Abstract

Silica and zirconium dioxide sol-gel thin films made with Yb<sub>0.80</sub>La<sub>0.15</sub>Tb<sub>0.05</sub>F<sub>3</sub> or Yb<sub>0.80</sub>La<sub>0.15</sub>Eu<sub>0.05</sub>F<sub>3</sub> nanoparticles are reported. Bright blue (413 and 435 nm), green (545 nm), and red (585 and 625 nm) emissions are produced from Tb<sup>3+</sup> ions through cooperative up-conversion of 980 nm light. Similarly, red (591 and 612 nm) emission is generated from Eu<sup>3+</sup> ions. These up-convertors may find use in white light sources. The cooperative up-conversion of Yb<sup>3+</sup> - Tb<sup>3+</sup> ions is more efficient than of Yb<sup>3+</sup> - Eu<sup>3+</sup> ions because the efficiency of energy transfer from excited Yb<sup>3+</sup> ions to a Tb<sup>3+</sup> ion (0.37) is more than two-times higher than of excited Yb<sup>3+</sup> ions to a Eu<sup>3+</sup> ion (0.15), as estimated from the lifetime of excited Yb<sup>3+</sup> ion. The estimated quantum yields of both Tb<sup>3+</sup> ion and Eu<sup>3+</sup> ion emissions are on the order of 40%, and hence are not the cause of the difference in efficiency. This approach does not work for Sm<sup>3+</sup>, Pr<sup>3+</sup>, and Dy<sup>3+</sup>. Incorporation of the respective Ln<sup>3+</sup> ions in nanoparticles is crucial, as controls, in which the various Ln<sup>3+</sup> ions are incorporated directly into the sol-gel, that do not show cooperative up-conversion.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
  2. A. Mehta, T. Thundat, M. D. Barnes, V. Chhabra, R. Bhargava, A. P. Bartko, R. M. Dickson, "Size-correlated spectroscopy and imaging of rare-earth-doped nanocrystals," Appl. Opt. 42, 2132-2139 (2003).
  3. A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, P. N. Prasad, "Upconversion in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$: ${\hbox{ZrO}}_{2}$ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1909-1912 (2002).
  4. Y. L. Soo, S. W. Huang, Z. H. Ming, Y. H. Kao, G. C. Smith, E. Goldburt, R. Hodel, B. Kulkarni, J. V. D. Veliadis, R. N. Bhargava, "X-ray excited luminescence and local structures in Tb-doped ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5404-5409 (1998).
  5. H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, "Green upconversion luminescence in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$: ${\rm BaTiO}_{3}$ films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 609-611 (2000).
  6. S. Sivakumar, P. R. Diamente, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Silica-coated ${\hbox{Ln}}^{3+}$-doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles as new robust down- and up-converting biolabels," Chem. Eur. J. 12, 5878-5884 (2006).
  7. J. C. Wright, "Up-conversion and excited state energy transfer in rare-earth doped materials," Top. Appl. Phys. 15, 239-295 (1976).
  8. S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Güdel, M. Haase, "Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped ${\hbox{NaYF}}_{4}$ nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2104 (2004).
  9. S. Heer, O. Lehmann, M. Haase, H. U. Güdel, "Blue, green, and red upconversion emission from lanthanide-doped ${\hbox{LuPO}}_{4}$ and ${\hbox{YbPO}}_{4}$ nanocrystals in a transparent colloidal solution," Angew. Chem. Int. Edn. 42, 3179-3182 (2003).
  10. F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Effect of $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoping on the upconversion emission in nanocrystalline ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}:{\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1107-1112 (2003).
  11. F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Significance of $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}:{\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$, $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661-667 (2004).
  12. S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, M. Raudsepp, "Bright white light through up-conversion of a single NIR source from sol-gel-derived thin film made with ${\hbox{Ln}}^{3+}$-doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).
  13. I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, V. D. Rodriguez, "Cooperative energy transfer in $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ codoped silica sol-gel glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).
  14. L. D. Menezes, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, Y. Messaddeq, "Phonon-assisted cooperative energy transfer and frequency upconversion in a $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}/ {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ codoped fluoroindate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 863-866 (2003).
  15. E. Martins, C. B. de Araujo, J. R. Delben, A. S. L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, Y. Messaddeq, "Cooperative frequency upconversion in $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ codoped fluoroindate glass," Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).
  16. M. V. D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, "Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass," J. Lumin. 102, 762-767 (2003).
  17. G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, H. U. Güdel, "Phonon-assisted cooperative sensitization of $ {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{SrCl}}_{2}$: Yb, Tb," J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 14, 5461-5475 (2002).
  18. G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, H. U. Güdel, "Cooperative $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ dimer excitations and upconversion in ${\hbox{Cs}}_{3} {\hbox{Tb}}_{2}{\hbox{Br}}_{9}: {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$," Phys. Rev. B 67, 134111 (2003).
  19. G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, H. U. Güdel, "Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ systems," J. Lumin. 94, 305-309 (2001).
  20. G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, P. N. Prasad, "Infrared-to-visible $ {\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ energy upconversion due to cooperative energy transfer from an $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ ion pair in a sol-gel processed multi-component silica glass," Opt. Commun. 178, 65-69 (2000).
  21. V. Sudarsan, S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, M. Raudsepp, "General and convenient method for making highly luminescent sol-gel derived silica and alumina films by using ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles doped with lanthanide ions ( ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$, ${\hbox{Nd}}^{3+}$, and ${\hbox{Ho}}^{3+}$)," Chem. Mater. 17, 4736-4742 (2005).
  22. R. Dekker, V. Sudarsan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, K. Worhoff, D. A. , Proc. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chap. (2004) pp. 295.
  23. C. Cannas, M. Casu, M. Mainas, A. Musinu, G. Piccaluga, S. Polizzi, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Synthesis, characterisation and optical properties of nanocrystalline ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}- {\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ dispersed in a silica matrix by a deposition-precipitation method," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 3079-3084 (2003).
  24. K. Binnemans, R. Van Deun, C. Gorller-Walrand, J. L. Adam, "Spectroscopic properties of trivalent lanthanide ions in fluorophosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238, 11-29 (1998).
  25. F. W. Ostermay, L. G. Vanuiter, "Cooperative energy transfer from $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ to $ {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{YF}}_{3}$," Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208-4212 (1970).
  26. M. H. V. Werts, R. T. F. Jukes, J. W. Verhoeven, "The emission spectrum and the radiative lifetime of $ {\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ in luminescent lanthanide complexes," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 1542-1548 (2002).

