active glasses," Proc. Stereoscopic Displays and Appl. XX, SPIE (2009) pp. 7273x-1-7273x7.
  13. L. Z. Ruan, J. R. Sambles, "Leaky-wave exploration of two-stage switch-on in a nematic pi-cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052502-052504 (2005).
  14. F. Nakano, H. Kawakami, H. Morishita, M. Sato, "Dynamic properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal cells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 659-663 (1980).
  15. L. M. Blinov, V. G. Chigrinov, Electro-Optical Effects in Liquid Crystal Materials (Springer-Verlag, 1994) pp. 369.
  16. C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, "The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with ${\hbox{twist~ angles}}\leq 90$," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1575-1584 (1975).
  17. I.-C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 2007).
  18. S. T. Lagerwall, Ferroelectric and Antiferroelecrtic Liquid Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 1999).
  19. H. Fujikakea, H. Satoa, T. Murashige, "Polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal for flexible displays," Displays 25, 3-8 (2004).
  20. D. Malacara, Colour Vision and Colourimetry: Theory and Applications (SPIE Press, 2002).
  21. M. Le Doucen, L. Dupont, P. P. Finet, "An optical diffractive method for characterizing SSFLC field induced patterns in smectic C* phase," Ferroelectrics 178, 167-176 (1996).
  22. J. Sikula, J. Hlavka, J. Pavelka, V. Sedlakova, L. Grmela, M. Tacano, S. Hashiguchi, "Low frequency noise of tantalum capacitors," Active and Passive Elec. Comp. 25, 161-167 (2002).

2005 (3)

N. A. Dodgson, "Autostereoscopic 3-Ddisplays," IEEE Computer 38, 31-36 (2005).

G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3-D displays and application infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).

L. Z. Ruan, J. R. Sambles, "Leaky-wave exploration of two-stage switch-on in a nematic pi-cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052502-052504 (2005).

2004 (1)

H. Fujikakea, H. Satoa, T. Murashige, "Polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal for flexible displays," Displays 25, 3-8 (2004).

2002 (1)

J. Sikula, J. Hlavka, J. Pavelka, V. Sedlakova, L. Grmela, M. Tacano, S. Hashiguchi, "Low frequency noise of tantalum capacitors," Active and Passive Elec. Comp. 25, 161-167 (2002).

2000 (1)

I. Dierking, M. A. Osipovc, S. T. Lagerwall, "The effect of a polymer network on smectic phase structure as probed by polarization measurements on a ferroelectric liquid crystal," Eur. Phys. J. E 2, 303-309 (2000).

1996 (1)

M. Le Doucen, L. Dupont, P. P. Finet, "An optical diffractive method for characterizing SSFLC field induced patterns in smectic C* phase," Ferroelectrics 178, 167-176 (1996).

1984 (1)

P. J. Bos, K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).

1980 (1)

F. Nakano, H. Kawakami, H. Morishita, M. Sato, "Dynamic properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal cells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 659-663 (1980).

1975 (2)

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, "The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with ${\hbox{twist~ angles}}\leq 90$," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1575-1584 (1975).

C. Z. Van Droorn, "Dynamic behavior of twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers in switched fields," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3738 (1975).

Active and Passive Elec. Comp. (1)

J. Sikula, J. Hlavka, J. Pavelka, V. Sedlakova, L. Grmela, M. Tacano, S. Hashiguchi, "Low frequency noise of tantalum capacitors," Active and Passive Elec. Comp. 25, 161-167 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Z. Ruan, J. R. Sambles, "Leaky-wave exploration of two-stage switch-on in a nematic pi-cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052502-052504 (2005).

Computer (1)

G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3-D displays and application infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).

Displays (1)

H. Fujikakea, H. Satoa, T. Murashige, "Polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal for flexible displays," Displays 25, 3-8 (2004).

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

I. Dierking, M. A. Osipovc, S. T. Lagerwall, "The effect of a polymer network on smectic phase structure as probed by polarization measurements on a ferroelectric liquid crystal," Eur. Phys. J. E 2, 303-309 (2000).

Ferroelectrics (1)

M. Le Doucen, L. Dupont, P. P. Finet, "An optical diffractive method for characterizing SSFLC field induced patterns in smectic C* phase," Ferroelectrics 178, 167-176 (1996).

IEEE Computer (1)

N. A. Dodgson, "Autostereoscopic 3-Ddisplays," IEEE Computer 38, 31-36 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Z. Van Droorn, "Dynamic behavior of twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers in switched fields," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3738 (1975).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, "The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with ${\hbox{twist~ angles}}\leq 90$," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1575-1584 (1975).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Nakano, H. Kawakami, H. Morishita, M. Sato, "Dynamic properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal cells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 659-663 (1980).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

P. J. Bos, K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: A fast liquid-crystal optical switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).

Other (11)

P. Yeh, C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals Displays (Wiley, 1999) pp. 14-16.

L. Lipton, "Selection devices for field-sequential stereoscopic displays: A brief history," Proc. SPIE (1991) pp. 274.

H. Jorke, M. Fritz, "Stereo projection using interference filters," Proc. SPIE, Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIII (2006) pp. 60550G.16.

B. MacNaughton, "Changes in the stereoscopic display industry," SID Stereoscopic and 3-D Displays (2007).

M. Starks, “The future of digital 3-D projection, 3-D displays and projection,” Stereoscopic 3D DigitalStudio CityCA (2008).

K. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, K. H. Park, S. J. Jang, I. C. Park, J. Y. Lee, "A novel outdoor readability of portable TFT-LCD with AFFS technology," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1079-1082.

L. M. Blinov, V. G. Chigrinov, Electro-Optical Effects in Liquid Crystal Materials (Springer-Verlag, 1994) pp. 369.

B. Caillaud, B. Bellini, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "High speed, large viewing angle shutters for triple-flash active glasses," Proc. Stereoscopic Displays and Appl. XX, SPIE (2009) pp. 7273x-1-7273x7.

I.-C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 2007).

S. T. Lagerwall, Ferroelectric and Antiferroelecrtic Liquid Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 1999).

D. Malacara, Colour Vision and Colourimetry: Theory and Applications (SPIE Press, 2002).

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