Abstract

The full-fledge development for liquid-crystal display (LCD) technologies began aiming to achieve a “wall-mounting TV” in the 1960s. Since then, it has been more than 30 years from the birth of LCD product, the market of LCDs has grown above 10 billion dollars, and in the future, it is expected to further expand at a fast pace. The driving force in the current marketplace will be the original goal, “LCD TVs,” which contribute to drastically improving display performance of LCD and the evolution of LCDs. This paper, therefore, will focus on the LCD-TVs, and describe their history, the state-of-the-art of the technologies, as well as the prospect of their potential in the future.

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  38. P. J. Bos, P. A. Johnson, K. R. Koehler-Beran, SID'83 Dig. (1983) pp. 30.
  39. T. Miyashita, P. Vetter, M. Suzuki, Y. Yagauchi, T. Uchida, "Wide viewing angle display made for active matrix LCD using bend alignment liquid crystal cell," Proc. Eurodisplay'93 (1993) pp. 149.
  40. S.-T. Wu, C.-S. Wu, "High speed nematic liquid crystal modulators," Proc. 3rd Int. Topical Meeting Opt. LCs (1990) pp. 1.
  41. Y. Noyori, H. Washio, Y. Shimodaira, T. Muraoka, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ishii, "Subjective evaluation of quality of moving pictures on a TFT-liquid crystal display," Proc. IDRC'94 (1994) pp. 329.
  42. T. Krita, A. Saito, I. Yuyama, "Consideration on perceived MTF of hold type display for moving images," Proc. IDW'98 (1998) pp. 823.
  43. Y. Shimodaira, M. Takahashi, T. Muraoka, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ishii, M. Matsuura, "A proposal for defining maximum viewing angles of TFT-LCDs based on subjective evaluation of picture quality," SID'94 Dig. (1994) pp. 337.
  44. T. Hatada, "Induced effect of direction sensation and display size," JITEJ 33, 407 (1979).
  45. S. Kubota, A. Shimada, S. Okada, Y. Nakamura, E. Kido, "Television viewing conditions at home," JITEJ 597 (2006).
  46. T. Fujine, Y. Kikuchi, M. Sugino, Y. Yoshida, "Real-life in-home viewing conditions for FPDs and statistical characteristics of broadcast video signal," Proc. AM-FPD'06 (2006) pp. 85.
  47. C.-H. Oh, "LCD technologies for TV application," Proc. FPD Int. 2006 Forum (2006) pp. C-6.
  48. Y. Hibino, N. Nagashima, F. Shimoshikiryoh, "Development of high quality 65-in. LCD-TV," Proc. AM-LCD'05 (2005) pp. 103.
  49. S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, T. Kim, "Advancements for highest-performance LCD-TV," SID 06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1938.
  50. M. Tai, M. Chang, C. Liu, Y. Chang, M. Wang, "MVA-LCD with low color shift and high image quality," SID'07 Dig. (2007) pp. 1007.
  51. Y. Huang, "Additional Refresh Technology (ART) of Advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs," SID'07 Dig. (2007) pp. 1010.
  52. N. Kimura, "New technologies for large-sized high-quality LCD TV," SID'05 Dig. (2005) pp. 1734.
  53. Y. Yamada, K. Kimura, Y. Ishii, "Technology trend for high quality display image of LC-TV," Proc. IDW/AD (2005) pp. 227.

2006 (1)

S. Kubota, A. Shimada, S. Okada, Y. Nakamura, E. Kido, "Television viewing conditions at home," JITEJ 597 (2006).

1993 (1)

Y. Toko, T. Sugiyama, K. Katoh, Y. Iimura, S. Kobayashi, "Amorphous twisted nematic-liquid-crystal displays fabricated by nonrubbing showing wide and uniform viewing-angle characteristics accompanying excellent voltage holding ratios," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2071 (1993).

1979 (2)

T. Hatada, "Induced effect of direction sensation and display size," JITEJ 33, 407 (1979).

P. G. LeComber, W. E. Spear, A. Ghaith, "Amorphous-silicon field-effect device and possible application," Electron Lett. 15, 179 (1979).

1976 (1)

A. G. Fischer, Microelectronics 7, 5 (1976).

1975 (2)

T. P. Brody, F. C. Luo, Z. P. Szepesi, D. H. Davies, "A 6 $\times$ 6-in. 20-lpi electroluminescent display panel," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-22, 739-748 (1975).

W. E. Spear, P. G. LeComber, Solid State Commun. 17, 1193 (1975).

1971 (2)

B. J. Lechner, F. J. Marlowe, E. O. Nester, J. Tults, "Liquid crystal matrix displays," Proc. IEEE 59, 1566 (1971).

M. F. Schiekel, K. Fahrenschon, "Name of article??," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 391 (1971).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. F. Schiekel, K. Fahrenschon, "Name of article??," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 391 (1971).

