Abstract

Bias-temperature-stress (BTS) induced electrical instability of the RF sputter amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) was investigated. Both positive and negative BTS were applied and found to primarily cause a positive and negative voltage shift in transfer (<i>I</i><sub>DS</sub> - <i>V</i><sub>GS</sub>) characteristics, respectively. The time evolution of bulk-state density (<i>N</i><sub>BS</sub>) and characteristic temperature of the conduction-band-tail-states (<i>T<sub>G</sub></i> are extracted. Since both values showed only minor changes after BTS, the results imply that observed shift in TFT <i>I</i><sub>DS</sub> - <i>V</i><sub>GS</sub> curves were primarily due to channel charge injection/trapping rather than defect states creation. We also demonstrated the validity of using stretch-exponential equation to model both positive and negative BTS induced threshold voltage shift (Δ<i>V</i><sub>th</sub>) of the a-IGZO TFTs. Stress voltage and temperature dependence of Δ<i>V</i><sub>th</sub> evolution are described.

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  1. Y. Yoshida, Y. Kikuchi, S. Daly, M. Sugino, "Image quality improvements in large-screen LC-TV," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 1852-1855.
  2. T. Urabe, "The outstanding potential of OLED displays for TV applications," Inf. Display 24, 14-17 (2008).
  3. J. K. Jeong, H.-J. Chung, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "A new era of oxide thin-film transistors for large-sized AMOLED displays," Inf. Display 20-23 (2008).
  4. K. Sera, F. Okumura, H. Uchida, S. Itoh, S. Kaneko, K. Hotta, "High performance TFTs fabricated by XeCl excimer laser annealing of hydrogenated amorphous-silicon film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 2868-2872 (1989).
  5. J. Jang, Thin Film Transistors—Materials and Processes, Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistors (Kluwer Academic, 2004).
  6. S. Y. Yoon, J. Y. Oh, C. O. Kim, J. Jang, "Low temperature solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon at 380 $^{\circ }{\hbox{C}}$," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6463-6465 (1998).
  7. K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).
  8. J. K. Jeong, J. H. Jeong, J. H. Choi, J. S. Im, S. H. Kim, H. W. Yang, K. N. Kang, K. S. Kim, T. K. Ahn, H.-J. Chung, M. Kim, B. S. Gu, J.-S. Park, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, H. K. Chung, "12.1-inch WXGA AMOLED display driven by indium-gallium-zinc-oxide TFTs array," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 1-4.
  9. J.-H. Lee, D.-H. Kim, D.-J. Yang, S.-Y. Hong, K.-S. Yoon, P.-S. Hong, C.-O. Jeong, H.-S. Park, S.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Lim, S.-S. Kim, "World's largest (15-inch) XGA AMLCD panel using IGZO oxide TFT," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 625-628 (2008).
  10. M. Ito, C. Miyazaki, M. Ishizaki, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, T. Okubo, R. Matsubara, K. Hatta, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "Application of amorphous oxide TFT to electrophoretic display," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 354, 2777-2782 (2008).
  11. M. Ofuji, K. Abe, H. Shimizu, N. Kaji, R. Hayashi, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Fast thin-film transistor circuits based on amorphous oxide semiconductor," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28, 273-275 (2007).
  12. S. S. Kim, B. H. You, J. H. Cho, S. J. Moon, B. H. Berkeley, N. D. Kim, "$82^{\prime \prime }$ ultra definition LCD using new driving scheme and advanced super PVA technology," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 196-199.
  13. S. S. Kim, "The world's largest (82-in.) TFT-LCD," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 1842-1847.
  14. C. J. Kim, D. S. Kang, I. Song, J. C. Park, H. Lim, S. Kim, E. Lee, R. Chung, J. C. Lee, Y. Park, "Highly stable ${\rm Ga}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}\hbox{-}{\rm In}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}$-ZnO TFT for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display application," Proc. IEDM (2006) pp. 1-4.
  15. J. Y. Kwon, J. S. Jung, K. S. Son, T. S. Kim, M. K. Ryu, K. B. Park, Y. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, "GaInZnO TFT for active matrix display," AM-FPD'08 Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 287-290.
  16. M. Fuji, H. Yano, T. Hatayama, Y. Uraoka, T. Fuyuki, J. S. Jung, J. Y. Kwon, T. Nakanishi, M. Kimura, "Degradation in ${\rm Ga}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}\hbox{-}{\rm In}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}$-ZnO thin film transistors under constant voltage stress," AM-FPD'08 Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 295-298.
