Abstract

A low frequency architecture is proposed for driving parallel cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) in large screen liquid crystal display (LCD) TV backlighting applications. Key to the architecture is a proposed capacitive coupling approach for aiding lamp ignition. A dc voltage is applied to the lamp electrodes while an ac voltage is applied to an external plate for capacitive coupling. The result is reliable, simultaneous ignition of parallel lamps with a required applied dc voltage near the lamp steady-state operating voltage. The complete system architecture includes a single high voltage converter, a pulse lamp ignition circuit, current control circuits and a single backlight controller. The topology is capable of driving a large number of parallel lamps with independent lamp current regulation, while avoiding ac coupling losses in steady-state operation and achieving significant reduction in reactive components when compared to typical high frequency ac ballast designs. Experimental results are presented for a system of four parallel 250 mm length lamps, demonstrating simultaneous parallel lamp ignition and dc current regulation.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. W.-S. Oh, K.-M. Cho, G.-W. Moon, "Study on driving methods of EEFL inverter for 32-inch LCD TV backlight," 37th IEEE Power Electron. Specialists Conf. (PESC '06) (2006) pp. 1-5.
  3. Linear Technologies Corp.“Techniques for 92% efficient LCD illumination,” (1993) http://www.linear.com/pc/downloadDocument.do?navId=H0,C1,C1154,C1009,C1021,P1275,D4144 (Accessed Oct 15, 2008).
  4. M.-S. Lin, W.-J.. Ho, F.-Y. Shih, D. Y. Chen, Y.-P. Wu, "A cold-cathode fluorescent lamp driver circuit with synchronous primary-side dimming control," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 45, 249-255 (1998).
  5. Linear Technologies Corp.“A fourth generation of LCD backlight technology,” (1993) http://www.linear.com/pc/downloadDocument.do?navId=H0,C1,C1003,C1042,C1033,P1093,D4154 (Accessed. Oct 15, 2008).
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  9. C. Kim, K. Lee, B. Cho, "Driving cold cathode fluorescent lamps in parallel," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 41, 163-164 (2005).
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  11. C. Chen, Y.-T. Chuang, Y.-M. Chen, T.-F. Wu, "Multiphase multilamp driving system for LCD back light," 2004 IEEE 35th Annu. Power Electron. Specialists Conf. (PESC 04) (2004) pp. 1823-1827.
  12. S. Yang, "A new current balancing methods of CCFL for LCD TV backlight," 37th IEEE Power Electron. Specialists Conf. (2006) pp. 1-5.
  13. C.-G. Kim, K.-C. Lee, B. H. Cho, "Analysis of current distribution in driving multiple cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL)," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 54, 365-373 (2007).
  14. J. Zhao, M. Shen, M. Chen, Z. Qian, "A novel low-frequency square wave electronic ballast for low-wattage HID lamps," IEEE 38th IAS Annu. Meeting. Conf. Rec. (2003) pp. 321-324.
  15. M. Shen, Z. Qian, F. Z. Peng, "Design of a two-stage low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast for HID lamps," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 39, 424-430 (2003).
  16. C. Branas, F. Azcondo, S. Bracho, "Experimental study of HPS lamp ignition by using LC network resonance," IEEE 28th Annu. Conf. Ind. Electron. Soc. (IECON 02) (2002) pp. 473-478.
  17. T. Liang, C. Huang, J. Chen, "Low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast for multiple metal halide lamps," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 44, 234-235 (2008).
  18. G. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. S. Song, J. Koo, B. S. Kim, J. G. Kang, E. H. Choi, U. W. Lee, S. C. Yang, J. P Verboncoeur, "Glow discharge in the external electrode fluorescent lamp," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 1410-1415 (2005).
  19. P. C. Drop, J. Polman, "Calculations on the effect of supply frequency on the positive column of a low-pressure Hg-Ar AC discharge," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 5, 562-568 (1972).
  20. T. B. Read, D. C. Kerry, "The effect of supply frequency on a mercury-argon discharge," Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 453-455 (1965).
  21. Y. Watanabe, "Characteristics of fluorescent lamps in direct current operation under high ambient-temperature condition," J. Light Vis. Environ. 14, 1-7 (1990).
  22. J. W. A. M. Gielen, S. D. Groot, J. J. A. M. V. D. Mullen, "Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharges: Part I. Experimental," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 1917-1924 (2004).
  23. J. W. A. M. Gielen, "Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharge: Part II. Model," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 1925-1934 (2004).
  24. M. Katsuhide, K. Masashi, V. J. , "Effect of operating frequency of fluorescent lamp on barium sputtering from electrode," J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japan 83, 819-826 (1999).
  25. A. Samir, "Loss of Ba atom from the electrode of fluorescent lamp operating under AC and DC discharges," IEEJ Trans. Fundam. Mater. 127, 543-548 (2007).
  26. W. Roche, "Fluorescent lamp starting aids—How and why they work," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29-37 (1974).
  27. E. Hammer, "Starting voltage characteristics of 40 W biaxial fluorescent lamps," 1988 IEEE Ind. Appl. Soc. Annu. Meeting Conf. Rec. (1988) pp. 1835-1841.
  28. W. J. M. Brok, M. F. Gendre, J. J. A. M. V. D. Mullen, "Model study of DC ignition of fluorescent tubes," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 156-162 (2007).
  29. R. E. Horstman, F. M. O. Lansink, "The starting process in long discharge tubes," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, 1130-1136 (1988).
  30. Johnson, A. Witulski, R. Erickson, "Comparison of resonant topologies in high-voltage DC applications," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 24, 263-274 (1988).
  31. M. Doshi, R. Zane, F. J. Azcondo, "26.1: Low-frequency square-wave drive for large screen LCD-TV backlighting systems," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1238-1241.
  32. Doshi, "Low frequency architecture for multilamp CCFL systems with capacitive ignition," 20th Annu. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo. (APEC 2005) (2005) pp. 1072-1078.
  33. Y. Ohno, "New method for realizing a luminous flux scale using an integrating sphere with an external source," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24, 106-115 (1995).
  34. “DC to AC Inverters Connector Type, Non-Dimming, 3.5 W, for 1 Bulb: CXA Series,” TDK Datasheet: CXA-L0512-NJL (2005) http://www.tdk.co.jp/tefe02/ea415_cxal05.pdf (Accessed Dec 7, 2008).

