Abstract

Holography is a powerful technique for providing high-resolution, realistic three-dimensional (3D) images without the need for special eyewear. A material that takes full advantage of the potential of holography, including updatability, has not existed. Here, the first updatable holographic 3D display based on a photorefractive polymer is summarized. The performance characteristics of these materials are measured, and how they relate to the development of additional display enhancements such as pulsed writing, white light viewing, and large viewing angle, are discussed.

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  1. M. R. Chatterjee, S. Chen, Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display: Principles and Applications (Springer, 2006) pp. 379-425.
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  5. G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3D displays and application in infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).
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  8. K. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Lim, B. Lee, "Full parallax, viewing-angle enhanced computer generated holographic 3D display system using integral lens array," Opt. Exp. 13, 10494-10502 (2005).
  9. D. Miyazaki, K. Shiba, K. Sotsuka, K. Matsushita, "Volumetric display system based on three-dimensional scanning of inclined optical image," Opt. Exp. 14, 12760-12769 (2006).
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  38. W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, "Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 320-330 (1994).
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  40. S. Tay, "High-performance photorefractive polymer operating at 1550 nm with near-video-rate response time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171105-171105 (2005).
  41. W. S. Kim, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, "Enhancement of the recording stability of a photorefractive polymer composite by the introduction of a trapping layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3045-3047 (2003).
  42. D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, "Dynamics and steady-state properties of photorefractive poly(N-vinylcarbazole)-based composites sensitized with (2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenylidene)malononitrile in a 0–3 wt% range," J. Chem. Phys. 114, 9557-9564 (2001).
  43. M. Eralp, "Variation of Bragg condition in low-glass-transition photorefractive polymers when recorded in reflection geometry," Opt. Exp. 15, 11622-11628 (2007).
  44. F. Gallego-Gomez, M. Salvador, S. Köber, K. Meerholz, "High-performance reflection gratings in photorefractive polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251113-251113 (2007).
  45. O. P. Kwon, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, S. H. Lee, "High-gain photorefractive reflection gratings in layered photoconductive polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 43-45 (2004).
  46. J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, P. N. Prasad, "Photogeneration, charge transport, and photoconductivity of a novel PVK/CdS—Nanocrystal polymer composite," Chem. Phys. 245, 417-428 (1999).
  47. X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, "Nanoparticle-based photorefractive polymers," Aust. J. Chem. 61, 317-323 (2008).

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

L. A. Lessard, H. I. Bjelkhagen, Proc. SPIE 6488, Practical Holography: XXI: Materials and Applications (Special Issue) (2007).

S. Tay, "An updatable holographic three-dimensional display," Nature 451, 694-698 (2007).

M. Eralp, "Variation of Bragg condition in low-glass-transition photorefractive polymers when recorded in reflection geometry," Opt. Exp. 15, 11622-11628 (2007).

F. Gallego-Gomez, M. Salvador, S. Köber, K. Meerholz, "High-performance reflection gratings in photorefractive polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251113-251113 (2007).

2006 (3)

M. Eralp, "Submillisecond response of a photorefractive polymer under single nanosecond pulse exposure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1104105-1104105 (2006).

K. Iizuka, "Welcome to the wonderful world of 3D: Introduction, principles and history," Opt. Photon. News 17, 42-51 (2006).

D. Miyazaki, K. Shiba, K. Sotsuka, K. Matsushita, "Volumetric display system based on three-dimensional scanning of inclined optical image," Opt. Exp. 14, 12760-12769 (2006).

2005 (5)

N. A. Dodgson, "Autostereoscopic 3D displays," Computer 38, 31-36 (2005).

G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3D displays and application in infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).

K. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Lim, B. Lee, "Full parallax, viewing-angle enhanced computer generated holographic 3D display system using integral lens array," Opt. Exp. 13, 10494-10502 (2005).

J. A. Quintana, "Photoefractive properties of an unsensitized polymer composite based on a dicyanostyrene derivative as nonlinear optical chromophore," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261111-261111 (2005).

S. Tay, "High-performance photorefractive polymer operating at 1550 nm with near-video-rate response time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171105-171105 (2005).

2004 (5)

O. P. Kwon, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, S. H. Lee, "High-gain photorefractive reflection gratings in layered photoconductive polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 43-45 (2004).

J. Thomas, "Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications," Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, P. J. Watson, "Recent developments in computer-generated holography: Toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization," Proc. SPIE 5290, 27-41 (2004).