2006

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).

S. Sivakumar, P. R. Diamente, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Silica-coated ${\hbox{Ln}}^{3+}$-doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles as new robust down- and up-converting biolabels," Chem. Eur. J. 12, 5878-5884 (2006).

2005

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, M. Raudsepp, "Bright white light through up-conversion of a single NIR source from sol-gel-derived thin film made with ${\hbox{Ln}}^{3+}$-doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).

V. Sudarsan, S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, M. Raudsepp, "General and convenient method for making highly luminescent sol-gel derived silica and alumina films by using ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles doped with lanthanide ions ( ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$, ${\hbox{Nd}}^{3+}$, and ${\hbox{Ho}}^{3+}$)," Chem. Mater. 17, 4736-4742 (2005).

2004

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Significance of $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}:{\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$, $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661-667 (2004).

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Güdel, M. Haase, "Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped ${\hbox{NaYF}}_{4}$ nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2104 (2004).

2003

S. Heer, O. Lehmann, M. Haase, H. U. Güdel, "Blue, green, and red upconversion emission from lanthanide-doped ${\hbox{LuPO}}_{4}$ and ${\hbox{YbPO}}_{4}$ nanocrystals in a transparent colloidal solution," Angew. Chem. Int. Edn. 42, 3179-3182 (2003).

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Effect of $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoping on the upconversion emission in nanocrystalline ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}:{\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1107-1112 (2003).

