Abstract

A common-path heterodyne interferometer is proposed to determine the surface anchoring energy of a homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal (LC). This technique measures, with high sensitivity, the phase retardation of a nematic LC cell as a function of the applied voltage. According to the measured voltage-dependent phase retardation of the LC cells, a simple linear fitting over a well-specified voltage window can be achieved, leading to a precise determination of the polar anchoring energy. The anchoring energy W<sub>a</sub>, cell gap, and pretilt angle can be simultaneously obtained in the course of the same experiment.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. H. Yokoyama, H. A. Van Sprang, "A novel method for determining the anchoring energy function at a nematic liquid crystal-wall interface from director distortions at high fields," J. Appl. Phys 57, 4520-4526 (1985).
  2. H. Yokoyama, R. Sun, "Simplified high-electric-field technique for measuring the liquid crystal anchoring strength," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L45-L47 (2000).
  3. S. Okutani, M. Kimura, T. Akahane, "Analysis of liquid crystal orientation at interface between liquid crystal and alignment film by total reflection ellipsometry," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L600-L602 (1998).
  4. M. Vilfan, A. Mertelj, "Dynamic light scattering measurements of azimuthal and zenithal anchoring of nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 65, 041712-1-041712-7 (1995).
  5. D. Subacius, V. M. Pergamenshcchik, O. D. Lavernovich, "Measurement of polar anchoring coefficient for nematic cell with high pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 214-216 (1995).
  6. Y. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, "Determination of nematic polar anchoring from retardation versus voltage measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 202-204 (1999).
  7. Y. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, O. D. Lavrentovich, "Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4199-4213 (1999).
  8. T. Akahane, "The influence of multiple-beam interference in a liquid crystal cell on the determination of the optical retardation and the twist angle," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3428-3425 (1998).
  9. A. Lien, H. Takano, "Cell-gap measurement of filled twisted nematic liquid crystal displays by a phase compensation method," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1304-1309 (1991).
  10. S. H. Lee, W. S. Park, G. D. Lee, K. Y. Han, T. H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, "Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379-383 (2002).
  11. Y. W. Li, H. S. Kwok, "LCD pretilt angle measurement using QHQ compensation method," Proc. 6th Chinese Symp. Optoelectron. (2003) pp. 235-236.
  12. S. J. Hwang, "Precise optical retardation measurement of nematic liquid crystal display using the phase-sensitive technique," J. Display. Technol. 1, 72-76 (2005).
  13. I. C. Khoo, S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993) pp. 148-158.
  14. S. J. Hwang, S. T. Lin, C. H. Lai, "A novel method to measure the cell gap and pretilt angle of a reflective liquid crystal display," Opt. Commun. 260, 614-620 (2006).
  15. T. Sugiyama, S. Kuniyasu, D. Seo, H. Fukuro, S. Kobayashi, "A simple model for pretilted nematic liquid crystal medium and its torsional surface coupling strength," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2045-2051 (1990).

2006

S. J. Hwang, S. T. Lin, C. H. Lai, "A novel method to measure the cell gap and pretilt angle of a reflective liquid crystal display," Opt. Commun. 260, 614-620 (2006).

2005

S. J. Hwang, "Precise optical retardation measurement of nematic liquid crystal display using the phase-sensitive technique," J. Display. Technol. 1, 72-76 (2005).

2002

S. H. Lee, W. S. Park, G. D. Lee, K. Y. Han, T. H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, "Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379-383 (2002).

2000

H. Yokoyama, R. Sun, "Simplified high-electric-field technique for measuring the liquid crystal anchoring strength," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L45-L47 (2000).

1999

Y. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, "Determination of nematic polar anchoring from retardation versus voltage measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 202-204 (1999).

Y. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, O. D. Lavrentovich, "Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4199-4213 (1999).

1998

T. Akahane, "The influence of multiple-beam interference in a liquid crystal cell on the determination of the optical retardation and the twist angle," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3428-3425 (1998).

S. Okutani, M. Kimura, T. Akahane, "Analysis of liquid crystal orientation at interface between liquid crystal and alignment film by total reflection ellipsometry," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L600-L602 (1998).

1995

M. Vilfan, A. Mertelj, "Dynamic light scattering measurements of azimuthal and zenithal anchoring of nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 65, 041712-1-041712-7 (1995).

D. Subacius, V. M. Pergamenshcchik, O. D. Lavernovich, "Measurement of polar anchoring coefficient for nematic cell with high pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 214-216 (1995).

1991

A. Lien, H. Takano, "Cell-gap measurement of filled twisted nematic liquid crystal displays by a phase compensation method," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1304-1309 (1991).

1990

T. Sugiyama, S. Kuniyasu, D. Seo, H. Fukuro, S. Kobayashi, "A simple model for pretilted nematic liquid crystal medium and its torsional surface coupling strength," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2045-2051 (1990).

1985

H. Yokoyama, H. A. Van Sprang, "A novel method for determining the anchoring energy function at a nematic liquid crystal-wall interface from director distortions at high fields," J. Appl. Phys 57, 4520-4526 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Subacius, V. M. Pergamenshcchik, O. D. Lavernovich, "Measurement of polar anchoring coefficient for nematic cell with high pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 214-216 (1995).

Y. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, "Determination of nematic polar anchoring from retardation versus voltage measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 202-204 (1999).

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Lien, H. Takano, "Cell-gap measurement of filled twisted nematic liquid crystal displays by a phase compensation method," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1304-1309 (1991).

J. Appl. Phys

H. Yokoyama, H. A. Van Sprang, "A novel method for determining the anchoring energy function at a nematic liquid crystal-wall interface from director distortions at high fields," J. Appl. Phys 57, 4520-4526 (1985).

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, O. D. Lavrentovich, "Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4199-4213 (1999).

J. Display. Technol.

S. J. Hwang, "Precise optical retardation measurement of nematic liquid crystal display using the phase-sensitive technique," J. Display. Technol. 1, 72-76 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Sugiyama, S. Kuniyasu, D. Seo, H. Fukuro, S. Kobayashi, "A simple model for pretilted nematic liquid crystal medium and its torsional surface coupling strength," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2045-2051 (1990).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Yokoyama, R. Sun, "Simplified high-electric-field technique for measuring the liquid crystal anchoring strength," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L45-L47 (2000).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Okutani, M. Kimura, T. Akahane, "Analysis of liquid crystal orientation at interface between liquid crystal and alignment film by total reflection ellipsometry," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L600-L602 (1998).

T. Akahane, "The influence of multiple-beam interference in a liquid crystal cell on the determination of the optical retardation and the twist angle," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3428-3425 (1998).

S. H. Lee, W. S. Park, G. D. Lee, K. Y. Han, T. H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, "Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379-383 (2002).

Opt. Commun.

S. J. Hwang, S. T. Lin, C. H. Lai, "A novel method to measure the cell gap and pretilt angle of a reflective liquid crystal display," Opt. Commun. 260, 614-620 (2006).

Phys. Rev. E

M. Vilfan, A. Mertelj, "Dynamic light scattering measurements of azimuthal and zenithal anchoring of nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 65, 041712-1-041712-7 (1995).

Other

Y. W. Li, H. S. Kwok, "LCD pretilt angle measurement using QHQ compensation method," Proc. 6th Chinese Symp. Optoelectron. (2003) pp. 235-236.

I. C. Khoo, S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993) pp. 148-158.

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