Abstract

Electronic structures and carrier transport mechanisms in disordered oxide semiconductors, crystalline InGaO<sub>3</sub>(ZnO)<sub><i>m</i></sub> (<i>m</i> = 1,5) (c-IGZO)and amorphous InGaZnO<sub>4</sub> (a-IGZO), are examined based on a percolation conduction model. Donor levels (E<sub>d</sub>) and densities (<i>N</i><sub>D</sub>) are estimated by numerical calculations of free electron densities (<i>n</i><sub>e</sub>) obtained by Hall measurements. It shows that the donor levels are rather deep, ~0.15 eV for c-IGZO and ~0.11 eV for a-IGZO. This analysis indicates that use of a simple analytical relation of <i>n</i><sub>e</sub> exp(-<i>E<sub>d</sub></i>/2<i>kT</i> can not always be used to estimate <i>E<sub>d</sub></i> and <i>N<sub>D</sub></i> even for a low <i>n<sub>e</sub></i> film because the film can be in the saturation regime at room temperature if <i>E<sub>d</sub></i> and <i>N<sub>D</sub></i> are small, which is actually the case for a-IGZO. The temperature dependences of electron mobilities are analyzed using an analytical equation of the percolation conduction model, which reveals that distributed potential barriers exist above mobility edges in IGZO with average heights 30–100 meV and distribution widths 5–20 meV, which depend on atomic structure and deposition condition of IGZO films. High-quality a-IGZO films have the lowest potential barriers among the IGZO films examined, in spite that a-IGZO has a more disordered amorphous structure than c-IGZO have. It is explained by the partly disordered structure of c-IGZO.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Ito, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, M. Ishizaki, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "“Front drive” display structure for color electronic paper using fully transparent amorphous oxide TFT array," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 2105-2111 (2007).
  2. H. N. Lee, J. W. Kyung, S. K. Kang, D. Y. Kim, M. C. Sung, S. J. Kim, C. N. Kim, H. G. Kim, S. T. Kim, "Current status of, challenges to, and perspective view of AM-OLED," Proc. Int. Display Workshop (2006) pp. 663.
  3. J. Y. Kwon, J. S. Jung, K. S. Son, T. S. Kim, M. K. Ryu, K. B. Park, Y. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, "GaInZnO TFT for active matrix display," Dig. Tech. Papers, 15th Int. Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (2008) pp. 287-290.
  4. K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).
  5. H. Yabuta, M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous InGaZnO$_{\rm 4}$ channel fabricated by room temperature rf-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123-1-112123-3 (2006).
  6. R. Hayashi, M. Ofuji, N. Kaji, K. Takahashi, K. Abe, H. Yabuta, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Circuits using uniform TFTs based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O," J. SID 15/11, 915-921 (2007).
  7. J. Y. Kwon, J. S. Jung, K. S. Son, T. S. Kim, M. K. Ryu, K. B. Park, Y. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, "GaInZnO TFT for active matrix display," Dig. Tech. Papers, 15th Int. Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (2008) pp. 287-290.
  8. T. Riedl, P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, W. Kowalsky, "Ultra-high long-term stability of oxide-TTFTs under current stress," Phys. Stat. Sol. (RRL) 1, 175-177 (2007).
  9. M.-C. Sung, H.-N. Lee, C. N. Kim, S. K. Kang, D. Y. Kim, S.-J. Kim, S. K. Kim, S.-K. Kim, H.-G. Kim, S.-T. Kim, "Novel backplane for AM-OLED device," Proc. Int. Meeting on Inf. Display (2007) pp. 9-1.
  10. J. K. Jeong, J. H. Jeong, J. H. Choi, J. S. Im, S. H. Kim, H. W. Yang, K. N. Kang, K. S. Kim, T. K. Ahn, H.-J. Chung, H. K. Chung, "12.1-inch WXGA AMOLED display driven by indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFTs array," SID 08 Dig. (2008) pp. 1-4.
  11. J.-H. Lee, D.-H. Kim, D.-J. Yang, S.-Y. Hong, K.-S. Yoon, P.-S. Hong, C.-O. Jeong, H.-S. Park, S. Y. Kim, S. K. Lim, S. S. Skim, "World's largest (15-inch) XGA AMLCD panel using IGZO oxide TFT," SID'08 Dig. (2008) pp. 625-628.
  12. R. G. LeComber, D. I. Jones, W. E. Spear, "Hall effect and impurity conduction in substitutionally doped amorphous silicon," Phil. Mag. 35, 1173-1187 (1977).
  13. L. Friedman, "Hall conductivity of amorphous semiconductors in the random phase model," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 6, 329-341 (1971).
  14. J. Friedman, "I. The Hall effect in ordered and disordered systems," Philos. Mag. B 38, 467-476 (1978).
  15. D. Emin, "The sign of the Hall effect in hopping conduction," Philos. Mag. 35, 1189-1198 (1977).