A. Mehta, T. Thundat, M. D. Barnes, V. Chhabra, R. Bhargava, A. P. Bartko, R. M. Dickson, "Size-correlated spectroscopy and imaging of rare-earth-doped nanocrystals," Appl. Opt. 42, 2132-2139 (2003).

L. D. Menezes, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, Y. Messaddeq, "Phonon-assisted cooperative energy transfer and frequency upconversion in a $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}/ {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ codoped fluoroindate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 863-866 (2003).

M. V. D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, "Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass," J. Lumin. 102, 762-767 (2003).

C. Cannas, M. Casu, M. Mainas, A. Musinu, G. Piccaluga, S. Polizzi, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Synthesis, characterisation and optical properties of nanocrystalline ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}- {\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ dispersed in a silica matrix by a deposition-precipitation method," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 3079-3084 (2003).

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, H. U. Güdel, "Cooperative $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ dimer excitations and upconversion in ${\hbox{Cs}}_{3} {\hbox{Tb}}_{2}{\hbox{Br}}_{9}: {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$," Phys. Rev. B 67, 134111 (2003).

2002

M. H. V. Werts, R. T. F. Jukes, J. W. Verhoeven, "The emission spectrum and the radiative lifetime of $ {\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ in luminescent lanthanide complexes," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 1542-1548 (2002).

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, H. U. Güdel, "Phonon-assisted cooperative sensitization of $ {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{SrCl}}_{2}$: Yb, Tb," J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 14, 5461-5475 (2002).

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, P. N. Prasad, "Upconversion in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$: ${\hbox{ZrO}}_{2}$ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1909-1912 (2002).

2001

I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, V. D. Rodriguez, "Cooperative energy transfer in $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ codoped silica sol-gel glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, H. U. Güdel, "Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ systems," J. Lumin. 94, 305-309 (2001).

2000

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, P. N. Prasad, "Infrared-to-visible $ {\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ energy upconversion due to cooperative energy transfer from an $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ ion pair in a sol-gel processed multi-component silica glass," Opt. Commun. 178, 65-69 (2000).

H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, "Green upconversion luminescence in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$: ${\rm BaTiO}_{3}$ films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 609-611 (2000).

1998

E. Martins, C. B. de Araujo, J. R. Delben, A. S. L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, Y. Messaddeq, "Cooperative frequency upconversion in $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ codoped fluoroindate glass," Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).

Y. L. Soo, S. W. Huang, Z. H. Ming, Y. H. Kao, G. C. Smith, E. Goldburt, R. Hodel, B. Kulkarni, J. V. D. Veliadis, R. N. Bhargava, "X-ray excited luminescence and local structures in Tb-doped ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5404-5409 (1998).

K. Binnemans, R. Van Deun, C. Gorller-Walrand, J. L. Adam, "Spectroscopic properties of trivalent lanthanide ions in fluorophosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238, 11-29 (1998).

1976

J. C. Wright, "Up-conversion and excited state energy transfer in rare-earth doped materials," Top. Appl. Phys. 15, 239-295 (1976).

1970

F. W. Ostermay, L. G. Vanuiter, "Cooperative energy transfer from $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ to $ {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{YF}}_{3}$," Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208-4212 (1970).

Adv. Mater.

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Güdel, M. Haase, "Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped ${\hbox{NaYF}}_{4}$ nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2104 (2004).

Angew. Chem. Int. Edn.

S. Heer, O. Lehmann, M. Haase, H. U. Güdel, "Blue, green, and red upconversion emission from lanthanide-doped ${\hbox{LuPO}}_{4}$ and ${\hbox{YbPO}}_{4}$ nanocrystals in a transparent colloidal solution," Angew. Chem. Int. Edn. 42, 3179-3182 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, "Green upconversion luminescence in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$: ${\rm BaTiO}_{3}$ films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 609-611 (2000).

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Eur. J.

S. Sivakumar, P. R. Diamente, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Silica-coated ${\hbox{Ln}}^{3+}$-doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles as new robust down- and up-converting biolabels," Chem. Eur. J. 12, 5878-5884 (2006).

Chem. Mater.

