Abstract

A numerical model of Tm<sup>3+</sup>-Tb<sup>3+</sup>-Eu<sup>3+</sup>-co-doped system for white light generation is presented in this paper. The energy level, electron transition process and rate and power propagating equations are proposed to calculate fluorescence intensity of the system pumped by 359 nm laser. The numerical results reveal that our theoretical result is in good agreement with experimental result in literature. Optimal active ion concentrations are proposed for the system to emit red, blue and green lights which are mixed to generate white light for display and lighting system.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).
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  3. S. Wen, "Representations of relative display gamut size," J. Display Technol. 4, 18-23 (2008).
  4. J. H. Park, A. J. Steckl, "Laser action in Eu-doped GaN thin-film cavity at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4588-4588 (2004).
  5. M. S. Shur, A. Žukauskas, "Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination," Proc. IEEE 93, 1691-1703 (2005).
  6. J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, G. C. Kim, "Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color ${\hbox{Ba}}_{3}{\hbox{MgSi}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{8}:{\hbox{Eu}}^{2+}$, ${\hbox{Mn}}^{2+}$ phosphor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2931-2933 (2004).
  7. R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Takashi, K. Sakuma, "Highly efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated with short-wavelength yellow oxynitride phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101104-101104 (2006).
  8. J. Zhou, Z. Wu, Z. Zhang, W. Liu, H. Dang, "Study on an antiwear and extreme pressure additive of surface coated ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles in liquid paraffin," Wear 249, 333-337 (2001).
  9. J. W. Stouwdam, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Improvement in the luminescence properties and process ability of ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}/\ln $ and ${\hbox{LaPO}}_{4}/\ln $ nanoparticles by surface modification," Langmuir 20, 11763-11771 (2004).
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  11. J. Wang, S. Bo, L. Song, J. Hu, X. Liu, Z. Zhen, "One-step synthesis of highly water-soluble ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}:{\hbox{Ln}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals in methanol without using any ligands," Nanotechnol. 18, 465605-465605 (2007).
  12. D. Ananias, L. de Carlos, J. Rocha, "Unusual full-colour phosphors: ${\hbox{Na}}_{3}\ln \hbox{-}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Si}}_{3}{\hbox{O}}_{9}$," Opt. Mater. 28, 582-586 (2006).
  13. C.-J. Duan, H.-H. Chen, X.-X. Yang, J.-T. Zhao, "Luminescence properties of ${\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$, ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ or ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ activated ${\hbox{Ca}}_{4}{\hbox{GdO}}({\hbox{BO}}_{3})_{3}$ under X-ray and UV excitation," Opt. Mater. 28, 956-961 (2006).
  14. J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, J. Ballato, "White light emissions through down-conversion of rare-earth doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles," Opt. Expr. 14, 11412-11417 (2006).
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  21. G.-S. Yi, G.-M. Chow, "Colloidal ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$: Yb, Er, ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$: Yb, Ho and ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$: Yb, Tm nano-crystals with multicolor up-conversion fluorescence," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 15, 4460-4464 (2005).
  22. S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, M. Raudsepp, "Bright white light through up-conversion of a single NIR source from Sol-Gel derived thin film made with $\ln ^{3+}$-doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).
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  24. D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, M. J. Suscavage, "Energy transfer between ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ and ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass," Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).
  25. M. Karásek, "Optimum design of ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}/{\rm Yb}^{3+}$ codoped fibers for large-signal high-pump-power applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1699-1705 (1997).
  26. C. Jiang, F. Gan, J. Zhang, P. Deng, G. Huang, "Yb: Borate glass with high emission cross section," J. Solid State Chem. 144, 449-453 (1999).
  27. W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, B. Viana, P. Aschehoug, "Relaxation, dynamics of excited states of ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{SrGdGa}}_{3}{\rm O}_{7}$ crystals activated with ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ and ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$," Appl. Phys. B 64, 525-529 (1997).
  28. E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, B. Sordo, "Thulium-doped telluride fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777-779 (2004).
  29. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, T. Ono, "1.49-$\mu$m-band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier for WDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1826-1838 (2002).
  30. L. Huang, A. Jha, S. Shen, X. Liu, "Broadband emission in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite fibre," Opt. Expr. 12, 2429-2434 (2004).
  31. H. Jeong, K. Oh, S. R. Han, T. F. Morse, "Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ co-doped silica fiber," Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507-512 (2003).
  32. S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, T. Hanada, "Mechanisms and concentration dependence of ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ blue and ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ green up-conversion in co-doped glasses by red-laser pumping," J. Lumin. 65, 247-253 (1995).
  33. X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, H. Toratani, "Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$, ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses," J. Non-Cryst.Solids 181, 100-110 (1995).
  34. L. Huang, G. Qin, Y. Arai, R. Jose, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohis, T. Yamashita, Y. Akimoto, "Crystallization kinetics and spectroscopic investigations on ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ and ${\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped glass ceramics containing ${\hbox{CaF}}_{2}$ nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093506-093506 (2007).
  35. F. de Pasquale, M. Federighi, "Improved gain characteristics in high concentration ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}/{\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped glass waveguide amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2127-2131 (1994).
  36. M. Karasek, "Optimum design of ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped fibers for large-signal high-pump-power applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1699-1705 (1997).
  37. E. Yahel, A. A. Hendy, "Modeling and optimization of short ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ co-doped fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1444-1451 (2003).
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2008 (3)