  16. N. F. Mott, "Conduction in glasses containing transition metal ions," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 1, 1-17 (1968).
  17. A. Suemasu, K. Nakahata, K. Ro, T. Kamiya, C. M. Fortmann, I. Shimizu, "In situ hydrogen plasma treatment for improved transport of (400) oriented polycrystalline silicon films," Sol. Energy Mater. & Sol. Cells 66, 313-320 (2001).
  18. T. Kamiya, K. Nakahata, Y. T. Tan, Z. A. K. Durrani, I. Shimizu, "Growth, structure and transport properties of thin ($> 10$ nm) n-type microcrystalline silicon prepared on silicon oxide and its application to single electron transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6265-6271 (2001).
  19. D. Adler, L. P. Flora, S. D. Senturia, "Electrical conductivity in disordered systems," Solid State Commun. 12, 9-12 (1973).
  20. N. Kimizuka, M. Isobe, M. Nakamura, "Syntheses and single-crystal data of homologous compounds, In$_{2}$O$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{m}$ ($m = 3, 4$, and 5), InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{3}$, and Ga$_{2}$O$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{\rm m}$ ($m = 7, 8, 9$, and 16) in the In$_{2}$O$_{3}$-ZnGa$_{2}$O$_{4}$-ZnO System," J. Solid State Chem. 116, 170-178 (1995).
  21. K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport in transparent oxide semiconductor with intrinsic structural randomness probed using single-crystalline InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{5}$ films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 993-1995 (2004).
  22. A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-InGaZnO$_{4}$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).
  23. J. H. Werner, "Origin of curved arrhenius plots for the conductivity of polycrystalline semiconductors," Sol. Stat. Phenomena 37–38, 213-218 (1994).
  24. J. H. Werner, H. H. Güttier, "Barrier inhomogeneities at schottky contacts," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1522-1533 (1991).
  25. K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 202117-1-202117-3 (2008).
  26. H. Ohta, K. Nomura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, K. Ueda, T. Suzuki, Y. Ikuhara, H. Hosono, "Single-crystalline films of the homologous series InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{\rm m}$ grown by reactive solid-phase epitaxy," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 139-144 (2003).
  27. K. Nomura, H. Ohta, T. Suzuki, C. Honjyo, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Orita, Y. Ikuhara, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Growth mechanism for single-crystalline thin film of InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{\rm 5}$ by reactive solid-phase epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5532-5539 (2004).
  28. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).
  29. K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, T. Uruga, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Local coordination structure and electronic structure of the large electron mobility amorphous oxide semiconductor In-Ga-Zn-O: Experiment and ab initio calculations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 035212-1-035212-5 (2007).
  30. E. O. Kane, "Thomas-Fermi approach to impure semiconductor band structure," Phys. Rev. 131, 79-88 (1963).
  31. W. E. Taylor, N. H. Odell, H. Y. Fan, "Grain boundary barriers in germanim," Phys. Rev. 88, 867-875 (1952).
  32. P. V. Evans, S. F. Nelson, "Determination of grain-boundary defect-state densities from transport measurements," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3605-3611 (1991).
  33. B. K. Meyer, D. Volm, A. Graber, H. C. Alt, T. Detchprohm, A. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Shallow donors in GaN—The binding energy and the electron effective mass," Solid State Commun. 95, 597-600 (1995).
  34. T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Electronic structure of the amorphous oxide semiconductor a-InGaZnO$_{4-{\rm x}}$: Tauc-Lorentz optical model and origins of subgap states," Physica Status Solidi A 206, 860-867 (2009).
  35. T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Origins of high mobility and low operation voltage of amorphous oxide TFTs: Electronic structure, electron transport, defects and doping," J. Display Technol. 5, 468-483 (2009).
  36. H.-H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, C.-C. Wu, "Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO$_{4}$ thin film transistors and their subgap density of states," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133503-1-133503-3 (2008).
  37. M. Roilos, "Experimental Hall effect data for amorphous semiconductors," Phil. Mag. B 38, 477-489 (1978).