O. Ostroverkhova, W. E. Moerner, "Organic photorefractives: Mechanisms, materials, and applications," Chem. Rev. 104, 3267-3314 (2004).

S. Tay, "Photorefractive polymer composite operating at the optical communication wavelength of 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4561-4563 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. L. Huebschman, B. Munjuluri, H. R. Garner, "Dynamic holographic 3-d image projection," Opt. Exp. 11, 437-445 (2003).

W. S. Kim, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, "Enhancement of the recording stability of a photorefractive polymer composite by the introduction of a trapping layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3045-3047 (2003).

2002 (3)

O. Ostroverkhova, K. D. Singer, "Space-charge dynamics in photorefractive polymers," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1727-1743 (2002).

E. Mecher, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature 418, 959-964 (2002).

P.-A. Blanche, B. Kippelen, A. Schulzgen, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, G. Ramos-Ortiz, J. F. Wang, E. Hendrickx, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Marder, "Photorefractive polymers sensitized by two-photon absorption," Opt. Lett. 27, 19-21 (2002).

2001 (1)

D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, "Dynamics and steady-state properties of photorefractive poly(N-vinylcarbazole)-based composites sensitized with (2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenylidene)malononitrile in a 0–3 wt% range," J. Chem. Phys. 114, 9557-9564 (2001).

1999 (2)

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, P. N. Prasad, "Photogeneration, charge transport, and photoconductivity of a novel PVK/CdS—Nanocrystal polymer composite," Chem. Phys. 245, 417-428 (1999).

J. R. Thayn, J. Ghrayeb, D. G. Hopper, "3-d display design concept for cockpit and mission crewstations," Proc. SPIE 3690, 180-186 (1999).

1998 (4)

B. Kippelen, "Near infrared photorefractive polymers and their application for imaging," Science 279, 54-57 (1998).

G. Bäuml, S. Schloter, U. Hofmann, D. Haarer, "Correlation between photoconductivity and holographic response time in a guest host polymer," Opt. Commun. 154, 75-78 (1998).

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, "Spectroscopic determination of trap density in ${\rm C}_60$-sensitized photorefractive polymers," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 553-561 (1998).

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, "Amplified scattering in a high-gain photorefractive polymer," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 15, 901-904 (1998).

1997 (1)

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications," Nature 388, 845-851 (1997).

1996 (2)

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, N. Peyghambarian, B. A. Javidi, "Polymer optical pattern-recognition system for security verification," Nature 383, 58-60 (1996).

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, R. A. Macfarlane, "Three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).

1994 (2)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, "Photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%," Nature 371, 497-500 (1994).

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, "Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 320-330 (1994).

1992 (1)

P. St.-Hilaire, M. Lucente, S. A. Benton, "Synthetic aperture holography: A novel approach to three dimensional displays," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A. 9, 1969-1978 (1992).

1991 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, "Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846-1949 (1991).

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Thomas, "Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications," Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. A. Quintana, "Photoefractive properties of an unsensitized polymer composite based on a dicyanostyrene derivative as nonlinear optical chromophore," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261111-261111 (2005).

S. Tay, "High-performance photorefractive polymer operating at 1550 nm with near-video-rate response time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171105-171105 (2005).

W. S. Kim, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, "Enhancement of the recording stability of a photorefractive polymer composite by the introduction of a trapping layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3045-3047 (2003).

F. Gallego-Gomez, M. Salvador, S. Köber, K. Meerholz, "High-performance reflection gratings in photorefractive polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251113-251113 (2007).

O. P. Kwon, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, S. H. Lee, "High-gain photorefractive reflection gratings in layered photoconductive polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 43-45 (2004).

S. Tay, "Photorefractive polymer composite operating at the optical communication wavelength of 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4561-4563 (2004).

M. Eralp, "Submillisecond response of a photorefractive polymer under single nanosecond pulse exposure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1104105-1104105 (2006).

Aust. J. Chem. (1)

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, "Nanoparticle-based photorefractive polymers," Aust. J. Chem. 61, 317-323 (2008).

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, P. N. Prasad, "Photogeneration, charge transport, and photoconductivity of a novel PVK/CdS—Nanocrystal polymer composite," Chem. Phys. 245, 417-428 (1999).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, "Spectroscopic determination of trap density in ${\rm C}_60$-sensitized photorefractive polymers," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 553-561 (1998).