S. Wen, "Representations of relative display gamut size," J. Display Technol. 4, 18-23 (2008).

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, E. Osiac, "Upconversion emission of ${\hbox{RE}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{Sc}}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}$ ceramic under 800 nm pumping," Opt. Mater. (2008).

F. Wang, X. Liu, "Up-conversion multicolor fine-tuning: Visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped ${\hbox{NaYF}}_{4}$ nanoparticles," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 130, 5642-5642 (2008).

2007 (3)

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebische, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, "Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon up conversion," Opt. Mat. 27, 1111-1130 (2007).

L. Huang, G. Qin, Y. Arai, R. Jose, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohis, T. Yamashita, Y. Akimoto, "Crystallization kinetics and spectroscopic investigations on ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ and ${\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped glass ceramics containing ${\hbox{CaF}}_{2}$ nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093506-093506 (2007).

J. Wang, S. Bo, L. Song, J. Hu, X. Liu, Z. Zhen, "One-step synthesis of highly water-soluble ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}:{\hbox{Ln}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals in methanol without using any ligands," Nanotechnol. 18, 465605-465605 (2007).

2006 (5)

D. Ananias, L. de Carlos, J. Rocha, "Unusual full-colour phosphors: ${\hbox{Na}}_{3}\ln \hbox{-}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Si}}_{3}{\hbox{O}}_{9}$," Opt. Mater. 28, 582-586 (2006).

C.-J. Duan, H.-H. Chen, X.-X. Yang, J.-T. Zhao, "Luminescence properties of ${\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$, ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ or ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ activated ${\hbox{Ca}}_{4}{\hbox{GdO}}({\hbox{BO}}_{3})_{3}$ under X-ray and UV excitation," Opt. Mater. 28, 956-961 (2006).

J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, J. Ballato, "White light emissions through down-conversion of rare-earth doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles," Opt. Expr. 14, 11412-11417 (2006).

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, "High-brightness white-light source based on up-conversion phosphors," J. Display Technol. 2, 307-311 (2006).

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Takashi, K. Sakuma, "Highly efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated with short-wavelength yellow oxynitride phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101104-101104 (2006).

2005 (4)

M. S. Shur, A. Žukauskas, "Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination," Proc. IEEE 93, 1691-1703 (2005).

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

G.-S. Yi, G.-M. Chow, "Colloidal ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$: Yb, Er, ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$: Yb, Ho and ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$: Yb, Tm nano-crystals with multicolor up-conversion fluorescence," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 15, 4460-4464 (2005).

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, M. Raudsepp, "Bright white light through up-conversion of a single NIR source from Sol-Gel derived thin film made with $\ln ^{3+}$-doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).

2004 (5)

E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, B. Sordo, "Thulium-doped telluride fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777-779 (2004).

L. Huang, A. Jha, S. Shen, X. Liu, "Broadband emission in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite fibre," Opt. Expr. 12, 2429-2434 (2004).

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, G. C. Kim, "Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color ${\hbox{Ba}}_{3}{\hbox{MgSi}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{8}:{\hbox{Eu}}^{2+}$, ${\hbox{Mn}}^{2+}$ phosphor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2931-2933 (2004).

J. H. Park, A. J. Steckl, "Laser action in Eu-doped GaN thin-film cavity at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4588-4588 (2004).