V. Sudarsan, S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, M. Raudsepp, "General and convenient method for making highly luminescent sol-gel derived silica and alumina films by using ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles doped with lanthanide ions ( ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$, ${\hbox{Nd}}^{3+}$, and ${\hbox{Ho}}^{3+}$)," Chem. Mater. 17, 4736-4742 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys.

L. D. Menezes, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, Y. Messaddeq, "Phonon-assisted cooperative energy transfer and frequency upconversion in a $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}/ {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ codoped fluoroindate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 863-866 (2003).

J. Phys.: Cond. Matter

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, H. U. Güdel, "Phonon-assisted cooperative sensitization of $ {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{SrCl}}_{2}$: Yb, Tb," J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 14, 5461-5475 (2002).

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, M. Raudsepp, "Bright white light through up-conversion of a single NIR source from sol-gel-derived thin film made with ${\hbox{Ln}}^{3+}$-doped ${\hbox{LaF}}_{3}$ nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys.

I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, V. D. Rodriguez, "Cooperative energy transfer in $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ codoped silica sol-gel glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Significance of $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}:{\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$, $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661-667 (2004).

Y. L. Soo, S. W. Huang, Z. H. Ming, Y. H. Kao, G. C. Smith, E. Goldburt, R. Hodel, B. Kulkarni, J. V. D. Veliadis, R. N. Bhargava, "X-ray excited luminescence and local structures in Tb-doped ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5404-5409 (1998).

J. Lumin.

M. V. D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, "Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass," J. Lumin. 102, 762-767 (2003).

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, H. U. Güdel, "Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ systems," J. Lumin. 94, 305-309 (2001).

J. Mater. Chem.

C. Cannas, M. Casu, M. Mainas, A. Musinu, G. Piccaluga, S. Polizzi, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Synthesis, characterisation and optical properties of nanocrystalline ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}- {\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ dispersed in a silica matrix by a deposition-precipitation method," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 3079-3084 (2003).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

K. Binnemans, R. Van Deun, C. Gorller-Walrand, J. L. Adam, "Spectroscopic properties of trivalent lanthanide ions in fluorophosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238, 11-29 (1998).

J. Phys. Chem. B

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, P. N. Prasad, "Upconversion in ${\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$: ${\hbox{ZrO}}_{2}$ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1909-1912 (2002).

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "Effect of $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoping on the upconversion emission in nanocrystalline ${\hbox{Y}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}:{\hbox{Er}}^{3+}$," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1107-1112 (2003).

Nano Lett.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).

Opt. Commun.

E. Martins, C. B. de Araujo, J. R. Delben, A. S. L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, Y. Messaddeq, "Cooperative frequency upconversion in $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ codoped fluoroindate glass," Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, P. N. Prasad, "Infrared-to-visible $ {\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ energy upconversion due to cooperative energy transfer from an $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ ion pair in a sol-gel processed multi-component silica glass," Opt. Commun. 178, 65-69 (2000).

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

M. H. V. Werts, R. T. F. Jukes, J. W. Verhoeven, "The emission spectrum and the radiative lifetime of $ {\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ in luminescent lanthanide complexes," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 1542-1548 (2002).

Phys. Rev. B

F. W. Ostermay, L. G. Vanuiter, "Cooperative energy transfer from $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$ to $ {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ in ${\hbox{YF}}_{3}$," Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208-4212 (1970).

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, H. U. Güdel, "Cooperative $ {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}- {\hbox{Tb}}^{3+}$ dimer excitations and upconversion in ${\hbox{Cs}}_{3} {\hbox{Tb}}_{2}{\hbox{Br}}_{9}: {\hbox{Yb}}^{3+}$," Phys. Rev. B 67, 134111 (2003).

Top. Appl. Phys.

J. C. Wright, "Up-conversion and excited state energy transfer in rare-earth doped materials," Top. Appl. Phys. 15, 239-295 (1976).

Other

R. Dekker, V. Sudarsan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, K. Worhoff, D. A. , Proc. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chap. (2004) pp. 295.

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