Abstract

In this paper, the vapor-deposited and solution-processed organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology development paradigms are described and then compared with respect to their prospects for enabling general lighting applications. Two key development needs are improved device efficiency and lower cost fabrication methods. Progress in these areas for solution-processed OLEDs is illustrated by describing recent methods for attaining high efficiency blue emission and introducing novel low cost process methods for device fabrication which enable high performance devices without the need for any vacuum processing steps.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (4)

S. A. Choulis, M. K. Mathai, V.-E. Choong, F. So, "Highly efficient organic electroluminescent device with modified cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett 88, 203502-1-203502-3 (2006).

X. H. Yang, F. Jaiser, S. Klinger, D. Neher, "Blue polymer electrophosphorescent devices with differentelectron-transporting oxadiazoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021107-1-021107-3 (2006).

M.-H. Tsai, H.-W. Lin, H.-C. Su, T.-H. Ke, C.-C. Wu, F.-C. Fang, Y.-L. Liao, K.-T. Wong, C.-I. Wu, "Highly efficient organic blue electrophosphorescent devices based on 3,6-Bis(triphenylsilyl)carbazole as the host material," Adv. Mat. 18, 1216-1220 (2006).

J. Liu, L. N. Lewis, T. J. Faircloth, A. R. Duggal, "High performance organic light-emitting diodes fabricated via a vacuum-free lamination process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223509-1-223509-3 (2006).

2005 (6)

R. Service, "Organic LEDS look forward to a bright,white future," Science 310, 1762-1763 (2005).

J. M. Ziebarth, M. D. McGehee, "A theoretical and experimental investigation of light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 064502-1 (2005).

S.-C. Lo, G. J. Richards, J. P. J. Markham, E. B. Namdas, S. Sharma, P. L. Burn, I. D. W. Samuel, "A light-blue phosphorescent dendrimer for efficient solution-processed light-emitting diodes," Adv. Funct. Mat. 15, 1451-1458 (2005).

J.-S. Kim, R. H. Friend, I. Grizzi, J. H. Burroughs, "Spin-cast thin semiconducting polymer interlayer for improving device efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 023506-1-1023506-3 (2005).

T. Sajoto, P. I. Djurovich, A. Tamayo, M. Yousufuddin, R. Bau, M. E. Thompson, "Blue and Near-UV Phosphorescence from Iridium Complexes with Cyclometalated Pyrazolyl or N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands, ," Inorg. Chem. 44, 7992-8003 (2005).

M. Yan, T. W. Kim, A. G. Erlat, M. Pellow, D. F. Foust, J. Liu, M. Schaepkens, C. M. Heller, P. A. McConnelee, T. P. Feist, A. R. Duggal, "A transparent, high barrier, and high heat substrate for organic electronics," Proc. IEEE 93, 1468-1477 (2005).

2004 (8)

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, J. Salbeck, "High-efficiency and low-voltage p- i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911-3913 (2004).

B. W. D'Andrade, S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Adv. Mat. 16, 1585-1595 (2004).

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, C. W. Tang, "High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 167-169, (2004).

W. Wu, M. Inbasekaran, M. Hudack, D. Welsh, W. Yu, Y. Cheng, C. Wang, S. Kram, M. Tacey, M. Bernius, R. Fletcher, K. Kiszka, S. Munger, J. O'Brien, "Recent development of polyfluorene-based RGB materials for light emitting diodes," Microelectron. J. 35, 343-348 (2004).

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Yagyu, "Efficient electrophosphorescent polymer light-emitting devices using a Cs/Al cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 130-132 (2004).

J. J. Shiang, A. R. Duggal, "Application of radiative transport theory to light extraction from organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2880-2888 (2004).

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, A. R. Duggal, "Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2889-2895 (2004).

J. Liu, A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, "Efficient bottom cathodes for organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 837-839 (2004).

2003 (4)

C. M. Ramsdale, N. C. Greenham, "The optical constants of emitter and electrode materials in polymer light-emitting diodes," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, L29-L34 (2003).

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, M. E. Thompson, "Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422-2224 (2003).

A. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, N. Rutherford, "Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413-415 (2003).

A. R. Duggal, D. F. Foust, W. F. Nealon, C. M. Heller, "Fault-tolerant, scalable organic light-emitting device architecture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2580-2582 (2003).

2002 (5)

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, D. F. Foust, J. J. Shiang, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination-quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, "Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234-236 (2002).

