Abstract

We propose a self-tunable pseudo-CMOS cell library to address the key challenges of circuit design for flexible electronics. This cell library provides the building blocks for designing complex circuits which are able to operate at a low supply voltage. The circuit reliability is greatly improved by incorporating the post-fabrication tunability into the cells to compensate for the device degradation (e.g., $\Delta V_{\rm TH}$). Logic gates, such as latches and flip-flops, and larger building blocks, such as shift-registers are, developed to demonstrate the key features and feasibility of this proposed cell library.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. E. Cantotore, T. C. T. Geuns, Gelinck, G. H.; van Veenendaal, E.; Gruijthuijsen, A. F. A.; Schrijnemakers, L.; Drews, S.; de Leeuw, D. M., G. H. Gelinck, E. van Veenendaal, A. F. A. Gruijthuijsen, L. Schrijnemakers, S. Drews, D. M. de Leeuw, "A 13.56-MHz RFID system based on organic transponders," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 84-92 (2007).
  2. K. Myny, "An inductively-coupled 64b organic RFID tag operating at 13.56 MHz with a data rate of 787 b/s," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC) (2008) pp. 290-291.
  3. V. Subramanian, "Printed electronic nose vapor sensors for consumer product monitoring," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.(ISSCC) (2006) pp. 1052-1059.
  4. M. Takamiya, "Design solutions for a multi-object wireless power transmission sheet based on plastic switches," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC) (2007) pp. 362-363.
  5. L. Liu, "A 107 pJ/b 100 Kb/s 0.18 $\mu$m capacitive-coupling transceiver for printable communication sheet," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC) (2008) pp. 292-293.
  6. H. Kawaguchi, T. Someya, T. Sekitani, T. Sakurai, "Cut-and-paste customization of organic FET integrated circuit and its application to electronic artificial skin," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 177-185 (2005).
  7. S. H. Kwon, "Flexible paper-like display using charged polymer particles," Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (SID) (2006) pp. 1838-1840.
  8. Y.-H. Yeh, "7-inch color VGA flexible TFT LCD on colorless polyimide substrate with 200$^{\circ}$C a-Si:H TFTs," Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (SID) (2007) pp. 1677-1679.
  9. M. Boehm, "Printable electronics for polymer RFID applications," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC) (2006) pp. 270-271.
  10. H. Klauk, "Ultralow-power organic complementary circuits," Nature 445, (2007).
  11. H. L. Gomes, "Bias-induced threshold voltages shifts in thin-film organic transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, (2004).
  12. T. Umeda, "High-mobility and air-stable organic thin-film transistors with highly ordered semiconducting polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 054517 (2007).
  13. M.-M. Ling, "Air-stable n-channel organic semiconducting based on perylene diimide derivatives without strong electron withdrawing groups," Adv. Mater. 19, 1123-1127 (2007).
  14. J. F. Wager, "Transparent electronics—Display applications?," Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (SID) (2007) pp. 1824-1825.
  15. T.-C. Huang, K.-T. Cheng, "Design for printability for flexible electronics," Int. Symp. for Flexible Electron. and Display (ISFED) (2007).
  16. M. Fadlallah, "DC/AC unified OTFT compact modeling and circuit design for RFID applications," J. Solid-State Electron. 51, 1047-1051 (2007).
  17. J. Sun, "Fast ZnO thin-film transistor circuits," Proc. 65th Annu. Device Res. Conf. (DRC) (2007) pp. 19-20.
  18. F. M. Hossain, "Modeling and simulation of polycristalline ZnO thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7768-7777 (2003).
  19. M. S. Shur, "SPICE models for amorphous silicon and polysilicon thin film transistors," J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2833 (1997).
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  21. C.-S. Chiang, "Electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors for active-matrix liquid-crystal displays," Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 37, 4704-4710 (1998).
  22. S.-H. Han, J. Jang, "Chemical and electrical stabilities of organic thin-film transistors for display application," J. SID 14/12, 1097-1101 (2006).
  23. R. B. M. Cross, M. M. De Souza, "Investigating the stability of zinc oxide thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263513 (2006).
  24. M. J. Powell, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1244 (1987).
  25. F. R. Libsch, J. Kanicki, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of charge injection and trapping in amorphous thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1286-1288 (1993).
  26. M. Morana, "Double-gate organic field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153511 (2005).
  27. M. Takamiya, T. Sekitani, Y. Kato, H. Kawaguchi, T. Someya, T. Sakurai, "An organic FET SRAM with back gate to increase static noise margin and its application to braille sheet display," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, (2007).

2007 (6)

E. Cantotore, T. C. T. Geuns, Gelinck, G. H.; van Veenendaal, E.; Gruijthuijsen, A. F. A.; Schrijnemakers, L.; Drews, S.; de Leeuw, D. M., G. H. Gelinck, E. van Veenendaal, A. F. A. Gruijthuijsen, L. Schrijnemakers, S. Drews, D. M. de Leeuw, "A 13.56-MHz RFID system based on organic transponders," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 84-92 (2007).

H. Klauk, "Ultralow-power organic complementary circuits," Nature 445, (2007).

T. Umeda, "High-mobility and air-stable organic thin-film transistors with highly ordered semiconducting polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 054517 (2007).

M.-M. Ling, "Air-stable n-channel organic semiconducting based on perylene diimide derivatives without strong electron withdrawing groups," Adv. Mater. 19, 1123-1127 (2007).

M. Fadlallah, "DC/AC unified OTFT compact modeling and circuit design for RFID applications," J. Solid-State Electron. 51, 1047-1051 (2007).