  17. J. Kanicki, F. R. Libsch, J. Griffith, R. Polastre, "Performance of thin hydrogenated amorphous slicon thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2339-2345 (1991).
  18. M. J. Powell, J. W. Orton, "Characteristics of amorphous silicon staggered electrode thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 171-173 (1984).
  19. A. Rolland, J. Richard, J.-P. Kleider, D. Mencaraglia, "Electrical properties of amorphous silicon transistors and mis-devices: Comparative study of top nitride and bottom nitride configurations," J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 3679-3683 (1993).
  20. C. Chen, T.-C. Fung, K. Abe, H. Kumomi, J. Kanicki, "Study of density of states of a-InGaZnO using field-effect technique," Proc. 66th Device Res. Conf. (2008) pp. 151-151.
  21. T.-C. Fung, C.-S. Chuang, K. Nomura, H.-P. D. Shieh, H. Hosono, J. Kanicki, "Photofield-effect in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors," J. Inf. Display 9, 21-29 (2008).
  22. M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous ${\rm InGaZnO}_{4}$ channel fabricated by room temperature RF-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123-112123 (2006).
  23. R. E. Presley, D. Hong, H. Q. Chiang, C. M. Hung, R. L. Hoffman, J. F. Wager, "Transparent ring oscillator based on indium gallium oxide thin-film transistors," Solid-State Electron. 50, 500-503 (2006).
  24. W. B. Jackson, R. L. Hoffman, G. S. Herman, "High-performance flexible zinc tin oxide field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193503-193503 (2005).
  25. T.-C. Fung, C.-S. Chuang, C. Chen, K. Abe, H. Kumomi, J. Kanicki, "2-D numerical simulation of high performance amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O TFTs for flat panel displays," AM-FPD'08 Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 251-252.
  26. C. Hyun, M. S. Shur, M. Hack, Z. Yaniv, V. Cannella, "Above threshold characteristics of amorphous silicon alloy thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1202-1203 (1984).
  27. A. Kuo, T. K. Won, J. Kanicki, "Advanced multilayer amorphous silicon thin-film transistor structure: Film thickness effect on its electrical performance and contact resistance," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3362-3367 (2008).
  28. T.-C. Fung, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, J. Kanicki, "PLD amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O TFTs for future optoelectronics," SID 2008 Vehicles and Photons Symp., Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 117-123.
  29. K. Abe, H. Kumomi, (2009) private communication.
  30. S. Kishida, Y. Naruke, Y. Uchida, M. Matsumara, "Theoretical analysis of amorphous-silicon field-effect transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 511-517 (1983).
  31. M. J. Powell, "Charge trapping instabilities in amorphous silicon-silicon nitride thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 597-597 (1983).
  32. F. R. Libsch, J. Kanicki, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of charge injection and trapping in amorphous thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1286-1286 (1993).
  33. C. van Berkel, M. J. Powell, "Resolution of amorphous silicon thin-film transistor instability mechanisms using ambipolar transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1094-1094 (1987).
  34. Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. French, D. H. Nicholls, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1242 (1987).
  35. M. Stutzmann, "The defect density in amorphous silicon," Philos. Mag B 60, 531-546 (1989).
  36. J. Robertson, "Physics of amorphous conducting oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2791-2795 (2008).
  37. J. Kanicki, S. Martin, Thin-Film Transistors (Marcel Dekker, 2003) pp. 77-77.
  38. K. Nomura, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous oxide semiconductors for high-performance flexible thin-film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4303-4308 (2006).
  39. K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Defect passivation and homogenization of amorphous oxide thin-film transistor by wet ${\hbox{O}}_{2}$ annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 192107-192107 (2008).
  40. C.-S. Chiang, J. Kanicki, K. Takechi, "Electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors for active-matrix liquid-crystal displays," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 4704-4710 (2008).
  41. R. S. Muller, T. I. Kamins, M. Chan, Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2003) pp. 500-500.