J. Endo, T. Matsumoto, J. Kido, "Organic electroluminescent deviceswith a vacuum-deposited Lewis-acid-doped hole-injecting layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L358-L360 (2002).

M. H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, "Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: Modeling and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595-604 (2002).

S. Möller, S. F. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).

2001 (5)

T. Tatsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, "Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer," Adv. Mat. , 1149-1152 (2001).

T. F. Guo, S. Pyo, S. C. Chang, Y. Yang, "High performance polymer light-emitting diodes fabricated by a low temperature lamination process," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 339-343 (2001).

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).

G. Parthasarathy, C. Shen, A. Kahn, S. R. Forrest, "Lithium doping of semiconducting organic charge transport materials," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4986-4992 (2001).

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, R. Haitz, "The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting," Physics Today 54, 42-47 (2001).

2000 (5)

S. R. Forrest, "Active optoelectronics using thin-film organic semiconductors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 1072-1083 (2000).

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).

C. F. Madigan, M. H. Lu, J. C. Sturn, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, "Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073-1081 (2000).

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Dory, W. L. Barnes, "Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340-3342 (2000).

1999 (2)

W. L. Barnes, "Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices," J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2170-2182 (1999).

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, W. R. Salaneck, "Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers," Nature 397, 121-128 (1999).

1998 (2)

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, "Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices," Nature 395, 151-154 (1998).

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalifin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B. 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

1997 (2)

G. Gu,, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, M. E Thompson, "High-external-quantum-efficiency organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Lett. 22, 396-398 (1997).

S. A. Carter, M. Angelopoulos, S. Karg, P. J. Brock, J. C. Scott, "Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2067-2069 (1997).

1995 (1)

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, K. Nagai, "Single-layer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly( N-vinylcarbazole," Appl. Phys. Lett 67, 2281-2283 (1995).

1994 (1)

Y. Yang, A. J. Heeger, "Polyaniline as a transparent electrode for polymer light-emitting diodes: Lower operating voltage and higher efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1245-1247 (1994).

1991 (1)

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, "Visible light emission from semiconducting polymer diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1982 (1991).

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, "Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers," Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).

1989 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, "Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610-3616 (1989).

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

1983 (4)

R. H. Partridge, "Electroluminescence from polyvinylcarbazole films: Pt. 1: Cabazole cations," Polymer 24, 733-738 (1983).

R.H. Partridge, "Polyvinylcarbazole films containing antimony pentachloride," Polymer 24, 739-747 (1983).

R.H. Partridge, "Electroluminescent devices," Polymer 24, 748-752 (1983).

R.H. Partridge, "Electroluminescence using higher work function cathodes," 24, 755-762 (1983).

1978 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Adv. in Chem. Phys. 37, 1-65 (1978).

1971 (1)

W. A. Thornton, " Luminosity and color-rendering capability of white light," J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 61, 1155-1163 (1971).

1963 (1)

Adv. Funct. Mat. (1)

S.-C. Lo, G. J. Richards, J. P. J. Markham, E. B. Namdas, S. Sharma, P. L. Burn, I. D. W. Samuel, "A light-blue phosphorescent dendrimer for efficient solution-processed light-emitting diodes," Adv. Funct. Mat. 15, 1451-1458 (2005).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T. F. Guo, S. Pyo, S. C. Chang, Y. Yang, "High performance polymer light-emitting diodes fabricated by a low temperature lamination process," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 339-343 (2001).

Adv. in Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Adv. in Chem. Phys. 37, 1-65 (1978).

Adv. Mat. (3)

M.-H. Tsai, H.-W. Lin, H.-C. Su, T.-H. Ke, C.-C. Wu, F.-C. Fang, Y.-L. Liao, K.-T. Wong, C.-I. Wu, "Highly efficient organic blue electrophosphorescent devices based on 3,6-Bis(triphenylsilyl)carbazole as the host material," Adv. Mat. 18, 1216-1220 (2006).

T. Tatsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, "Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer," Adv. Mat. , 1149-1152 (2001).

B. W. D'Andrade, S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Adv. Mat. 16, 1585-1595 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, C. W. Tang, "High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 167-169, (2004).

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, "Visible light emission from semiconducting polymer diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1982 (1991).

J.-S. Kim, R. H. Friend, I. Grizzi, J. H. Burroughs, "Spin-cast thin semiconducting polymer interlayer for improving device efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 023506-1-1023506-3 (2005).

J. Liu, A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, "Efficient bottom cathodes for organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 837-839 (2004).

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