Electron Lett. (1)

P. G. LeComber, W. E. Spear, A. Ghaith, "Amorphous-silicon field-effect device and possible application," Electron Lett. 15, 179 (1979).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

T. P. Brody, F. C. Luo, Z. P. Szepesi, D. H. Davies, "A 6 $\times$ 6-in. 20-lpi electroluminescent display panel," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-22, 739-748 (1975).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Toko, T. Sugiyama, K. Katoh, Y. Iimura, S. Kobayashi, "Amorphous twisted nematic-liquid-crystal displays fabricated by nonrubbing showing wide and uniform viewing-angle characteristics accompanying excellent voltage holding ratios," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2071 (1993).

JITEJ (1)

T. Hatada, "Induced effect of direction sensation and display size," JITEJ 33, 407 (1979).

JITEJ (1)

S. Kubota, A. Shimada, S. Okada, Y. Nakamura, E. Kido, "Television viewing conditions at home," JITEJ 597 (2006).

Microelectronics (1)

A. G. Fischer, Microelectronics 7, 5 (1976).

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. J. Lechner, F. J. Marlowe, E. O. Nester, J. Tults, "Liquid crystal matrix displays," Proc. IEEE 59, 1566 (1971).

Solid State Commun. (1)

W. E. Spear, P. G. LeComber, Solid State Commun. 17, 1193 (1975).

Other (44)

Y. Koike, T. Kamada, K. Okamoto, M. Ohashi, I. Tomita, M. Okabe, "A full-color TFT-LCD with a domain-divided twisted-nematic structure," SID'92 Dig. (1992) pp. 798.

A. Lien, R. A. John, "Two-domain TN-LCDs fabricated by parallel fringe field method," SID'93 Dig. (1993) pp. 269.

R. Kiefer, B. Weber, F. Windscheid, G. Baur, "Plane switching of nematic liquid crystals," Proc. Japan Display'92 (1992) pp. 547.

M. Ohta, M. Oh-e, K. Kondo, "Development of super-TFT-LCDs with in-plane switching display mode," Proc. Asia Display'95 (1995) pp. 707.

S. Endoh, M. Ohta, K. Kondo, Proc. IDW'99 (1999) pp. 187.

L. S. Lee, S. Lee, H. Y. Kim, "High-transmittance, wide-viewing-angle nematic liquid crystal display controlled by fringe field switching," Proc. Asia Display'98 (1998) pp. 371.

A. G. Fischer, "Design of a liquid crystal color TV panel," Proc. IEEE Conf. on Display Devices Dig. (1972) pp. 64.

, "RCA announces breakthrough in liquid crystal field; Demonstrates thin-screen displays of print, pictures, moving images," RCA Press Conf. New York (1968).

B. J. Lechner, "Liquid crystal matrix displays," 1969 Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig., Tech.Papers (1969) pp. 52.

F. Luo, W. A. Hester, T. P. Brody, "Alphanumeric and video performance of a $6^{\prime\prime}\times 6^{\prime\prime}$ 30 lines-per-inch thin-film transistor-liquid crystal display panel," SID 78 Dig. (1978) pp. 94.

L. T. Lipton, "Liquid crystal matrix displays for video applications," Proc. SID 14/4(Forth Quarter) (1973) pp. 127.

D. E. Castleberry, "Varistor-controlled liquid-crystal displays," Proc. SID 20/5 (1979) pp. 197.

D. R. Baraff, "The optimization of metal-insulator-metal non-linear devices for use in multiplexed;liquid crystal displays," Proc. 1980 Biennial Display Res. Conf. (1980) pp. 107.

A. J. Snell, K. D. Mackenzie, W. E. Spear, P. G. LeComber, A. J. Hughes, Proc. ESS-DERC '80 Europhysics Conf. (1980) pp. 99.

E. Kaneko, H. Kawakami, H. Hanmura, "Liquid crystal television display," SID'78 Dig. (1978) pp. 92.

T. Uchida, European Display Conf. (1981) pp. 39.

S. Morozumi, K. Oguchi, S. Yazawa, T. Kodaira, H. Oshima, T. Mano, SID'83 Dig. (1983) pp. 156.

S. Nagata, T. Ogawa, K. Adachi, S. Hotta, M. Yoshiyama, "Twisted-nematic full-color display panel with reduced rotatory dispersion," SID'85 Dig. (1985) pp. 84.

Y. Ishii, Y. Takafuji, K. Yano, H. Take, F. Funada, M. Matsuura, T. Wada, "High-performance a-Si TFT array for liquid-crystal display device," SID'85 Dig. (1985) pp. 295.