2008 (9)

T. Urabe, "The outstanding potential of OLED displays for TV applications," Inf. Display 24, 14-17 (2008).

J. K. Jeong, H.-J. Chung, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "A new era of oxide thin-film transistors for large-sized AMOLED displays," Inf. Display 20-23 (2008).

J.-H. Lee, D.-H. Kim, D.-J. Yang, S.-Y. Hong, K.-S. Yoon, P.-S. Hong, C.-O. Jeong, H.-S. Park, S.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Lim, S.-S. Kim, "World's largest (15-inch) XGA AMLCD panel using IGZO oxide TFT," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 625-628 (2008).

M. Ito, C. Miyazaki, M. Ishizaki, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, T. Okubo, R. Matsubara, K. Hatta, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "Application of amorphous oxide TFT to electrophoretic display," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 354, 2777-2782 (2008).

T.-C. Fung, C.-S. Chuang, K. Nomura, H.-P. D. Shieh, H. Hosono, J. Kanicki, "Photofield-effect in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors," J. Inf. Display 9, 21-29 (2008).

A. Kuo, T. K. Won, J. Kanicki, "Advanced multilayer amorphous silicon thin-film transistor structure: Film thickness effect on its electrical performance and contact resistance," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3362-3367 (2008).

J. Robertson, "Physics of amorphous conducting oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2791-2795 (2008).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Defect passivation and homogenization of amorphous oxide thin-film transistor by wet ${\hbox{O}}_{2}$ annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 192107-192107 (2008).

C.-S. Chiang, J. Kanicki, K. Takechi, "Electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors for active-matrix liquid-crystal displays," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 4704-4710 (2008).

2007 (1)

M. Ofuji, K. Abe, H. Shimizu, N. Kaji, R. Hayashi, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Fast thin-film transistor circuits based on amorphous oxide semiconductor," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28, 273-275 (2007).

2006 (3)

M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous ${\rm InGaZnO}_{4}$ channel fabricated by room temperature RF-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123-112123 (2006).

R. E. Presley, D. Hong, H. Q. Chiang, C. M. Hung, R. L. Hoffman, J. F. Wager, "Transparent ring oscillator based on indium gallium oxide thin-film transistors," Solid-State Electron. 50, 500-503 (2006).

K. Nomura, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous oxide semiconductors for high-performance flexible thin-film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4303-4308 (2006).

2005 (1)

W. B. Jackson, R. L. Hoffman, G. S. Herman, "High-performance flexible zinc tin oxide field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193503-193503 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

1998 (1)

S. Y. Yoon, J. Y. Oh, C. O. Kim, J. Jang, "Low temperature solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon at 380 $^{\circ }{\hbox{C}}$," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6463-6465 (1998).

1993 (2)

F. R. Libsch, J. Kanicki, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of charge injection and trapping in amorphous thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1286-1286 (1993).

A. Rolland, J. Richard, J.-P. Kleider, D. Mencaraglia, "Electrical properties of amorphous silicon transistors and mis-devices: Comparative study of top nitride and bottom nitride configurations," J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 3679-3683 (1993).

1991 (1)

J. Kanicki, F. R. Libsch, J. Griffith, R. Polastre, "Performance of thin hydrogenated amorphous slicon thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2339-2345 (1991).

1989 (2)

K. Sera, F. Okumura, H. Uchida, S. Itoh, S. Kaneko, K. Hotta, "High performance TFTs fabricated by XeCl excimer laser annealing of hydrogenated amorphous-silicon film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 2868-2872 (1989).

M. Stutzmann, "The defect density in amorphous silicon," Philos. Mag B 60, 531-546 (1989).

1987 (2)

C. van Berkel, M. J. Powell, "Resolution of amorphous silicon thin-film transistor instability mechanisms using ambipolar transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1094-1094 (1987).

Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. French, D. H. Nicholls, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1242 (1987).

1984 (2)

C. Hyun, M. S. Shur, M. Hack, Z. Yaniv, V. Cannella, "Above threshold characteristics of amorphous silicon alloy thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1202-1203 (1984).

M. J. Powell, J. W. Orton, "Characteristics of amorphous silicon staggered electrode thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 171-173 (1984).

1983 (2)

S. Kishida, Y. Naruke, Y. Uchida, M. Matsumara, "Theoretical analysis of amorphous-silicon field-effect transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 511-517 (1983).

M. J. Powell, "Charge trapping instabilities in amorphous silicon-silicon nitride thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 597-597 (1983).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

M. J. Powell, J. W. Orton, "Characteristics of amorphous silicon staggered electrode thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 171-173 (1984).

M. Sano, K. Abe, T. Aiba, T. Den, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "High-mobility thin-film transistor with amorphous ${\rm InGaZnO}_{4}$ channel fabricated by room temperature RF-magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112123-112123 (2006).

W. B. Jackson, R. L. Hoffman, G. S. Herman, "High-performance flexible zinc tin oxide field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193503-193503 (2005).

C. Hyun, M. S. Shur, M. Hack, Z. Yaniv, V. Cannella, "Above threshold characteristics of amorphous silicon alloy thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1202-1203 (1984).

M. J. Powell, "Charge trapping instabilities in amorphous silicon-silicon nitride thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 597-597 (1983).

F. R. Libsch, J. Kanicki, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of charge injection and trapping in amorphous thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1286-1286 (1993).

C. van Berkel, M. J. Powell, "Resolution of amorphous silicon thin-film transistor instability mechanisms using ambipolar transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1094-1094 (1987).

Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. French, D. H. Nicholls, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1242 (1987).

K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Defect passivation and homogenization of amorphous oxide thin-film transistor by wet ${\hbox{O}}_{2}$ annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 192107-192107 (2008).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

M. Ofuji, K. Abe, H. Shimizu, N. Kaji, R. Hayashi, M. Sano, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Fast thin-film transistor circuits based on amorphous oxide semiconductor," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28, 273-275 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

K. Sera, F. Okumura, H. Uchida, S. Itoh, S. Kaneko, K. Hotta, "High performance TFTs fabricated by XeCl excimer laser annealing of hydrogenated amorphous-silicon film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 2868-2872 (1989).

Inf. Display (2)

T. Urabe, "The outstanding potential of OLED displays for TV applications," Inf. Display 24, 14-17 (2008).

J. K. Jeong, H.-J. Chung, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "A new era of oxide thin-film transistors for large-sized AMOLED displays," Inf. Display 20-23 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Y. Yoon, J. Y. Oh, C. O. Kim, J. Jang, "Low temperature solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon at 380 $^{\circ }{\hbox{C}}$," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6463-6465 (1998).

J. Kanicki, F. R. Libsch, J. Griffith, R. Polastre, "Performance of thin hydrogenated amorphous slicon thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2339-2345 (1991).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

A. Rolland, J. Richard, J.-P. Kleider, D. Mencaraglia, "Electrical properties of amorphous silicon transistors and mis-devices: Comparative study of top nitride and bottom nitride configurations," J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 3679-3683 (1993).

J. Inf. Display (1)

T.-C. Fung, C.-S. Chuang, K. Nomura, H.-P. D. Shieh, H. Hosono, J. Kanicki, "Photofield-effect in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors," J. Inf. Display 9, 21-29 (2008).

J. Non- Cryst. Solids (1)

M. Ito, C. Miyazaki, M. Ishizaki, M. Kon, N. Ikeda, T. Okubo, R. Matsubara, K. Hatta, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "Application of amorphous oxide TFT to electrophoretic display," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 354, 2777-2782 (2008).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Robertson, "Physics of amorphous conducting oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2791-2795 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S. Kishida, Y. Naruke, Y. Uchida, M. Matsumara, "Theoretical analysis of amorphous-silicon field-effect transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 511-517 (1983).

