Abstract

Intrinsic grayscale generation and stabilization in ferroelectric liquid crystal display (FLCD) have been proposed and investigated. Study of the FLC samples shows that the switching process takes place through the formation and evolutions of domains formation. Dynamic current and electrooptical response in FLC testing cell are discussed as a criterion of memorized grayscale generation for FLC display. Grayscale stability for different crosstalk effects under a passive multiplex driving scheme is demonstrated. Passive 160 × 160 multiplex addressing photo-aligned 5-μm reflective FLCD with a high contrast and four memorized grayscale levels is developed.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, "Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899-901 (1980).
  2. V. G. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech House, 1999).
  3. S. T. Lagerwall, "Ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics 301, 15-45 (2004).
  4. P. Bonnett, M. J. Towler, K. Kishimoto, A. Tagawa, H. Uchida, Proc. IDRC (1997) pp. L-46-L-47.
  5. A. Tagawa, P. Bonnett, T. Numao, "Driving scheme for ferroelectric liquid crystal display with multithreshold method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1675-1679 (2003).
  6. A. Tagawa, P. Bonnett, T. Numao, "Driving scheme for ferroelectric liquid crystal display with multithreshold method by thickness variation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7150-7154 (2004).
  7. S. Kobayashi, H. Furuta, Y. Murakami, J. Xu, "Fabrication and electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized V-mode FLCD and intrinsic H-V-mode FLCD: Their application to AM LCDs," Proc. SPIE 5003, 88-95 (2003).
  8. S. Kawamoto, M. Oh-Kochi, S. Kundu, H. Hasebe, H. Takatsu, S. Kobayashi, "Polymer-stabilized V-mode FLCDs and their application to color sequential fullcolor LCDs," Displays 25, 45-47 (2004).
  9. A. Fukuda, "Pretransitional effect in AF-F switching: To suppress it or to enhance it, that is my question about AFLCDs," Proc. IDRC (1995) pp. 65-68.
  10. P. Rudquist, Dig. Tech. SID Int. Symp. (1999) pp. 409-412.
  11. M. J. O'Callaghan, "Switching dynamics and surface forces in thresholdless “V-shaped” switching ferroelectric liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 67, 011710-1-011710-12 (2003).
  12. M. Copic, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, "Structure and dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystal cells exhibiting thresholdless switching," Phys. Rev. E 65, 021708-1-021708-9 (2002).
  13. L. M. Blinov, E. P. Pozhidaev, F. V. Podgornov, S. A. Pikin, S. P. Palto, A. Sinha, A. Yasuda, S. Hashimoto, W. Haase, "‘Thresholdless’ hysteresis-free switching as an apparent phenomenon of surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells," Phys. Rev. E 66, 021701-1-021701-10 (2002).
  14. L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Pozhidaev, J. Funfschilling, M. Schadt, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171-1177 (1989).
  15. S. Kaur, A. K. Thakur, R. Chauhan, S. S. Bawa, A. M. Biradar, "Bistability in deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2547-2551 (2004).
  16. A. L. Andreev, I. N. Kompanets, E. P. Pozhidaev, "Gray-scale FLC for SLM and displays," Proc. SPIE (1996) pp. 289-292.
  17. E. P. Pozhidaev, A. L. Andreev, I. N. Kompanets, Proc. 7th Int. Conf. FLC (1999) pp. 164-166.
  18. E. Pozhidaev, V. Chigrinov, X. Li, "Photoaligned ferroelectric liquid crystal passive matrix display with memorized gray scale," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 875-882 (2006).
  19. D. C. Ultrich, M. J. Cherrill, S. J. Elston, "Surface modification and the switching processes in ferroelectric liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 23, 797-802 (1997).
  20. K. H. Yang, T. C. Chieu, "Dominant factors influence the bistability of surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1599-L1601 (1989).
  21. D. D. Huang, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, H. L. Cheung, Y. L. Ho, H. S. Kwok, "Photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal displays based on azo-dye layers," Displays 25, 21-29 (2004).
  22. D. D. Huang, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, H. L. Cheung, Y. L. Ho, H. S. Kwok, "Optimization of photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal display under passively addressed driving," J. SID 12, 455-459 (2004).
  23. E. Pozhidaev, V. Chigrinov, D. D. Huang, A. Zhukov, J. Ho, H. S. Kwok, "Photoalignment of ferroelectric liquid crystals by azodye layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5440-5446 (2004).
  24. H. Furue, Y. Iimura, Y. Miyamoto, H. Endoh, H. Fukuro, S. Kobayashi, "Fabrication of a zigzag defect-free surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display using polyimide orientation film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3417-3421 (1998).
  25. R. Kurihara, H. Furue, T. Takahashi, T. Yamashita, J. Xu, S. Kobayashi, "Fabrication of defect-free ferroelectric liquid crystal displays using photoalignment and their electrooptic performance," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4622-4625 (2001).
  26. S. T. Lagerwall, Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 1999) pp. 180.
  27. S. A. Pikin, Relaxation Phenomena (Springer, 2003) pp. 274-309.
  28. A. I. Allagulov, V. G. Chigrinov, S. A. Pikin, Sov. Phys.—Crystallogr. 36, 870-872 (1991).