J. W. Stouwdam, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Improvement in the luminescence properties and process ability of ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}/\ln $ and ${\hbox{LaPO}}_{4}/\ln $ nanoparticles by surface modification," Langmuir 20, 11763-11771 (2004).

2003 (2)

H. Jeong, K. Oh, S. R. Han, T. F. Morse, "Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ co-doped silica fiber," Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507-512 (2003).

E. Yahel, A. A. Hendy, "Modeling and optimization of short ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ co-doped fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1444-1451 (2003).

2002 (4)

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Nataly, "Telluride glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-95 (2002).

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, T. Ono, "1.49-$\mu$m-band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier for WDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1826-1838 (2002).

W. B. Lozano, C. B. de Araujo, Y. Messaddeq, "Enhanced frequency up-conversion in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 311, 318-323 (2002).

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Zhou, Z. Wu, Z. Zhang, W. Liu, H. Dang, "Study on an antiwear and extreme pressure additive of surface coated ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles in liquid paraffin," Wear 249, 333-337 (2001).

1999 (1)

C. Jiang, F. Gan, J. Zhang, P. Deng, G. Huang, "Yb: Borate glass with high emission cross section," J. Solid State Chem. 144, 449-453 (1999).

1998 (1)

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, C. Ronda, "New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 3084-3103 (1998).

1997 (3)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, B. Viana, P. Aschehoug, "Relaxation, dynamics of excited states of ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{SrGdGa}}_{3}{\rm O}_{7}$ crystals activated with ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ and ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$," Appl. Phys. B 64, 525-529 (1997).

M. Karásek, "Optimum design of ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}/{\rm Yb}^{3+}$ codoped fibers for large-signal high-pump-power applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1699-1705 (1997).

M. Karasek, "Optimum design of ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped fibers for large-signal high-pump-power applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1699-1705 (1997).

1995 (3)

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, T. Hanada, "Mechanisms and concentration dependence of ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ blue and ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ green up-conversion in co-doped glasses by red-laser pumping," J. Lumin. 65, 247-253 (1995).

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, H. Toratani, "Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$, ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses," J. Non-Cryst.Solids 181, 100-110 (1995).

B. C. Joshi, "Enhanced ${\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ emission by non-radiative energy transfer from ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ in zinc phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180, 217-220 (1995).

1994 (2)

R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, "Highly efficient 1.064 $\mu {\hbox{m}}$ upconversion pumped 1.47 $\mu {\hbox{m}}$ thulium doped fluoride fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 30, 1684-1685 (1994).

F. de Pasquale, M. Federighi, "Improved gain characteristics in high concentration ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}/{\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped glass waveguide amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2127-2131 (1994).

1989 (1)

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, M. J. Suscavage, "Energy transfer between ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ and ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass," Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, C. Ronda, "New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 3084-3103 (1998).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Berkowski, B. Viana, P. Aschehoug, "Relaxation, dynamics of excited states of ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{SrGdGa}}_{3}{\rm O}_{7}$ crystals activated with ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ and ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$," Appl. Phys. B 64, 525-529 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. H. Park, A. J. Steckl, "Laser action in Eu-doped GaN thin-film cavity at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4588-4588 (2004).

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, G. C. Kim, "Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color ${\hbox{Ba}}_{3}{\hbox{MgSi}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{8}:{\hbox{Eu}}^{2+}$, ${\hbox{Mn}}^{2+}$ phosphor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2931-2933 (2004).

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Takashi, K. Sakuma, "Highly efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated with short-wavelength yellow oxynitride phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101104-101104 (2006).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Jeong, K. Oh, S. R. Han, T. F. Morse, "Characterization of broadband amplified spontaneous emission from a ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ co-doped silica fiber," Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 507-512 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, "Highly efficient 1.064 $\mu {\hbox{m}}$ upconversion pumped 1.47 $\mu {\hbox{m}}$ thulium doped fluoride fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 30, 1684-1685 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

M. Karásek, "Optimum design of ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}/{\rm Yb}^{3+}$ codoped fibers for large-signal high-pump-power applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1699-1705 (1997).

F. de Pasquale, M. Federighi, "Improved gain characteristics in high concentration ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}/{\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped glass waveguide amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2127-2131 (1994).

M. Karasek, "Optimum design of ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped fibers for large-signal high-pump-power applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1699-1705 (1997).

E. Yahel, A. A. Hendy, "Modeling and optimization of short ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ co-doped fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1444-1451 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, B. Sordo, "Thulium-doped telluride fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777-779 (2004).

