Abstract

In general, a guest dopant is doped into a single host matrix for white-light emission with two complementary colors. In this work, however, we have fabricated a white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) based on dual partial dye doping in which a guest dopant is partially doped into two different host emitters; namely, orange-red emitting 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-($p$-dimethylaminostyryl)-$4H$-pyran (DCM) is partially doped into both blue-emitting 4, $4^{\prime}$-bis(2,$2^{\prime}$-diphenylvinyl)-1,$1^{\prime}$-biphenyl (DPVBi) and green-emitting Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum $({\hbox{Alq}}_{3})$. We demonstrate that dual partial dye doping allows us to finely tune the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates to the equienergy white point $(x=0.33, y=0.33)$. In addition, it enhances device performance further, compared to WOLEDs based on DCM partially doped into a single host matrix (either DPVBi or ${\hbox{Alq}}_{3}$). Moreover, the dual partial doping scheme is shown to provide a way of suppressing the self-quenching effect (singlet-singlet annihilation). For a systematic study, we have implemented a comprehensive numerical model and performed simulations of the OLED structure, providing a clear understanding with regard to the underlying physics of OLEDs. We also carry out an investigation of the effects of key design parameters such as the doped layer position and thickness and dye concentration on the electroluminescence property of WOLEDs.

© 2007 IEEE

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2007 (1)

C.-C. Lee, M.-Y. Chang, P.-T. Huang, Y. C. Chen, Y. Chang, S.-W. Liu, "Electrical and optical simulation of organic light-emitting devices with fluorescent dopant in the emitting layer," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 114501-1-114501-11 (2007).

2006 (8)

H. Kanno, N. C. Giebink, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Stacked white organic light-emitting devices based on a combination of fluorescent and phosphorescent emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023503-1-023503-3 (2006).

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Ma, "Improved efficiency for white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphor sensitized fluorescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083512-1-083512-3 (2006).

H. Kanno, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting device based on a compound fluorescent-phosphor-sensitized-fluorescent emission layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143516-1-143516-3 (2006).

G. Schwartz, K. Fehse, M. Pfeiffer, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Highly efficient white organic light emitting diodes comprising an interlayer to separate fluorescent and phosphorescent regions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 083509-1-083509-3 (2006).

S.-H. Yang, M.-H. Liu, Y.-K. Su, "Stable and highly bright with organic light-emitting diode based on 4, $4^{\prime}$, $4^{\prime\prime}$-tris(n-3-methylphenyl-n-phenyl-amino)-triphenylamine," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083111-1-083111-4 (2006).

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M.-C. Castex, D. Adés, A. Siove, B. Geffroy, "White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 183513-1-183513-3 (2006).

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).

J. W. Park, Y. Kawakami, "Temperature-Dependent dynamic behaviors of organic light-emitting diode," J Display Technol 2, 333-340 (2006).

2005 (1)

H. Nakanotani, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, "Singlet-singlet and singlet-heat annihilations in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes under steady-state high current density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 213506-1-213506-3 (2005).

2003 (3)

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. Ma, S. T. Lee, "White organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224-4226 (2003).

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, W. Riess, "Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 723-731 (2003).

G. Li, J. Shinar, "Combinatorial fabrication and studies of bright white organic light-emitting devices based on emission from rubrene-doped 4, $4^{\prime}$-bis(2, $2^{\prime}$-diphenylvinyl)-1, $1^{\prime}$-biphenyl," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5359-5361 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. O. Cheon, J. Shinar, "Bright white small molecular organic light-emitting devices based on a red-emitting guest-host layer and blue-emitting 4, $4^{\prime}$-bis(2, $2^{\prime}$-diphenylvinyl)-1, $1^{\prime}$-biphenyl," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1738-1740 (2002).

2001 (1)

B. Ruhstaller, S. A. Carter, S. Barth, H. Riel, W. Riess, J. C. Scott, "Transient and steady-state behaviour of space charges in multilayer organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4575-4586 (2001).

1999 (4)

J. M. Lupton, I. D. W. Samuel, "Temperature-dependent single carrier device model for polymeric light emitting diodes," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 2973-2984 (1999).