2008 (1)

T. Liang, C. Huang, J. Chen, "Low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast for multiple metal halide lamps," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 44, 234-235 (2008).

2007 (3)

C.-G. Kim, K.-C. Lee, B. H. Cho, "Analysis of current distribution in driving multiple cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL)," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 54, 365-373 (2007).

A. Samir, "Loss of Ba atom from the electrode of fluorescent lamp operating under AC and DC discharges," IEEJ Trans. Fundam. Mater. 127, 543-548 (2007).

W. J. M. Brok, M. F. Gendre, J. J. A. M. V. D. Mullen, "Model study of DC ignition of fluorescent tubes," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 156-162 (2007).

2006 (1)

C.-C. Chen, T.-F. Wu, Y.-T. Chuang, "Multiphase driving system for LCD back-light lamps with current balancing feature," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 435-442 (2006).

2005 (2)

C. Kim, K. Lee, B. Cho, "Driving cold cathode fluorescent lamps in parallel," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 41, 163-164 (2005).

G. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. S. Song, J. Koo, B. S. Kim, J. G. Kang, E. H. Choi, U. W. Lee, S. C. Yang, J. P Verboncoeur, "Glow discharge in the external electrode fluorescent lamp," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 1410-1415 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. W. A. M. Gielen, S. D. Groot, J. J. A. M. V. D. Mullen, "Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharges: Part I. Experimental," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 1917-1924 (2004).

J. W. A. M. Gielen, "Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharge: Part II. Model," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 1925-1934 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. Shen, Z. Qian, F. Z. Peng, "Design of a two-stage low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast for HID lamps," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 39, 424-430 (2003).

