Abstract

In this paper, we report a general and low-cost process to fabricate high mobility metal–oxide semiconductors that is suitable for thin-film electronics. This process use simple metal halide precursors dissolved in an organic solvent and is capable of forming uniform and continuous thin films via inkjet-printing or spin-coating process. This process has been demonstrated to deposit a variety of semiconducting metal oxides include binary oxides (ZnO, In<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, SnO<sub>2</sub>, Ga<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>), ternary oxides (ZIO, ITO, ZTO, IGO) and quaternary compounds (IZTO, IGZO). Functional thin film transistors with high field-effect mobility were fabricated successfully using channel layers deposited from this process. This synthetic pathway opens an avenue to form patterned metal oxide semiconductors through a simple and low-cost process and to fabricate high performance transparent thin film electronics via digital fabrication processes on large substrates.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. D. B. Mitzi, L. L. Kosbar, C. E. Murray, M. Copel, A. Afzali, "High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating," Nature 428, 299-303 (2004).
  2. D. B. Mitzi, M. Copel, S. J. Chey, "Low-voltage transistor employing a high-mobility spin-coated chalcogenide semiconductor," Adv. Mater. 17, 1285-1289 (2005).
  3. H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, E. P. Woo, "High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits," Science 290, 2123-2126 (2000).
  4. A. Afzali, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, T. L. Breen, "High-performance, solution-processed organic thin film transistors from a novel pentacene precursor," JACS Commun. 124, 8812-8813 (2002).
  5. S. K. Volkman, S. Molesa, B. Mattis, P. C. Chang, V. Subramanian, "Inkjetted organic transistors using a novel pentacene precursor," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2003) pp. H11.7.1/L12.7.1-H11.7.6/L12.7.6.
  6. A. C. Arias, S. Ready, R. Lujan, W. S. Wong, K. E. Paul, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, R. A. Street, "Polymer transistor display backplanes: High performance inkjet printed devices," 229th ACS Nat. Meeting Abstract of Papers, (2005) pp. U1128.
  7. M. Kawasaki, M. Ando, S. Imazeki, Y. Sekiguchi, S. Hirota, H. Sasaki, S. H. Sasaki, S. Uemura, and T. Kamata, Uemura, T. Kamata, "Printable organic TFT technologies for FPD applications," Proc. SPIE-5940 (Organic Field-Effect Transistors IV) (2005) pp. 59400P.
  8. C. M. Hong, S. Wagner, "Inkjet printed copper source/drain metallization for amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21, 384-386 (2000).
  9. S. B. Fuller, E. J. Wilhelm, J. M. Jacobson, "Ink-jet printed nanoparticle microelectrome-chanical systems," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 54-60 (2002).
  10. B. A. Ridley, B. Nivi, J. M. Jacobson, "All-inorganic field effect transistors fabricated by printing," Science 286, 746-749 (1999).
  11. T. Shimoda, Y. Matsuki, M. Furusawa, T. Aoki, I. Yudasaka, H. Tanaka, H. Iwasawa, D. Wang, M. Miyasaka, Y. Takeuchi, "Solution-processed silicon films and transistors," Nature 440, 783-786 (2006).
  12. K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).
  13. R. L. Hoffman, B. J. Norris, J. F. Wager, "ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 733 (2003).
  14. E. M. C. Fortunato, P. M. C. Barquinha, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, A. Marques, L. Pereira, R. Martins, "Fully transparent ZnO thin-film transistor produced at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 17, 590-594 (2005).
  15. H.-H. Hsieh, C.-C. Wu, "Amorphous ZnO transparent thin-film transistors fabricated by fully lithographic and etching processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013502 (2007).
  16. B. Sun, R. L. Peterson, H. Sirringhaus, K. Mori, "Low-temperature sintering of in-plane self-assembled ZnO nanorods for solution-processed high-performance thin film transistors," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18831-18835 (2007).
  17. C. G. Choi, S.-J. Seo, B.-S. Bae, "Solution-processed indium zinc oxide transparent thin film transistors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, H7-H9 (2008).
  18. H. C. Cheng, C. F. Chen, C. Y. Tsay, "Transparent ZnO thin film transistor fabricated by sol-gel and chemical bath deposition combination method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 012113 (2007).
  19. H. S. Kim, P. D. Byrne, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, "High performance solution-processed indium oxide thin-film transistors," JACS Commun. 130, 12580-12581 (2008).
  20. D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Chang, G. S. Herman, C.-H. Chang, "A general route to printable high-mobility transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors," Adv. Mater. 19, 843-847 (2007).
  21. C. Y. J. Chang, D.-H. Lee, G. S. Herman, C.-H. Chang, "High-performance spin-coated zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10, H135-H138 (2007).
  22. J. J. Schneider, R. C. Hoffmann, J. Engstler, O. Soffke, W. Jaegermann, A. Issanin, A. Klyszcz, "A printed and flexible field-effect transistor device with nanoscale zinc oxide as active semiconductor material," Adv. Mater. 20, 3383-3387 (2008).
  23. S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, C. M. Hung, J. Thompson, J. F. Wager, D. A. Keszler, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 130, 17603-17609 (2008).
  24. D.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Han, G. S. Herman, C.-H. Chang, "Inkjet printed high-mobility indium zinc tin oxide thin film transistors," J. Mater. Chem. 19, 3135-3137 (2009).
  25. H. Q. Chiang, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, R. E. Presley, J. F. Wager, C.-H. Park, D. A. Keszler, G. S. Herman, "Thin-film transistors with amorphous indium gallium oxide channel layers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2702-2705 (2006).
  26. D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Chang, W. Stickle, C.-H. Chang, "Functional porous tin oxide thin films fabricated by inkjet printing," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10, K51-K54 (2007).