2009 (2)

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Electronic structure of the amorphous oxide semiconductor a-InGaZnO$_{4-{\rm x}}$: Tauc-Lorentz optical model and origins of subgap states," Physica Status Solidi A 206, 860-867 (2009).

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Origins of high mobility and low operation voltage of amorphous oxide TFTs: Electronic structure, electron transport, defects and doping," J. Display Technol. 5, 468-483 (2009).

2008 (2)

H.-H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, C.-C. Wu, "Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO$_{4}$ thin film transistors and their subgap density of states," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133503-1-133503-3 (2008).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 202117-1-202117-3 (2008).

2007 (4)

R. Hayashi, M. Ofuji, N. Kaji, K. Takahashi, K. Abe, H. Yabuta, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Circuits using uniform TFTs based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O," J. SID 15/11, 915-921 (2007).

T. Riedl, P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, W. Kowalsky, "Ultra-high long-term stability of oxide-TTFTs under current stress," Phys. Stat. Sol. (RRL) 1, 175-177 (2007).

M. Ito, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, M. Ishizaki, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "“Front drive” display structure for color electronic paper using fully transparent amorphous oxide TFT array," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 2105-2111 (2007).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, T. Uruga, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Local coordination structure and electronic structure of the large electron mobility amorphous oxide semiconductor In-Ga-Zn-O: Experiment and ab initio calculations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 035212-1-035212-5 (2007).

2006 (1)

H. Yabuta, M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous InGaZnO$_{\rm 4}$ channel fabricated by room temperature rf-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123-1-112123-3 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-InGaZnO$_{4}$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).

2004 (3)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport in transparent oxide semiconductor with intrinsic structural randomness probed using single-crystalline InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{5}$ films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 993-1995 (2004).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, T. Suzuki, C. Honjyo, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Orita, Y. Ikuhara, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Growth mechanism for single-crystalline thin film of InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{\rm 5}$ by reactive solid-phase epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5532-5539 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Ohta, K. Nomura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, K. Ueda, T. Suzuki, Y. Ikuhara, H. Hosono, "Single-crystalline films of the homologous series InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{\rm m}$ grown by reactive solid-phase epitaxy," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 139-144 (2003).

2001 (2)

A. Suemasu, K. Nakahata, K. Ro, T. Kamiya, C. M. Fortmann, I. Shimizu, "In situ hydrogen plasma treatment for improved transport of (400) oriented polycrystalline silicon films," Sol. Energy Mater. & Sol. Cells 66, 313-320 (2001).

T. Kamiya, K. Nakahata, Y. T. Tan, Z. A. K. Durrani, I. Shimizu, "Growth, structure and transport properties of thin ($> 10$ nm) n-type microcrystalline silicon prepared on silicon oxide and its application to single electron transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6265-6271 (2001).

1995 (2)

N. Kimizuka, M. Isobe, M. Nakamura, "Syntheses and single-crystal data of homologous compounds, In$_{2}$O$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{m}$ ($m = 3, 4$, and 5), InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{3}$, and Ga$_{2}$O$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{\rm m}$ ($m = 7, 8, 9$, and 16) in the In$_{2}$O$_{3}$-ZnGa$_{2}$O$_{4}$-ZnO System," J. Solid State Chem. 116, 170-178 (1995).

B. K. Meyer, D. Volm, A. Graber, H. C. Alt, T. Detchprohm, A. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Shallow donors in GaN—The binding energy and the electron effective mass," Solid State Commun. 95, 597-600 (1995).

1994 (1)

J. H. Werner, "Origin of curved arrhenius plots for the conductivity of polycrystalline semiconductors," Sol. Stat. Phenomena 37–38, 213-218 (1994).

1991 (2)

J. H. Werner, H. H. Güttier, "Barrier inhomogeneities at schottky contacts," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1522-1533 (1991).

P. V. Evans, S. F. Nelson, "Determination of grain-boundary defect-state densities from transport measurements," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3605-3611 (1991).