2006 (1)

E. Pozhidaev, V. Chigrinov, X. Li, "Photoaligned ferroelectric liquid crystal passive matrix display with memorized gray scale," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 875-882 (2006).

2004 (7)

S. Kaur, A. K. Thakur, R. Chauhan, S. S. Bawa, A. M. Biradar, "Bistability in deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2547-2551 (2004).

D. D. Huang, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, H. L. Cheung, Y. L. Ho, H. S. Kwok, "Photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal displays based on azo-dye layers," Displays 25, 21-29 (2004).

D. D. Huang, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, H. L. Cheung, Y. L. Ho, H. S. Kwok, "Optimization of photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal display under passively addressed driving," J. SID 12, 455-459 (2004).

E. Pozhidaev, V. Chigrinov, D. D. Huang, A. Zhukov, J. Ho, H. S. Kwok, "Photoalignment of ferroelectric liquid crystals by azodye layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5440-5446 (2004).

S. T. Lagerwall, "Ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics 301, 15-45 (2004).

A. Tagawa, P. Bonnett, T. Numao, "Driving scheme for ferroelectric liquid crystal display with multithreshold method by thickness variation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7150-7154 (2004).

S. Kawamoto, M. Oh-Kochi, S. Kundu, H. Hasebe, H. Takatsu, S. Kobayashi, "Polymer-stabilized V-mode FLCDs and their application to color sequential fullcolor LCDs," Displays 25, 45-47 (2004).

2003 (3)

M. J. O'Callaghan, "Switching dynamics and surface forces in thresholdless “V-shaped” switching ferroelectric liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 67, 011710-1-011710-12 (2003).

S. Kobayashi, H. Furuta, Y. Murakami, J. Xu, "Fabrication and electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized V-mode FLCD and intrinsic H-V-mode FLCD: Their application to AM LCDs," Proc. SPIE 5003, 88-95 (2003).

A. Tagawa, P. Bonnett, T. Numao, "Driving scheme for ferroelectric liquid crystal display with multithreshold method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1675-1679 (2003).

2002 (2)

M. Copic, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, "Structure and dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystal cells exhibiting thresholdless switching," Phys. Rev. E 65, 021708-1-021708-9 (2002).

L. M. Blinov, E. P. Pozhidaev, F. V. Podgornov, S. A. Pikin, S. P. Palto, A. Sinha, A. Yasuda, S. Hashimoto, W. Haase, "‘Thresholdless’ hysteresis-free switching as an apparent phenomenon of surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells," Phys. Rev. E 66, 021701-1-021701-10 (2002).

2001 (1)

R. Kurihara, H. Furue, T. Takahashi, T. Yamashita, J. Xu, S. Kobayashi, "Fabrication of defect-free ferroelectric liquid crystal displays using photoalignment and their electrooptic performance," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4622-4625 (2001).

1998 (1)

H. Furue, Y. Iimura, Y. Miyamoto, H. Endoh, H. Fukuro, S. Kobayashi, "Fabrication of a zigzag defect-free surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display using polyimide orientation film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3417-3421 (1998).

1997 (1)

D. C. Ultrich, M. J. Cherrill, S. J. Elston, "Surface modification and the switching processes in ferroelectric liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 23, 797-802 (1997).

1991 (1)

A. I. Allagulov, V. G. Chigrinov, S. A. Pikin, Sov. Phys.—Crystallogr. 36, 870-872 (1991).

1989 (2)

K. H. Yang, T. C. Chieu, "Dominant factors influence the bistability of surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1599-L1601 (1989).

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Pozhidaev, J. Funfschilling, M. Schadt, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171-1177 (1989).

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, "Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899-901 (1980).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, "Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899-901 (1980).