2009

D.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Han, G. S. Herman, C.-H. Chang, "Inkjet printed high-mobility indium zinc tin oxide thin film transistors," J. Mater. Chem. 19, 3135-3137 (2009).

2008

J. J. Schneider, R. C. Hoffmann, J. Engstler, O. Soffke, W. Jaegermann, A. Issanin, A. Klyszcz, "A printed and flexible field-effect transistor device with nanoscale zinc oxide as active semiconductor material," Adv. Mater. 20, 3383-3387 (2008).

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, C. M. Hung, J. Thompson, J. F. Wager, D. A. Keszler, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 130, 17603-17609 (2008).

C. G. Choi, S.-J. Seo, B.-S. Bae, "Solution-processed indium zinc oxide transparent thin film transistors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, H7-H9 (2008).

H. S. Kim, P. D. Byrne, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, "High performance solution-processed indium oxide thin-film transistors," JACS Commun. 130, 12580-12581 (2008).

2007

D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Chang, G. S. Herman, C.-H. Chang, "A general route to printable high-mobility transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors," Adv. Mater. 19, 843-847 (2007).

C. Y. J. Chang, D.-H. Lee, G. S. Herman, C.-H. Chang, "High-performance spin-coated zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10, H135-H138 (2007).

H. C. Cheng, C. F. Chen, C. Y. Tsay, "Transparent ZnO thin film transistor fabricated by sol-gel and chemical bath deposition combination method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 012113 (2007).

H.-H. Hsieh, C.-C. Wu, "Amorphous ZnO transparent thin-film transistors fabricated by fully lithographic and etching processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013502 (2007).

B. Sun, R. L. Peterson, H. Sirringhaus, K. Mori, "Low-temperature sintering of in-plane self-assembled ZnO nanorods for solution-processed high-performance thin film transistors," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18831-18835 (2007).

D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Chang, W. Stickle, C.-H. Chang, "Functional porous tin oxide thin films fabricated by inkjet printing," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10, K51-K54 (2007).

2006

H. Q. Chiang, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, R. E. Presley, J. F. Wager, C.-H. Park, D. A. Keszler, G. S. Herman, "Thin-film transistors with amorphous indium gallium oxide channel layers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2702-2705 (2006).

T. Shimoda, Y. Matsuki, M. Furusawa, T. Aoki, I. Yudasaka, H. Tanaka, H. Iwasawa, D. Wang, M. Miyasaka, Y. Takeuchi, "Solution-processed silicon films and transistors," Nature 440, 783-786 (2006).

2005

D. B. Mitzi, M. Copel, S. J. Chey, "Low-voltage transistor employing a high-mobility spin-coated chalcogenide semiconductor," Adv. Mater. 17, 1285-1289 (2005).

E. M. C. Fortunato, P. M. C. Barquinha, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, A. Marques, L. Pereira, R. Martins, "Fully transparent ZnO thin-film transistor produced at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 17, 590-594 (2005).

2004

D. B. Mitzi, L. L. Kosbar, C. E. Murray, M. Copel, A. Afzali, "High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating," Nature 428, 299-303 (2004).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

2003

R. L. Hoffman, B. J. Norris, J. F. Wager, "ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 733 (2003).

2002

S. B. Fuller, E. J. Wilhelm, J. M. Jacobson, "Ink-jet printed nanoparticle microelectrome-chanical systems," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 54-60 (2002).

A. Afzali, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, T. L. Breen, "High-performance, solution-processed organic thin film transistors from a novel pentacene precursor," JACS Commun. 124, 8812-8813 (2002).

2000

C. M. Hong, S. Wagner, "Inkjet printed copper source/drain metallization for amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21, 384-386 (2000).

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, E. P. Woo, "High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits," Science 290, 2123-2126 (2000).

1999

B. A. Ridley, B. Nivi, J. M. Jacobson, "All-inorganic field effect transistors fabricated by printing," Science 286, 746-749 (1999).

Adv. Mater.