1978 (2)

M. Roilos, "Experimental Hall effect data for amorphous semiconductors," Phil. Mag. B 38, 477-489 (1978).

J. Friedman, "I. The Hall effect in ordered and disordered systems," Philos. Mag. B 38, 467-476 (1978).

1977 (2)

D. Emin, "The sign of the Hall effect in hopping conduction," Philos. Mag. 35, 1189-1198 (1977).

R. G. LeComber, D. I. Jones, W. E. Spear, "Hall effect and impurity conduction in substitutionally doped amorphous silicon," Phil. Mag. 35, 1173-1187 (1977).

1973 (1)

D. Adler, L. P. Flora, S. D. Senturia, "Electrical conductivity in disordered systems," Solid State Commun. 12, 9-12 (1973).

1971 (1)

L. Friedman, "Hall conductivity of amorphous semiconductors in the random phase model," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 6, 329-341 (1971).

1968 (1)

N. F. Mott, "Conduction in glasses containing transition metal ions," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 1, 1-17 (1968).

1963 (1)

E. O. Kane, "Thomas-Fermi approach to impure semiconductor band structure," Phys. Rev. 131, 79-88 (1963).

1952 (1)

W. E. Taylor, N. H. Odell, H. Y. Fan, "Grain boundary barriers in germanim," Phys. Rev. 88, 867-875 (1952).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

H. Ohta, K. Nomura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, K. Ueda, T. Suzuki, Y. Ikuhara, H. Hosono, "Single-crystalline films of the homologous series InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{\rm m}$ grown by reactive solid-phase epitaxy," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 139-144 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport in transparent oxide semiconductor with intrinsic structural randomness probed using single-crystalline InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{5}$ films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 993-1995 (2004).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Subgap states in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O, observed by bulk sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 202117-1-202117-3 (2008).

H.-H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, C.-C. Wu, "Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO$_{4}$ thin film transistors and their subgap density of states," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133503-1-133503-3 (2008).

H. Yabuta, M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous InGaZnO$_{\rm 4}$ channel fabricated by room temperature rf-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123-1-112123-3 (2006).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Ito, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, M. Ishizaki, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "“Front drive” display structure for color electronic paper using fully transparent amorphous oxide TFT array," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 2105-2111 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. Kamiya, K. Nakahata, Y. T. Tan, Z. A. K. Durrani, I. Shimizu, "Growth, structure and transport properties of thin ($> 10$ nm) n-type microcrystalline silicon prepared on silicon oxide and its application to single electron transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6265-6271 (2001).

P. V. Evans, S. F. Nelson, "Determination of grain-boundary defect-state densities from transport measurements," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3605-3611 (1991).

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, T. Suzuki, C. Honjyo, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Orita, Y. Ikuhara, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Growth mechanism for single-crystalline thin film of InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{\rm 5}$ by reactive solid-phase epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5532-5539 (2004).

J. H. Werner, H. H. Güttier, "Barrier inhomogeneities at schottky contacts," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1522-1533 (1991).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (2)

N. F. Mott, "Conduction in glasses containing transition metal ions," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 1, 1-17 (1968).

L. Friedman, "Hall conductivity of amorphous semiconductors in the random phase model," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 6, 329-341 (1971).

J. SID (1)

R. Hayashi, M. Ofuji, N. Kaji, K. Takahashi, K. Abe, H. Yabuta, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Circuits using uniform TFTs based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O," J. SID 15/11, 915-921 (2007).

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

N. Kimizuka, M. Isobe, M. Nakamura, "Syntheses and single-crystal data of homologous compounds, In$_{2}$O$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{m}$ ($m = 3, 4$, and 5), InGaO$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{3}$, and Ga$_{2}$O$_{3}$(ZnO)$_{\rm m}$ ($m = 7, 8, 9$, and 16) in the In$_{2}$O$_{3}$-ZnGa$_{2}$O$_{4}$-ZnO System," J. Solid State Chem. 116, 170-178 (1995).

Nature (1)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

Phil. Mag. (1)

R. G. LeComber, D. I. Jones, W. E. Spear, "Hall effect and impurity conduction in substitutionally doped amorphous silicon," Phil. Mag. 35, 1173-1187 (1977).