J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Nataly, "Telluride glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-95 (2002).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (3)

G.-S. Yi, G.-M. Chow, "Colloidal ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$: Yb, Er, ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$: Yb, Ho and ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$: Yb, Tm nano-crystals with multicolor up-conversion fluorescence," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 15, 4460-4464 (2005).

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, M. Raudsepp, "Bright white light through up-conversion of a single NIR source from Sol-Gel derived thin film made with $\ln ^{3+}$-doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).

F. Wang, X. Liu, "Up-conversion multicolor fine-tuning: Visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped ${\hbox{NaYF}}_{4}$ nanoparticles," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 130, 5642-5642 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Huang, G. Qin, Y. Arai, R. Jose, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohis, T. Yamashita, Y. Akimoto, "Crystallization kinetics and spectroscopic investigations on ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ and ${\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped glass ceramics containing ${\hbox{CaF}}_{2}$ nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093506-093506 (2007).

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, T. Ono, "1.49-$\mu$m-band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier for WDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1826-1838 (2002).

J. Lumin. (1)

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, T. Hanada, "Mechanisms and concentration dependence of ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ blue and ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ green up-conversion in co-doped glasses by red-laser pumping," J. Lumin. 65, 247-253 (1995).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

B. C. Joshi, "Enhanced ${\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ emission by non-radiative energy transfer from ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ in zinc phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180, 217-220 (1995).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids. (1)

W. B. Lozano, C. B. de Araujo, Y. Messaddeq, "Enhanced frequency up-conversion in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 311, 318-323 (2002).

J. Non-Cryst.Solids (1)

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, H. Toratani, "Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$, ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses," J. Non-Cryst.Solids 181, 100-110 (1995).

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

C. Jiang, F. Gan, J. Zhang, P. Deng, G. Huang, "Yb: Borate glass with high emission cross section," J. Solid State Chem. 144, 449-453 (1999).

Langmuir (1)

J. W. Stouwdam, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Improvement in the luminescence properties and process ability of ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}/\ln $ and ${\hbox{LaPO}}_{4}/\ln $ nanoparticles by surface modification," Langmuir 20, 11763-11771 (2004).

Nanotechnol. (1)

J. Wang, S. Bo, L. Song, J. Hu, X. Liu, Z. Zhen, "One-step synthesis of highly water-soluble ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}:{\hbox{Ln}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals in methanol without using any ligands," Nanotechnol. 18, 465605-465605 (2007).

Opt. Expr. (2)

L. Huang, A. Jha, S. Shen, X. Liu, "Broadband emission in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite fibre," Opt. Expr. 12, 2429-2434 (2004).

J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, J. Ballato, "White light emissions through down-conversion of rare-earth doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles," Opt. Expr. 14, 11412-11417 (2006).

Opt. Mat. (1)

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebische, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, H. U. Güdel, "Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon up conversion," Opt. Mat. 27, 1111-1130 (2007).

Opt. Mater. (3)

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, E. Osiac, "Upconversion emission of ${\hbox{RE}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{Sc}}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}$ ceramic under 800 nm pumping," Opt. Mater. (2008).

D. Ananias, L. de Carlos, J. Rocha, "Unusual full-colour phosphors: ${\hbox{Na}}_{3}\ln \hbox{-}\hbox{-}{\hbox{Si}}_{3}{\hbox{O}}_{9}$," Opt. Mater. 28, 582-586 (2006).

C.-J. Duan, H.-H. Chen, X.-X. Yang, J.-T. Zhao, "Luminescence properties of ${\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$, ${\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ or ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ activated ${\hbox{Ca}}_{4}{\hbox{GdO}}({\hbox{BO}}_{3})_{3}$ under X-ray and UV excitation," Opt. Mater. 28, 956-961 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, M. J. Suscavage, "Energy transfer between ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$ and ${\hbox{Tm}}^{3+}$ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass," Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. S. Shur, A. Žukauskas, "Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination," Proc. IEEE 93, 1691-1703 (2005).

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

Wear (1)

J. Zhou, Z. Wu, Z. Zhang, W. Liu, H. Dang, "Study on an antiwear and extreme pressure additive of surface coated ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles in liquid paraffin," Wear 249, 333-337 (2001).

Other (1)

F. X. Gan, Optical and Spectroscopic Properties of Glasses (Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1992) pp. 245-246.

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