1999 (1)

M. Katsuhide, K. Masashi, V. J. , "Effect of operating frequency of fluorescent lamp on barium sputtering from electrode," J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japan 83, 819-826 (1999).

1998 (1)

M.-S. Lin, W.-J.. Ho, F.-Y. Shih, D. Y. Chen, Y.-P. Wu, "A cold-cathode fluorescent lamp driver circuit with synchronous primary-side dimming control," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 45, 249-255 (1998).

1995 (1)

Y. Ohno, "New method for realizing a luminous flux scale using an integrating sphere with an external source," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24, 106-115 (1995).

1990 (1)

Y. Watanabe, "Characteristics of fluorescent lamps in direct current operation under high ambient-temperature condition," J. Light Vis. Environ. 14, 1-7 (1990).

1988 (2)

R. E. Horstman, F. M. O. Lansink, "The starting process in long discharge tubes," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, 1130-1136 (1988).

Johnson, A. Witulski, R. Erickson, "Comparison of resonant topologies in high-voltage DC applications," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 24, 263-274 (1988).

1974 (1)

W. Roche, "Fluorescent lamp starting aids—How and why they work," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29-37 (1974).

1972 (1)

P. C. Drop, J. Polman, "Calculations on the effect of supply frequency on the positive column of a low-pressure Hg-Ar AC discharge," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 5, 562-568 (1972).

1965 (1)

T. B. Read, D. C. Kerry, "The effect of supply frequency on a mercury-argon discharge," Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 453-455 (1965).

Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. B. Read, D. C. Kerry, "The effect of supply frequency on a mercury-argon discharge," Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 453-455 (1965).

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (1)

M.-S. Lin, W.-J.. Ho, F.-Y. Shih, D. Y. Chen, Y.-P. Wu, "A cold-cathode fluorescent lamp driver circuit with synchronous primary-side dimming control," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 45, 249-255 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

C.-C. Chen, T.-F. Wu, Y.-T. Chuang, "Multiphase driving system for LCD back-light lamps with current balancing feature," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 435-442 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (1)

Johnson, A. Witulski, R. Erickson, "Comparison of resonant topologies in high-voltage DC applications," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 24, 263-274 (1988).

IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. (1)

M. Shen, Z. Qian, F. Z. Peng, "Design of a two-stage low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast for HID lamps," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 39, 424-430 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (1)

C.-G. Kim, K.-C. Lee, B. H. Cho, "Analysis of current distribution in driving multiple cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL)," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 54, 365-373 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

G. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. S. Song, J. Koo, B. S. Kim, J. G. Kang, E. H. Choi, U. W. Lee, S. C. Yang, J. P Verboncoeur, "Glow discharge in the external electrode fluorescent lamp," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 1410-1415 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Power Electron. (2)

C. Kim, K. Lee, B. Cho, "Driving cold cathode fluorescent lamps in parallel," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 41, 163-164 (2005).

T. Liang, C. Huang, J. Chen, "Low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast for multiple metal halide lamps," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 44, 234-235 (2008).

IEEJ Trans. Fundam. Mater. (1)

A. Samir, "Loss of Ba atom from the electrode of fluorescent lamp operating under AC and DC discharges," IEEJ Trans. Fundam. Mater. 127, 543-548 (2007).

J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japan (1)

M. Katsuhide, K. Masashi, V. J. , "Effect of operating frequency of fluorescent lamp on barium sputtering from electrode," J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japan 83, 819-826 (1999).

J. Illum. Eng. Soc. (2)

Y. Ohno, "New method for realizing a luminous flux scale using an integrating sphere with an external source," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24, 106-115 (1995).

W. Roche, "Fluorescent lamp starting aids—How and why they work," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 29-37 (1974).