Chem. Rev. (1)

O. Ostroverkhova, W. E. Moerner, "Organic photorefractives: Mechanisms, materials, and applications," Chem. Rev. 104, 3267-3314 (2004).

Computer (2)

N. A. Dodgson, "Autostereoscopic 3D displays," Computer 38, 31-36 (2005).

G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3D displays and application in infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

O. Ostroverkhova, K. D. Singer, "Space-charge dynamics in photorefractive polymers," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1727-1743 (2002).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, "Dynamics and steady-state properties of photorefractive poly(N-vinylcarbazole)-based composites sensitized with (2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenylidene)malononitrile in a 0–3 wt% range," J. Chem. Phys. 114, 9557-9564 (2001).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A. (1)

P. St.-Hilaire, M. Lucente, S. A. Benton, "Synthetic aperture holography: A novel approach to three dimensional displays," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A. 9, 1969-1978 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (2)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, "Amplified scattering in a high-gain photorefractive polymer," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 15, 901-904 (1998).

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, "Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 320-330 (1994).

Nature (5)

E. Mecher, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature 418, 959-964 (2002).

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, "Photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%," Nature 371, 497-500 (1994).

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications," Nature 388, 845-851 (1997).

S. Tay, "An updatable holographic three-dimensional display," Nature 451, 694-698 (2007).

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, N. Peyghambarian, B. A. Javidi, "Polymer optical pattern-recognition system for security verification," Nature 383, 58-60 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Bäuml, S. Schloter, U. Hofmann, D. Haarer, "Correlation between photoconductivity and holographic response time in a guest host polymer," Opt. Commun. 154, 75-78 (1998).

Opt. Exp. (4)

M. Eralp, "Variation of Bragg condition in low-glass-transition photorefractive polymers when recorded in reflection geometry," Opt. Exp. 15, 11622-11628 (2007).

M. L. Huebschman, B. Munjuluri, H. R. Garner, "Dynamic holographic 3-d image projection," Opt. Exp. 11, 437-445 (2003).

K. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Lim, B. Lee, "Full parallax, viewing-angle enhanced computer generated holographic 3D display system using integral lens array," Opt. Exp. 13, 10494-10502 (2005).

D. Miyazaki, K. Shiba, K. Sotsuka, K. Matsushita, "Volumetric display system based on three-dimensional scanning of inclined optical image," Opt. Exp. 14, 12760-12769 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

K. Iizuka, "Welcome to the wonderful world of 3D: Introduction, principles and history," Opt. Photon. News 17, 42-51 (2006).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, "Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846-1949 (1991).

Proc. SPIE (3)

L. A. Lessard, H. I. Bjelkhagen, Proc. SPIE 6488, Practical Holography: XXI: Materials and Applications (Special Issue) (2007).

J. R. Thayn, J. Ghrayeb, D. G. Hopper, "3-d display design concept for cockpit and mission crewstations," Proc. SPIE 3690, 180-186 (1999).

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, P. J. Watson, "Recent developments in computer-generated holography: Toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization," Proc. SPIE 5290, 27-41 (2004).

Science (2)

B. Kippelen, "Near infrared photorefractive polymers and their application for imaging," Science 279, 54-57 (1998).

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, R. A. Macfarlane, "Three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).

Other (9)

M. R. Chatterjee, S. Chen, Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display: Principles and Applications (Springer, 2006) pp. 379-425.

S. Pastoor, 3D Video Communication (Wiley, 2005) pp. 251-425.

S. A. Benton, Selected Papers on Three-Dimensional Displays (SPIE, 2001).

S. A. Benton, V. M. Bove, JrHolographic Imaging (Wiley, 2008).

M. A. Klug, C. Newswanger, Q. Huang, M. E. Holzbach, Active Digital Hologram Display U.S. Patent 7 227 674 (2007).

M. Lucente, Diffraction-specific fringe computation for electroholography Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Elect. Eng. Comput. Sci. MITCambridge (1994).

B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, N. Peyghambarian, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC Press, 1997) pp. 465-513.

M. Faraday, "Experimental researches in electricity: Eleventh series," Proc. Philosoph. Trans. Roy. Soc. () pp. 1-40.

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, "Recent advances in high gain photorefractive polymers," Proc. IEEE LEOS 10th Annu. Meeting (1997) pp. 38-39.

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