A. Kuo, T. K. Won, J. Kanicki, "Advanced multilayer amorphous silicon thin-film transistor structure: Film thickness effect on its electrical performance and contact resistance," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3362-3367 (2008).

C.-S. Chiang, J. Kanicki, K. Takechi, "Electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors for active-matrix liquid-crystal displays," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 4704-4710 (2008).

K. Nomura, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, H. Ohta, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous oxide semiconductors for high-performance flexible thin-film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4303-4308 (2006).

Nature (1)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

Philos. Mag B (1)

M. Stutzmann, "The defect density in amorphous silicon," Philos. Mag B 60, 531-546 (1989).

SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (1)

J.-H. Lee, D.-H. Kim, D.-J. Yang, S.-Y. Hong, K.-S. Yoon, P.-S. Hong, C.-O. Jeong, H.-S. Park, S.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Lim, S.-S. Kim, "World's largest (15-inch) XGA AMLCD panel using IGZO oxide TFT," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 625-628 (2008).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

R. E. Presley, D. Hong, H. Q. Chiang, C. M. Hung, R. L. Hoffman, J. F. Wager, "Transparent ring oscillator based on indium gallium oxide thin-film transistors," Solid-State Electron. 50, 500-503 (2006).

Other (14)

T.-C. Fung, C.-S. Chuang, C. Chen, K. Abe, H. Kumomi, J. Kanicki, "2-D numerical simulation of high performance amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O TFTs for flat panel displays," AM-FPD'08 Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 251-252.

T.-C. Fung, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, J. Kanicki, "PLD amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O TFTs for future optoelectronics," SID 2008 Vehicles and Photons Symp., Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 117-123.

K. Abe, H. Kumomi, (2009) private communication.

J. Kanicki, S. Martin, Thin-Film Transistors (Marcel Dekker, 2003) pp. 77-77.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Kikuchi, S. Daly, M. Sugino, "Image quality improvements in large-screen LC-TV," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 1852-1855.

J. K. Jeong, J. H. Jeong, J. H. Choi, J. S. Im, S. H. Kim, H. W. Yang, K. N. Kang, K. S. Kim, T. K. Ahn, H.-J. Chung, M. Kim, B. S. Gu, J.-S. Park, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, H. K. Chung, "12.1-inch WXGA AMOLED display driven by indium-gallium-zinc-oxide TFTs array," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 1-4.

J. Jang, Thin Film Transistors—Materials and Processes, Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistors (Kluwer Academic, 2004).

C. Chen, T.-C. Fung, K. Abe, H. Kumomi, J. Kanicki, "Study of density of states of a-InGaZnO using field-effect technique," Proc. 66th Device Res. Conf. (2008) pp. 151-151.

S. S. Kim, B. H. You, J. H. Cho, S. J. Moon, B. H. Berkeley, N. D. Kim, "$82^{\prime \prime }$ ultra definition LCD using new driving scheme and advanced super PVA technology," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 196-199.

S. S. Kim, "The world's largest (82-in.) TFT-LCD," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 1842-1847.

C. J. Kim, D. S. Kang, I. Song, J. C. Park, H. Lim, S. Kim, E. Lee, R. Chung, J. C. Lee, Y. Park, "Highly stable ${\rm Ga}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}\hbox{-}{\rm In}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}$-ZnO TFT for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display application," Proc. IEDM (2006) pp. 1-4.

J. Y. Kwon, J. S. Jung, K. S. Son, T. S. Kim, M. K. Ryu, K. B. Park, Y. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, "GaInZnO TFT for active matrix display," AM-FPD'08 Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 287-290.

M. Fuji, H. Yano, T. Hatayama, Y. Uraoka, T. Fuyuki, J. S. Jung, J. Y. Kwon, T. Nakanishi, M. Kimura, "Degradation in ${\rm Ga}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}\hbox{-}{\rm In}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}$-ZnO thin film transistors under constant voltage stress," AM-FPD'08 Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 295-298.

R. S. Muller, T. I. Kamins, M. Chan, Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2003) pp. 500-500.

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