F. Funada, Y. Takafuji, K. Yano, H. Take, M. Matsuura, "An amorphous-Si TFT addressed 3.2-in. full-color LCD," SID'86 Dig. (1986) pp. 293.

T. Nagayasu, T. Oketani, T. Hirobe, H. Kato, S. Mizushima, H. Take, K. Yano, M. Hijikigawa, I. Washizuka, "A 14-in. diagonal full-color a-Si TFT LCD," Proc. 1988 Int. Display Res. Conf. (1988) pp. 56.

D. E. Castleberry, G. E. Possin, "A 1 mega-pixel color a-Si TFT liquid-crystal display," SID 88 Dig. (1988) pp. 232.

H. Mori, Y. Itoh, Y. Nishiura, T. Nakamura, Y. Shinagawa, "Optical performance of a novel compensation film for wide-viewing-angle TN-LCDs," Proc. AM-LCD'96 (1996) pp. 189.

T. Fujine, Y. Kikuchi, M. Sugino, Y. Yoshida, "Real-life in-home viewing conditions for FPDs and statistical characteristics of broadcast video signal," Proc. AM-FPD'06 (2006) pp. 85.

C.-H. Oh, "LCD technologies for TV application," Proc. FPD Int. 2006 Forum (2006) pp. C-6.

Y. Hibino, N. Nagashima, F. Shimoshikiryoh, "Development of high quality 65-in. LCD-TV," Proc. AM-LCD'05 (2005) pp. 103.

S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, T. Kim, "Advancements for highest-performance LCD-TV," SID 06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1938.

M. Tai, M. Chang, C. Liu, Y. Chang, M. Wang, "MVA-LCD with low color shift and high image quality," SID'07 Dig. (2007) pp. 1007.

Y. Huang, "Additional Refresh Technology (ART) of Advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs," SID'07 Dig. (2007) pp. 1010.

N. Kimura, "New technologies for large-sized high-quality LCD TV," SID'05 Dig. (2005) pp. 1734.

Y. Yamada, K. Kimura, Y. Ishii, "Technology trend for high quality display image of LC-TV," Proc. IDW/AD (2005) pp. 227.

N. Koma, Y. Baba, K. Matsuoka, "No-rub muti-domain TFT-LCD using surrounding-electrode method," SID'95 Dig. (1995) pp. 869.

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. Kim, J. H. Souk, "Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect," Proc. Asia Display'98 (1998) pp. 383.

Y. Koike, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, A. Takeda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, "A vertically aligned LCD providing super-high image quality," Proc. IDW'97 (1997) pp. 159.

Y. Kume, N. Yamada, S. Kozaki, H. Kisisita, F. Funada, H. M. Hijikigawa, "Advanced ASM mode: Improvement of display performance by using a negative-dielectric liquid crystal," SID'98 Dig. (1998) pp. 1089.

N. Yamada, K. Himejima, T. Akai, H. Uede, M. Imai, K. Endo, T. Kakizaki, R. van Gelder, C. van Winsum, "A 42-in. PALC display with wide-viewing-angle using ASM mode," SID'98 Dig. (1998) pp. 203.

M. Kubo, A. Yamamoto, K. Ogishima, T. Ochi, K. Miyachi, T. Shinomiya, S. Mizushima, "Development of high performance ASV-LCDs using continuous pinwheel alignment(CPA) mode," Proc. AM-LCD'01 (2001) pp. 101.

Y. Ishii, M. Mizushima, M. Hijikigawa, "High performance TFT-LCD for AVC applications," SID'01 Dig. (2001) pp. 1090.

P. J. Bos, P. A. Johnson, K. R. Koehler-Beran, SID'83 Dig. (1983) pp. 30.

T. Miyashita, P. Vetter, M. Suzuki, Y. Yagauchi, T. Uchida, "Wide viewing angle display made for active matrix LCD using bend alignment liquid crystal cell," Proc. Eurodisplay'93 (1993) pp. 149.

S.-T. Wu, C.-S. Wu, "High speed nematic liquid crystal modulators," Proc. 3rd Int. Topical Meeting Opt. LCs (1990) pp. 1.

Y. Noyori, H. Washio, Y. Shimodaira, T. Muraoka, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ishii, "Subjective evaluation of quality of moving pictures on a TFT-liquid crystal display," Proc. IDRC'94 (1994) pp. 329.

T. Krita, A. Saito, I. Yuyama, "Consideration on perceived MTF of hold type display for moving images," Proc. IDW'98 (1998) pp. 823.

Y. Shimodaira, M. Takahashi, T. Muraoka, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ishii, M. Matsuura, "A proposal for defining maximum viewing angles of TFT-LCDs based on subjective evaluation of picture quality," SID'94 Dig. (1994) pp. 337.

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