M. Takamiya, T. Sekitani, Y. Kato, H. Kawaguchi, T. Someya, T. Sakurai, "An organic FET SRAM with back gate to increase static noise margin and its application to braille sheet display," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, (2007).

2006 (2)

S.-H. Han, J. Jang, "Chemical and electrical stabilities of organic thin-film transistors for display application," J. SID 14/12, 1097-1101 (2006).

R. B. M. Cross, M. M. De Souza, "Investigating the stability of zinc oxide thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263513 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. Morana, "Double-gate organic field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153511 (2005).

H. Kawaguchi, T. Someya, T. Sekitani, T. Sakurai, "Cut-and-paste customization of organic FET integrated circuit and its application to electronic artificial skin," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 177-185 (2005).

2004 (1)

H. L. Gomes, "Bias-induced threshold voltages shifts in thin-film organic transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, (2004).

2003 (1)

F. M. Hossain, "Modeling and simulation of polycristalline ZnO thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7768-7777 (2003).

1999 (1)

B. Iniguez, "Thin-film transistor modeling," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 9, 703 (1999).

1998 (1)

C.-S. Chiang, "Electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors for active-matrix liquid-crystal displays," Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 37, 4704-4710 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. S. Shur, "SPICE models for amorphous silicon and polysilicon thin film transistors," J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2833 (1997).

1993 (1)

F. R. Libsch, J. Kanicki, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of charge injection and trapping in amorphous thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1286-1288 (1993).

1987 (1)

M. J. Powell, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1244 (1987).

Adv. Mater. (1)

M.-M. Ling, "Air-stable n-channel organic semiconducting based on perylene diimide derivatives without strong electron withdrawing groups," Adv. Mater. 19, 1123-1127 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. B. M. Cross, M. M. De Souza, "Investigating the stability of zinc oxide thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263513 (2006).

M. J. Powell, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1244 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. R. Libsch, J. Kanicki, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of charge injection and trapping in amorphous thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1286-1288 (1993).

M. Morana, "Double-gate organic field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153511 (2005).

H. L. Gomes, "Bias-induced threshold voltages shifts in thin-film organic transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, (2004).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

E. Cantotore, T. C. T. Geuns, Gelinck, G. H.; van Veenendaal, E.; Gruijthuijsen, A. F. A.; Schrijnemakers, L.; Drews, S.; de Leeuw, D. M., G. H. Gelinck, E. van Veenendaal, A. F. A. Gruijthuijsen, L. Schrijnemakers, S. Drews, D. M. de Leeuw, "A 13.56-MHz RFID system based on organic transponders," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 84-92 (2007).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (2)

H. Kawaguchi, T. Someya, T. Sekitani, T. Sakurai, "Cut-and-paste customization of organic FET integrated circuit and its application to electronic artificial skin," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 177-185 (2005).

M. Takamiya, T. Sekitani, Y. Kato, H. Kawaguchi, T. Someya, T. Sakurai, "An organic FET SRAM with back gate to increase static noise margin and its application to braille sheet display," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, (2007).

Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. (1)

B. Iniguez, "Thin-film transistor modeling," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 9, 703 (1999).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. M. Hossain, "Modeling and simulation of polycristalline ZnO thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7768-7777 (2003).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

M. S. Shur, "SPICE models for amorphous silicon and polysilicon thin film transistors," J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2833 (1997).

J. SID (1)

S.-H. Han, J. Jang, "Chemical and electrical stabilities of organic thin-film transistors for display application," J. SID 14/12, 1097-1101 (2006).

J. Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. Fadlallah, "DC/AC unified OTFT compact modeling and circuit design for RFID applications," J. Solid-State Electron. 51, 1047-1051 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Umeda, "High-mobility and air-stable organic thin-film transistors with highly ordered semiconducting polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 054517 (2007).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. (1)

C.-S. Chiang, "Electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors for active-matrix liquid-crystal displays," Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 37, 4704-4710 (1998).

Nature (1)

H. Klauk, "Ultralow-power organic complementary circuits," Nature 445, (2007).

Other (10)

J. F. Wager, "Transparent electronics—Display applications?," Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (SID) (2007) pp. 1824-1825.

T.-C. Huang, K.-T. Cheng, "Design for printability for flexible electronics," Int. Symp. for Flexible Electron. and Display (ISFED) (2007).

J. Sun, "Fast ZnO thin-film transistor circuits," Proc. 65th Annu. Device Res. Conf. (DRC) (2007) pp. 19-20.

S. H. Kwon, "Flexible paper-like display using charged polymer particles," Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (SID) (2006) pp. 1838-1840.

Y.-H. Yeh, "7-inch color VGA flexible TFT LCD on colorless polyimide substrate with 200$^{\circ}$C a-Si:H TFTs," Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (SID) (2007) pp. 1677-1679.

M. Boehm, "Printable electronics for polymer RFID applications," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC) (2006) pp. 270-271.

K. Myny, "An inductively-coupled 64b organic RFID tag operating at 13.56 MHz with a data rate of 787 b/s," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC) (2008) pp. 290-291.

V. Subramanian, "Printed electronic nose vapor sensors for consumer product monitoring," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.(ISSCC) (2006) pp. 1052-1059.

M. Takamiya, "Design solutions for a multi-object wireless power transmission sheet based on plastic switches," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC) (2007) pp. 362-363.

L. Liu, "A 107 pJ/b 100 Kb/s 0.18 $\mu$m capacitive-coupling transceiver for printable communication sheet," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC) (2008) pp. 292-293.

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