D. B. Mitzi, M. Copel, S. J. Chey, "Low-voltage transistor employing a high-mobility spin-coated chalcogenide semiconductor," Adv. Mater. 17, 1285-1289 (2005).

E. M. C. Fortunato, P. M. C. Barquinha, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, A. Marques, L. Pereira, R. Martins, "Fully transparent ZnO thin-film transistor produced at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 17, 590-594 (2005).

J. J. Schneider, R. C. Hoffmann, J. Engstler, O. Soffke, W. Jaegermann, A. Issanin, A. Klyszcz, "A printed and flexible field-effect transistor device with nanoscale zinc oxide as active semiconductor material," Adv. Mater. 20, 3383-3387 (2008).

D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Chang, G. S. Herman, C.-H. Chang, "A general route to printable high-mobility transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors," Adv. Mater. 19, 843-847 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H.-H. Hsieh, C.-C. Wu, "Amorphous ZnO transparent thin-film transistors fabricated by fully lithographic and etching processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013502 (2007).

H. C. Cheng, C. F. Chen, C. Y. Tsay, "Transparent ZnO thin film transistor fabricated by sol-gel and chemical bath deposition combination method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 012113 (2007).

R. L. Hoffman, B. J. Norris, J. F. Wager, "ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 733 (2003).

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

C. Y. J. Chang, D.-H. Lee, G. S. Herman, C.-H. Chang, "High-performance spin-coated zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10, H135-H138 (2007).

C. G. Choi, S.-J. Seo, B.-S. Bae, "Solution-processed indium zinc oxide transparent thin film transistors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, H7-H9 (2008).

D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Chang, W. Stickle, C.-H. Chang, "Functional porous tin oxide thin films fabricated by inkjet printing," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10, K51-K54 (2007).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

C. M. Hong, S. Wagner, "Inkjet printed copper source/drain metallization for amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21, 384-386 (2000).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc.

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, C. M. Hung, J. Thompson, J. F. Wager, D. A. Keszler, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 130, 17603-17609 (2008).

J. Mater. Chem.

D.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Han, G. S. Herman, C.-H. Chang, "Inkjet printed high-mobility indium zinc tin oxide thin film transistors," J. Mater. Chem. 19, 3135-3137 (2009).

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

S. B. Fuller, E. J. Wilhelm, J. M. Jacobson, "Ink-jet printed nanoparticle microelectrome-chanical systems," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 54-60 (2002).

J. Phys. Chem. C

B. Sun, R. L. Peterson, H. Sirringhaus, K. Mori, "Low-temperature sintering of in-plane self-assembled ZnO nanorods for solution-processed high-performance thin film transistors," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18831-18835 (2007).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

H. Q. Chiang, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, R. E. Presley, J. F. Wager, C.-H. Park, D. A. Keszler, G. S. Herman, "Thin-film transistors with amorphous indium gallium oxide channel layers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2702-2705 (2006).

JACS Commun.

H. S. Kim, P. D. Byrne, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, "High performance solution-processed indium oxide thin-film transistors," JACS Commun. 130, 12580-12581 (2008).

A. Afzali, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, T. L. Breen, "High-performance, solution-processed organic thin film transistors from a novel pentacene precursor," JACS Commun. 124, 8812-8813 (2002).

Nature

D. B. Mitzi, L. L. Kosbar, C. E. Murray, M. Copel, A. Afzali, "High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating," Nature 428, 299-303 (2004).

T. Shimoda, Y. Matsuki, M. Furusawa, T. Aoki, I. Yudasaka, H. Tanaka, H. Iwasawa, D. Wang, M. Miyasaka, Y. Takeuchi, "Solution-processed silicon films and transistors," Nature 440, 783-786 (2006).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

Science

B. A. Ridley, B. Nivi, J. M. Jacobson, "All-inorganic field effect transistors fabricated by printing," Science 286, 746-749 (1999).

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, E. P. Woo, "High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits," Science 290, 2123-2126 (2000).

Other

S. K. Volkman, S. Molesa, B. Mattis, P. C. Chang, V. Subramanian, "Inkjetted organic transistors using a novel pentacene precursor," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2003) pp. H11.7.1/L12.7.1-H11.7.6/L12.7.6.

A. C. Arias, S. Ready, R. Lujan, W. S. Wong, K. E. Paul, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, R. A. Street, "Polymer transistor display backplanes: High performance inkjet printed devices," 229th ACS Nat. Meeting Abstract of Papers, (2005) pp. U1128.

M. Kawasaki, M. Ando, S. Imazeki, Y. Sekiguchi, S. Hirota, H. Sasaki, S. H. Sasaki, S. Uemura, and T. Kamata, Uemura, T. Kamata, "Printable organic TFT technologies for FPD applications," Proc. SPIE-5940 (Organic Field-Effect Transistors IV) (2005) pp. 59400P.

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