Phil. Mag. B (1)

M. Roilos, "Experimental Hall effect data for amorphous semiconductors," Phil. Mag. B 38, 477-489 (1978).

Philos. Mag. (1)

D. Emin, "The sign of the Hall effect in hopping conduction," Philos. Mag. 35, 1189-1198 (1977).

Philos. Mag. B (1)

J. Friedman, "I. The Hall effect in ordered and disordered systems," Philos. Mag. B 38, 467-476 (1978).

Phys. Rev. (2)

E. O. Kane, "Thomas-Fermi approach to impure semiconductor band structure," Phys. Rev. 131, 79-88 (1963).

W. E. Taylor, N. H. Odell, H. Y. Fan, "Grain boundary barriers in germanim," Phys. Rev. 88, 867-875 (1952).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, T. Uruga, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Local coordination structure and electronic structure of the large electron mobility amorphous oxide semiconductor In-Ga-Zn-O: Experiment and ab initio calculations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 035212-1-035212-5 (2007).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (RRL) (1)

T. Riedl, P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, W. Kowalsky, "Ultra-high long-term stability of oxide-TTFTs under current stress," Phys. Stat. Sol. (RRL) 1, 175-177 (2007).

Physica Status Solidi A (1)

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Electronic structure of the amorphous oxide semiconductor a-InGaZnO$_{4-{\rm x}}$: Tauc-Lorentz optical model and origins of subgap states," Physica Status Solidi A 206, 860-867 (2009).

Sol. Energy Mater. & Sol. Cells (1)

A. Suemasu, K. Nakahata, K. Ro, T. Kamiya, C. M. Fortmann, I. Shimizu, "In situ hydrogen plasma treatment for improved transport of (400) oriented polycrystalline silicon films," Sol. Energy Mater. & Sol. Cells 66, 313-320 (2001).

Sol. Stat. Phenomena (1)

J. H. Werner, "Origin of curved arrhenius plots for the conductivity of polycrystalline semiconductors," Sol. Stat. Phenomena 37–38, 213-218 (1994).

Solid State Commun. (2)

B. K. Meyer, D. Volm, A. Graber, H. C. Alt, T. Detchprohm, A. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Shallow donors in GaN—The binding energy and the electron effective mass," Solid State Commun. 95, 597-600 (1995).

D. Adler, L. P. Flora, S. D. Senturia, "Electrical conductivity in disordered systems," Solid State Commun. 12, 9-12 (1973).

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. Takagi, K. Nomura, H. Ohta, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Carrier transport and electronic structure in amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-InGaZnO$_{4}$," Thin Solid Films 486, 38-41 (2005).

Other (7)

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).

M.-C. Sung, H.-N. Lee, C. N. Kim, S. K. Kang, D. Y. Kim, S.-J. Kim, S. K. Kim, S.-K. Kim, H.-G. Kim, S.-T. Kim, "Novel backplane for AM-OLED device," Proc. Int. Meeting on Inf. Display (2007) pp. 9-1.

J. K. Jeong, J. H. Jeong, J. H. Choi, J. S. Im, S. H. Kim, H. W. Yang, K. N. Kang, K. S. Kim, T. K. Ahn, H.-J. Chung, H. K. Chung, "12.1-inch WXGA AMOLED display driven by indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFTs array," SID 08 Dig. (2008) pp. 1-4.

J.-H. Lee, D.-H. Kim, D.-J. Yang, S.-Y. Hong, K.-S. Yoon, P.-S. Hong, C.-O. Jeong, H.-S. Park, S. Y. Kim, S. K. Lim, S. S. Skim, "World's largest (15-inch) XGA AMLCD panel using IGZO oxide TFT," SID'08 Dig. (2008) pp. 625-628.

J. Y. Kwon, J. S. Jung, K. S. Son, T. S. Kim, M. K. Ryu, K. B. Park, Y. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, "GaInZnO TFT for active matrix display," Dig. Tech. Papers, 15th Int. Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (2008) pp. 287-290.

H. N. Lee, J. W. Kyung, S. K. Kang, D. Y. Kim, M. C. Sung, S. J. Kim, C. N. Kim, H. G. Kim, S. T. Kim, "Current status of, challenges to, and perspective view of AM-OLED," Proc. Int. Display Workshop (2006) pp. 663.

J. Y. Kwon, J. S. Jung, K. S. Son, T. S. Kim, M. K. Ryu, K. B. Park, Y. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, "GaInZnO TFT for active matrix display," Dig. Tech. Papers, 15th Int. Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (2008) pp. 287-290.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.