J. Light Vis. Environ. (1)

Y. Watanabe, "Characteristics of fluorescent lamps in direct current operation under high ambient-temperature condition," J. Light Vis. Environ. 14, 1-7 (1990).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (5)

J. W. A. M. Gielen, S. D. Groot, J. J. A. M. V. D. Mullen, "Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharges: Part I. Experimental," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 1917-1924 (2004).

J. W. A. M. Gielen, "Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharge: Part II. Model," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 1925-1934 (2004).

W. J. M. Brok, M. F. Gendre, J. J. A. M. V. D. Mullen, "Model study of DC ignition of fluorescent tubes," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 156-162 (2007).

R. E. Horstman, F. M. O. Lansink, "The starting process in long discharge tubes," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, 1130-1136 (1988).

P. C. Drop, J. Polman, "Calculations on the effect of supply frequency on the positive column of a low-pressure Hg-Ar AC discharge," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 5, 562-568 (1972).

Other (15)

J. Zhao, M. Shen, M. Chen, Z. Qian, "A novel low-frequency square wave electronic ballast for low-wattage HID lamps," IEEE 38th IAS Annu. Meeting. Conf. Rec. (2003) pp. 321-324.

C. Branas, F. Azcondo, S. Bracho, "Experimental study of HPS lamp ignition by using LC network resonance," IEEE 28th Annu. Conf. Ind. Electron. Soc. (IECON 02) (2002) pp. 473-478.

C. Chen, Y.-T. Chuang, Y.-M. Chen, T.-F. Wu, "Multiphase multilamp driving system for LCD back light," 2004 IEEE 35th Annu. Power Electron. Specialists Conf. (PESC 04) (2004) pp. 1823-1827.

S. Yang, "A new current balancing methods of CCFL for LCD TV backlight," 37th IEEE Power Electron. Specialists Conf. (2006) pp. 1-5.

W. Folkerts, "41.3: Invited paper: LED backlighting concepts with high flux LEDs," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2004) pp. 1226-1229.

W.-S. Oh, K.-M. Cho, G.-W. Moon, "Study on driving methods of EEFL inverter for 32-inch LCD TV backlight," 37th IEEE Power Electron. Specialists Conf. (PESC '06) (2006) pp. 1-5.

Linear Technologies Corp.“Techniques for 92% efficient LCD illumination,” (1993) http://www.linear.com/pc/downloadDocument.do?navId=H0,C1,C1154,C1009,C1021,P1275,D4144 (Accessed Oct 15, 2008).

Linear Technologies Corp.“A fourth generation of LCD backlight technology,” (1993) http://www.linear.com/pc/downloadDocument.do?navId=H0,C1,C1003,C1042,C1033,P1093,D4154 (Accessed. Oct 15, 2008).

G. H. Kweon, Y. C. Lim, S. H. Yang, "An analysis of the backlight inverter by topologies," Proc. 2001 IEEE Int. Symp. on Ind. Electron. (ISIE) (2001) pp. 896-900.

M. Jordan, J. O'Connor, "Resonant fluorescent lamp converter provides efficient and compact solution," 1993 Proc. .8th Annu. Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo. pp. 424-431.

J. Donahue, M. Jovanovic, "The LCC inverter as a cold cathode fluorescent lamp driver," 1994 Proc. 9th Annu. Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo. pp. 427-433.

E. Hammer, "Starting voltage characteristics of 40 W biaxial fluorescent lamps," 1988 IEEE Ind. Appl. Soc. Annu. Meeting Conf. Rec. (1988) pp. 1835-1841.

“DC to AC Inverters Connector Type, Non-Dimming, 3.5 W, for 1 Bulb: CXA Series,” TDK Datasheet: CXA-L0512-NJL (2005) http://www.tdk.co.jp/tefe02/ea415_cxal05.pdf (Accessed Dec 7, 2008).

M. Doshi, R. Zane, F. J. Azcondo, "26.1: Low-frequency square-wave drive for large screen LCD-TV backlighting systems," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2006) pp. 1238-1241.

Doshi, "Low frequency architecture for multilamp CCFL systems with capacitive ignition," 20th Annu. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo. (APEC 2005) (2005) pp. 1072-1078.

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