Abstract

One of the key issues of a large-area organic light-emitting diode (OLED) for flat panel lighting applications is to enhance the uniformity of light emission. In this work, we have investigated the effect of an auxiliary metal (chrome) electrode in association with a device configuration on the luminance uniformity of a large-area (15$\times$15 cm$^{2}$) white OLED. We demonstrate that the ratio between the effective horizontal resistance of anode (indium–tin–oxide (ITO) with the grid patterned metal electrode) and the vertical resistance of the OLED device is the critical factor to determine the luminance uniformity. Moreover, the luminance uniformity is shown to be a function of the current density and degraded with increasing current density. Namely, the OLED panel with the 200-$\mu$m-wide metal lines exhibits the luminance uniformity as high as 90% at 200 mA and 85% at 500 mA.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (2)

X. Yang, Z. Wang, S. Madakuni, J. Li, G. E. Jabbour, "Efficient blue- and white-emitting electrophosphorescent devices based on platinum(II) [1,3-difluoro-4,6-di(2-pyridinyl)benzene] chloride," Adv. Mat. 20, 2405-2409 (2008).

J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, K.-I. Song, S. J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, "Effects of interlayers on phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 203305-1-203305-3 (2008).

2006 (9)

H. Kanno, N. C. Giebink, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Stacked white organic light-emitting devices based on a combination of fluorescent and phosphorescent emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023503-1-023503-3 (2006).

C. W. Law, K. M. Lau, M. K. Fung, M. Y. Chan, F. L. Wong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, "Effective organic-based connection unit for stacked organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133511-1-133511-3 (2006).

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).

S.-H. Yang, M.-H. Liu, Y.-K. Su, "Stable and highly bright with organic light-emitting diode based on 4,4$^\prime$, 4$^{\prime \prime}$-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino)-triphenylamine," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083111-1-083111-4 (2006).

K. Neyts, M. Marescaux, A. U. Nieto, A. Elschner, W. Lövenich, K. Fehse, Q. Huang, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Inhomogeneous luminance in organic light emitting diodes related to electrode resistivity," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114513-1-114513-4 (2006).

H. Kanno, N. C. Giebink, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Stacked white organic light-emitting devices based on a combination of fluorescent and phosphorescent emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023503-1-023503-3 (2006).

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Ma, "Improved efficiency for white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphor sensitized fluorescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083512-1-083512-3 (2006).

H. Kanno, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting device based on a compound fluorescent-phosphor-sensitized-fluorescent emission layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143516-1-143516-3 (2006).

G. Schwartz, K. Fehse, M. Pfeiffer, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Highly efficient white organic light emitting diodes comprising an interlayer to separate fluorescent and phosphorescent regions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 083509-1-083509-3 (2006).

2005 (1)

F. Guo, D. Ma, "White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510-1-173510-3 (2005).

2003 (4)

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, M. E. Thompson, "Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422-2424 (2003).

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D'Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, M. E. Thompson, "Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3818-3820 (2003).

G. Li, J. Shinar, "Combinatorial fabrication and studies of bright white organic light-emitting devices based on emission from rubrene-doped 4,4$^\prime$-bis(2,2$^\prime$-diphenylvinyl)-1,1$^\prime$-biphenyl," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5359-5361 (2003).

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. Ma, S. T. Lee, "White organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224-4226 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. O. Cheon, J. Shinar, "Bright white small molecular organic light-emitting devices based on a red-emitting guest-host layer and blue-emitting 4,4$^\prime$-bis(2,2$^\prime$-diphenylvinyl)-1,1$^\prime$-biphenyl," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1738-1740 (2002).

1999 (1)

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, "White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888-890 (1999).

Adv. Mat. (1)

X. Yang, Z. Wang, S. Madakuni, J. Li, G. E. Jabbour, "Efficient blue- and white-emitting electrophosphorescent devices based on platinum(II) [1,3-difluoro-4,6-di(2-pyridinyl)benzene] chloride," Adv. Mat. 20, 2405-2409 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, K.-I. Song, S. J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, "Effects of interlayers on phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 203305-1-203305-3 (2008).

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, M. E. Thompson, "Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422-2424 (2003).

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D'Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, M. E. Thompson, "Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3818-3820 (2003).

F. Guo, D. Ma, "White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510-1-173510-3 (2005).

H. Kanno, N. C. Giebink, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Stacked white organic light-emitting devices based on a combination of fluorescent and phosphorescent emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023503-1-023503-3 (2006).

C. W. Law, K. M. Lau, M. K. Fung, M. Y. Chan, F. L. Wong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, "Effective organic-based connection unit for stacked organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133511-1-133511-3 (2006).

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. Ma, S. T. Lee, "White organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224-4226 (2003).

H. Kanno, N. C. Giebink, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Stacked white organic light-emitting devices based on a combination of fluorescent and phosphorescent emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023503-1-023503-3 (2006).

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Ma, "Improved efficiency for white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphor sensitized fluorescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083512-1-083512-3 (2006).

H. Kanno, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting device based on a compound fluorescent-phosphor-sensitized-fluorescent emission layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143516-1-143516-3 (2006).

G. Schwartz, K. Fehse, M. Pfeiffer, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Highly efficient white organic light emitting diodes comprising an interlayer to separate fluorescent and phosphorescent regions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 083509-1-083509-3 (2006).

G. Li, J. Shinar, "Combinatorial fabrication and studies of bright white organic light-emitting devices based on emission from rubrene-doped 4,4$^\prime$-bis(2,2$^\prime$-diphenylvinyl)-1,1$^\prime$-biphenyl," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5359-5361 (2003).

K. O. Cheon, J. Shinar, "Bright white small molecular organic light-emitting devices based on a red-emitting guest-host layer and blue-emitting 4,4$^\prime$-bis(2,2$^\prime$-diphenylvinyl)-1,1$^\prime$-biphenyl," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1738-1740 (2002).

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, "White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888-890 (1999).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S.-H. Yang, M.-H. Liu, Y.-K. Su, "Stable and highly bright with organic light-emitting diode based on 4,4$^\prime$, 4$^{\prime \prime}$-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino)-triphenylamine," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083111-1-083111-4 (2006).

K. Neyts, M. Marescaux, A. U. Nieto, A. Elschner, W. Lövenich, K. Fehse, Q. Huang, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Inhomogeneous luminance in organic light emitting diodes related to electrode resistivity," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114513-1-114513-4 (2006).

Nature (1)

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).

Other (5)

J. Shinar, Organic Light-Emitting Devices: A Survey (AIP Press, 2004).

J. Kalinowski, Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Principles, Characteristics, and Processes (Marcel Dekker, 2005).

J. Kido, "High performance OLEDs for displays and general lighting," pp. 931-932.

J. Kido, "Development of high performance OLEDs," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 705169.

J. Amelung, “Large-area organic light-emitting diode technology,” (2008) http://spie.org/x23960.xml.

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