Displays (2)

S. Kawamoto, M. Oh-Kochi, S. Kundu, H. Hasebe, H. Takatsu, S. Kobayashi, "Polymer-stabilized V-mode FLCDs and their application to color sequential fullcolor LCDs," Displays 25, 45-47 (2004).

D. D. Huang, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, H. L. Cheung, Y. L. Ho, H. S. Kwok, "Photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal displays based on azo-dye layers," Displays 25, 21-29 (2004).

Ferroelectrics (1)

S. T. Lagerwall, "Ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics 301, 15-45 (2004).

J. SID (1)

D. D. Huang, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, H. L. Cheung, Y. L. Ho, H. S. Kwok, "Optimization of photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal display under passively addressed driving," J. SID 12, 455-459 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Kaur, A. K. Thakur, R. Chauhan, S. S. Bawa, A. M. Biradar, "Bistability in deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2547-2551 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Tagawa, P. Bonnett, T. Numao, "Driving scheme for ferroelectric liquid crystal display with multithreshold method by thickness variation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7150-7154 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

E. Pozhidaev, V. Chigrinov, X. Li, "Photoaligned ferroelectric liquid crystal passive matrix display with memorized gray scale," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 875-882 (2006).

R. Kurihara, H. Furue, T. Takahashi, T. Yamashita, J. Xu, S. Kobayashi, "Fabrication of defect-free ferroelectric liquid crystal displays using photoalignment and their electrooptic performance," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4622-4625 (2001).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Furue, Y. Iimura, Y. Miyamoto, H. Endoh, H. Fukuro, S. Kobayashi, "Fabrication of a zigzag defect-free surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display using polyimide orientation film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3417-3421 (1998).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

E. Pozhidaev, V. Chigrinov, D. D. Huang, A. Zhukov, J. Ho, H. S. Kwok, "Photoalignment of ferroelectric liquid crystals by azodye layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5440-5446 (2004).

K. H. Yang, T. C. Chieu, "Dominant factors influence the bistability of surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1599-L1601 (1989).

A. Tagawa, P. Bonnett, T. Numao, "Driving scheme for ferroelectric liquid crystal display with multithreshold method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1675-1679 (2003).

Liq. Cryst. (2)

D. C. Ultrich, M. J. Cherrill, S. J. Elston, "Surface modification and the switching processes in ferroelectric liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 23, 797-802 (1997).

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Pozhidaev, J. Funfschilling, M. Schadt, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171-1177 (1989).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Copic, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, "Structure and dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystal cells exhibiting thresholdless switching," Phys. Rev. E 65, 021708-1-021708-9 (2002).

Phys. Rev. E (2)

L. M. Blinov, E. P. Pozhidaev, F. V. Podgornov, S. A. Pikin, S. P. Palto, A. Sinha, A. Yasuda, S. Hashimoto, W. Haase, "‘Thresholdless’ hysteresis-free switching as an apparent phenomenon of surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells," Phys. Rev. E 66, 021701-1-021701-10 (2002).

M. J. O'Callaghan, "Switching dynamics and surface forces in thresholdless “V-shaped” switching ferroelectric liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 67, 011710-1-011710-12 (2003).

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Kobayashi, H. Furuta, Y. Murakami, J. Xu, "Fabrication and electro-optic characteristics of polymer-stabilized V-mode FLCD and intrinsic H-V-mode FLCD: Their application to AM LCDs," Proc. SPIE 5003, 88-95 (2003).

Sov. Phys.—Crystallogr. (1)

A. I. Allagulov, V. G. Chigrinov, S. A. Pikin, Sov. Phys.—Crystallogr. 36, 870-872 (1991).

Other (8)

S. T. Lagerwall, Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 1999) pp. 180.

S. A. Pikin, Relaxation Phenomena (Springer, 2003) pp. 274-309.

A. Fukuda, "Pretransitional effect in AF-F switching: To suppress it or to enhance it, that is my question about AFLCDs," Proc. IDRC (1995) pp. 65-68.

P. Rudquist, Dig. Tech. SID Int. Symp. (1999) pp. 409-412.

P. Bonnett, M. J. Towler, K. Kishimoto, A. Tagawa, H. Uchida, Proc. IDRC (1997) pp. L-46-L-47.

V. G. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech House, 1999).

A. L. Andreev, I. N. Kompanets, E. P. Pozhidaev, "Gray-scale FLC for SLM and displays," Proc. SPIE (1996) pp. 289-292.

E. P. Pozhidaev, A. L. Andreev, I. N. Kompanets, Proc. 7th Int. Conf. FLC (1999) pp. 164-166.

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