G. G. Malliaras, J. C. Scott, "Numerical simulations of the electrical characteristics and the efficiencies of single-layer organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7426-7432 (1999).

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, "White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888-890 (1999).

J. Staudigel, M. Stößel, F. Steuber, J. Simmerer, "A quantitative numerical model of multilayer vapour-deposited organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3895-3910 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. G. Malliaras, J. C. Scott, "The roles of injection and mobility in organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5399-5403 (1998).

1997 (1)

P. W. M. Blom, M. J. M. de Jong, S. Breedijk, "Temperature dependent electron-hole recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 930-932 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. W. M. Blom, M. J. M. de Jong, S. Breedijk, "Temperature dependent electron-hole recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 930-932 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

H. Nakanotani, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, "Singlet-singlet and singlet-heat annihilations in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes under steady-state high current density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 213506-1-213506-3 (2005).

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. Ma, S. T. Lee, "White organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224-4226 (2003).

H. Kanno, N. C. Giebink, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Stacked white organic light-emitting devices based on a combination of fluorescent and phosphorescent emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023503-1-023503-3 (2006).

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Ma, "Improved efficiency for white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphor sensitized fluorescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083512-1-083512-3 (2006).

H. Kanno, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting device based on a compound fluorescent-phosphor-sensitized-fluorescent emission layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143516-1-143516-3 (2006).

G. Schwartz, K. Fehse, M. Pfeiffer, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Highly efficient white organic light emitting diodes comprising an interlayer to separate fluorescent and phosphorescent regions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 083509-1-083509-3 (2006).

G. Li, J. Shinar, "Combinatorial fabrication and studies of bright white organic light-emitting devices based on emission from rubrene-doped 4, $4^{\prime}$-bis(2, $2^{\prime}$-diphenylvinyl)-1, $1^{\prime}$-biphenyl," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5359-5361 (2003).

K. O. Cheon, J. Shinar, "Bright white small molecular organic light-emitting devices based on a red-emitting guest-host layer and blue-emitting 4, $4^{\prime}$-bis(2, $2^{\prime}$-diphenylvinyl)-1, $1^{\prime}$-biphenyl," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1738-1740 (2002).

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, "White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888-890 (1999).

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M.-C. Castex, D. Adés, A. Siove, B. Geffroy, "White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 183513-1-183513-3 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, W. Riess, "Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 723-731 (2003).

J Display Technol (1)

J. W. Park, Y. Kawakami, "Temperature-Dependent dynamic behaviors of organic light-emitting diode," J Display Technol 2, 333-340 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. G. Malliaras, J. C. Scott, "The roles of injection and mobility in organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5399-5403 (1998).

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

G. G. Malliaras, J. C. Scott, "Numerical simulations of the electrical characteristics and the efficiencies of single-layer organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7426-7432 (1999).

J. Staudigel, M. Stößel, F. Steuber, J. Simmerer, "A quantitative numerical model of multilayer vapour-deposited organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3895-3910 (1999).

B. Ruhstaller, S. A. Carter, S. Barth, H. Riel, W. Riess, J. C. Scott, "Transient and steady-state behaviour of space charges in multilayer organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4575-4586 (2001).

S.-H. Yang, M.-H. Liu, Y.-K. Su, "Stable and highly bright with organic light-emitting diode based on 4, $4^{\prime}$, $4^{\prime\prime}$-tris(n-3-methylphenyl-n-phenyl-amino)-triphenylamine," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 083111-1-083111-4 (2006).

C.-C. Lee, M.-Y. Chang, P.-T. Huang, Y. C. Chen, Y. Chang, S.-W. Liu, "Electrical and optical simulation of organic light-emitting devices with fluorescent dopant in the emitting layer," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 114501-1-114501-11 (2007).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

J. M. Lupton, I. D. W. Samuel, "Temperature-dependent single carrier device model for polymeric light emitting diodes," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 2973-2984 (1999).

Nature (1)

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).

Other (2)

J. Shinar, Organic Light-Emitting Devices: A Survey (AIP press, 2004).

J. Kalinowski, Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Principles, Characteristics, and Processes (Marcel Dekker, 2005).

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