Abstract

In this paper, we present a novel approach to generate images of extended depth-of-field (DOF) to support realization of three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems such as integral imaging. In our approach in extending the DOF, we take advantage of the spatial frequency spectrum of the object specific to the task in hand. The pupil function is thus engineered in such a fashion that the modulation transfer function (MTF) is maximized only in these selected spatial frequencies. We extract these high energy spatial frequencies using the principal component analysis (PCA) method. Moreover, given the need for many pupil function engineering steps in 3D imaging systems, we have constructed an approximate expression for MTF to be used in the design of optimum amplitude and/or phase pupil filter. Moreover, we have optimized the DOF extension process with blocking the minimum possible area in the pupil plane. This maximizes the output image quality (e.g. 10% DOF improvement) compared to the existing methods where non-optimal blocking of the lens area may cause more degradation in output image quality. Experimental results are presented to illustrate our proposed approach.

© 2010 IEEE

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2009 (2)

M. Levoy, Z. Zhang, I. McDowall, "Recording and controlling the 4d light field in a microscope objects," J. Microscopy 235, 144-162 (2009).

S. Bagheri, P. E. X. Silveria, G. Barbastathis, "Signal-to-noise-ratio limit to the depth-of-field extension for imaging systems with an arbitrary pupil function," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 26, (2009).

2008 (3)

S. Bagheri, B. Javidi, "Extension of depth of field using amplitude and phase modulation of the pupil function," Opt. Lett. 33, 757-759 (2008).

S. Bagheri, P. E. X. Silveira, D. P. de Farias, "Analytical optimal solution of the extension of the depth of field using cubic-phase wavefront coding. part i. reduced-complexity approximate representation of the modulation transfer function," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 25, 1051-1063 (2008).

S. Bagheri, P. E. X. Silveira, R. Narayanswamy, D. P. de Farias, "Analytical optimal solution of the extension of the depth of field using cubic-phase wavefront coding. Part II. Design and optimization of the cubic phase," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 25, 1064-1074 (2008).

2007 (1)

A. Castro, Y. Frauel, B. Javidi, "Integral imaging with large depth of field using an asymmetric phase mask," Opt. Exp. 15, 10266-10273 (2007).

2006 (5)

B. Javidi, I. Moon, S. Yeom, "Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging," Opt. Exp. 14, 12095-12107 (2006).

A. Stern, B. Javidi, "3D image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-608 (2006).

F. O, J. Arai, K. Mitani, M. Okui, "Real-time integral imaging based on extremely high resolution video system," Proc. IEEE 94, 490-501 (2006).

P. E. X. Silveira, R. Narayanswamy, "Signal-to-noise analysis of task-based imaging systems with defocus," Appl. Opt. 45, 2924-2934 (2006).

S. Bagheri, D. P. de Farias, G. Barbastathis, M. A. Neifeld, "Reduced-complexity representation of the coherent point-spread function in the presence of aberrations and arbitrarily large defocus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 2476-2493 (2006).

2005 (1)

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Extended depth-of-field 3-D display and visualization by combination of amplitude-modulated microlenses and deconvolution tools," IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 321-327 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

H. Choi, S. W. Min, S. Yung, J. H. Park, B. Lee, "Multiple viewing zone integral imaging using dynamic barrier array for three-dimensional displays," Opt. Exp. 11, 927-932 (2003).

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

1968 (1)

C. B. Burckhardt, "Optimum parameters and resolution limitation photography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 71-76 (1968).

1960 (1)

W. T. Welford, "Use of annular aperture to increase focal depth," Opt. Soc. Amer. A. 50, 749-753 (1960).

1931 (1)

H. E. Ives, "Optical properties of a Lippman lenticulated sheet," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 21, 171-176 (1931).

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, "La photographic integrale," Comtes-Rendus 146, 446-451 (1908).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Comtes-Rendus (1)

G. Lippmann, "La photographic integrale," Comtes-Rendus 146, 446-451 (1908).

IEEE J. Display Technol. (1)

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Extended depth-of-field 3-D display and visualization by combination of amplitude-modulated microlenses and deconvolution tools," IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 321-327 (2005).

J. Microscopy (1)

M. Levoy, Z. Zhang, I. McDowall, "Recording and controlling the 4d light field in a microscope objects," J. Microscopy 235, 144-162 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

H. E. Ives, "Optical properties of a Lippman lenticulated sheet," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 21, 171-176 (1931).

C. B. Burckhardt, "Optimum parameters and resolution limitation photography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 71-76 (1968).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (4)

S. Bagheri, P. E. X. Silveira, D. P. de Farias, "Analytical optimal solution of the extension of the depth of field using cubic-phase wavefront coding. part i. reduced-complexity approximate representation of the modulation transfer function," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 25, 1051-1063 (2008).

S. Bagheri, P. E. X. Silveira, R. Narayanswamy, D. P. de Farias, "Analytical optimal solution of the extension of the depth of field using cubic-phase wavefront coding. Part II. Design and optimization of the cubic phase," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 25, 1064-1074 (2008).

S. Bagheri, D. P. de Farias, G. Barbastathis, M. A. Neifeld, "Reduced-complexity representation of the coherent point-spread function in the presence of aberrations and arbitrarily large defocus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 2476-2493 (2006).

S. Bagheri, P. E. X. Silveria, G. Barbastathis, "Signal-to-noise-ratio limit to the depth-of-field extension for imaging systems with an arbitrary pupil function," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 26, (2009).

Opt. Exp. (3)

H. Choi, S. W. Min, S. Yung, J. H. Park, B. Lee, "Multiple viewing zone integral imaging using dynamic barrier array for three-dimensional displays," Opt. Exp. 11, 927-932 (2003).

A. Castro, Y. Frauel, B. Javidi, "Integral imaging with large depth of field using an asymmetric phase mask," Opt. Exp. 15, 10266-10273 (2007).

B. Javidi, I. Moon, S. Yeom, "Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging," Opt. Exp. 14, 12095-12107 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Soc. Amer. A. (1)

W. T. Welford, "Use of annular aperture to increase focal depth," Opt. Soc. Amer. A. 50, 749-753 (1960).

Proc. IEEE (2)

A. Stern, B. Javidi, "3D image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-608 (2006).

F. O, J. Arai, K. Mitani, M. Okui, "Real-time integral imaging based on extremely high resolution video system," Proc. IEEE 94, 490-501 (2006).

Other (8)

B. Javidi, F. Okana, Three Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).

S. A. Benton, "Selected papers on three-dimensional displays," SPIE (2001).

T. Okashi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

S. Bagheri, B. Javidi, "Extension of the depth of field in integral imaging: An overview," SPIE Proc. Three-Dimensional Imag., Visualiz., and Display (2009) pp. 732906.

R. C. Gonzales, R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

J. Shlens, “A tutorial on principal component analysis,” Salk Institute for Biological Studies Tech. Rep. (2005).

S. Bagheri, "Signal-to-noise-ratio limit to the depth-of-field extension for task-specific imaging systems with an arbitrary pupil function," Comput. Opt. Sensing and Imag. (COSI) (2009).

S. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

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