Abstract

Status and future outlook of III-V compound semiconductor visible-spectrum light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are presented. Light extraction techniques are reviewed and extraction efficiencies are quantified in the 60%+ (AlGaInP) and ~80% (InGaN) regimes for state-of-the-art devices. The phosphor-based white LED concept is reviewed and recent performance discussed, showing that high-power white LEDs now approach the 100-lm/W regime. Devices employing multiple phosphors for “warm” white color temperatures (~3000–4000 K) and high color rendering (CRI > 80), which provide properties critical for many illumination applications, are discussed. Recent developments in chip design, packaging, and high current performance lead to very high luminance devices (~50 Mcd/m<sup>2</sup> white at 1 A forward current in 1 x 1 mm<sup>2</sup> chip) that are suitable for application to automotive forward lighting. A prognosis for future LED performance levels is considered given further improvements in internal quantum efficiency, which to date lag achievements in light extraction efficiency for InGaN LEDs.

© 2007 IEEE

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2007 (1)

G. Harbers, S. Bierhuizen, M. R. Krames, "Performance of high power light-emitting diodes in display applications," J. Display Technol. (2007).

2006 (3)

O. B. Shchekin, "High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).

M. Funato, "Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11–22} GaN bulk substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L650-L662 (2006).

Y. Narukawa, "Ultra-high efficiency white light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1084-L1086 (2006).

2005 (6)

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y.-C. Shen, M. R. Krames, "Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111101 (2005).

R. Sharma, "Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231110 (2005).

K. M. Yu, "On the crystalline structure, stoichiometry and band gap of InN thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071910 (2005).

R. Joray, R. P. Stanley, M. Ilegems, "High efficiency planar MCLEDs," Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 242, 2315-2325 (2005).

G. Derra, "UHP lamp systems for projection applications," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 1995-3110 (2005).

R. Mueller-Mach, "Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode," Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 202, 1727-1732 (2005).

2004 (5)

J. J. Wierer, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).

V. Haerle, "High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN technology," Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 201, 2736-2739 (2004).

D. Morita, "Watt-class high-output-power 365 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5945-5950 (2004).

K. Iida, "350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L499-L500 (2004).

J. Edmond, "High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC," J. Crystal Growth 272, 242-250 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y.-C. Shen, "Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2221-2223 (2003).

2002 (5)

D. A. Steigerwald, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).

M. Rattier, "Toward ultrahigh-efficiency aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quant. Electron. 8, 238-247 (2002).

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, T. Trottier, "High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quant. Electron. 8, 339-345 (2002).

M. Yamada, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1431-L1433 (2002).

K. Streubel, N. Linder, R. Wirth, A. Jaeger, "High brightness AlGaInP light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 321-332 (2002).

2001 (3)

M. G. Craford, N. Holonyak, Jr.F. A. Kish, Jr."In pursuit of the ultimate lamp," Scientific Amer. 83-88 (2001).

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, "Band parameters for III-V compound semiconductors and their alloys," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5815-5875 (2001).

J. J. Wierer, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).

2000 (3)

N. Holonyak, Jr."Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?," Am. J. Phys. 68, 864-866 (2000).

H. A. Höppe, H. Lutz, P. Morys, W. Schick, A. Seilmeier, "Luminescence in ${\hbox{Eu}}^{2+}$-doped ${\hbox{Ba}}_{2}{\hbox{Si}}_{5}{\hbox{N}}_{8}$: Fluorescence, thermoluminescence, and upconversion," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 2001-2006 (2000).

M. Boroditsky, "Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3497-3504 (2000).

1999 (3)

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Kellogg, N. Holonyak, Jr."Tunnel contact junction native-oxide aperture and mirror vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 926-928 (1999).

M. R. Krames, "High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid $({\rm Al}_{x}{\hbox{Ga}}_{1-{x}})_{0.5}{\hbox{In}}_{0.5}{\rm P/GaP}$ light-emitting diodes exhibiting $>$50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J.-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, N. Moll, "1.4 $\times$ efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate $({\rm Al}_{x}{\hbox{Ga}}_{1-{x}})_{0.5}{\hbox{In}}_{0.5}{\rm P}$ light-emitting diodes with thin $(\leq 2000 \hbox{\rm{\AA}})$ active regions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230-2232 (1999).

1998 (5)

T. Takeuchi, "Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1691-1693 (1998).

N. A. El-Masry, E. L. Piner, S. X. Liu, S. M. Bedair, "Phase separation in InGaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 40-42 (1998).

S. Nakamura, "The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes," Science 14, 956-961 (1998).

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, "Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 599-601 (1998).

G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, M. R. Krames, N. F. Gardner, F. A. Kish, T. S. Tan, B. Loh, J. Posselt, D. Collins, G. Sasser, "High-flux, high-efficiency transparent-substrate AlGaInP/GaP light-emitting diodes," Electron. Lett. 34, 1781-1782 (1998).

1997 (5)

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, R. Dimitrov, R. Handschuh, M. Stutzmann, "Optical process for liftoff of group III-nitride films," Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 159, R3-R4 (1997).

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phy. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, J. Schneider, "Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, D. Vanderbilt, "Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides," Phys. Rev. B 56, R10024-R10027 (1997).

S. J. Rosner, E. C. Carr, M. J. Ludowise, G. Girolami, H. I. Erikson, "Correlation of cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity with microstructural defects in epitaxial GaN grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 420-422 (1997).

1996 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S.-I. Nagahama, "High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1868-1870 (1995).

1994 (1)

F. A. Kish, "Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate $({\rm Al}_{x}{\hbox{Ga}}_{1-{x}})_{0.5}{\hbox{In}}_{0.5}{\rm P/GaP}$ light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839-2841 (1994).

1993 (3)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, T. Mukai, "High-power InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure violet light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2390-2392 (1993).

D. P. Bour, D. W. Treat, R. L. Thornton, R. S. Geels, D. F. Welch, "Drift leakage current in AlGaInP quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1337-1343 (1993).

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).

1992 (2)

H. Sugawara, K. Itaya, H. Nozaki, G. Hatakoshi, "High-brightness InGaAlP green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1775-1777 (1992).

K. H. Huang, "Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045-1047 (1992).

1991 (1)

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, G. Hatakoshi, "High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010-1012 (1991).

1990 (1)

C. P. Kuo, "High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937-2939 (1990).

1989 (1)

H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu, I. Akasaki, "P-type conduction in Mg-doped GaN treated with low-energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI)," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2112-L2114 (1989).

1986 (1)

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 353-355 (1986).

1974 (1)

W. B. Joyce, R. Z. Bachrach, R. W. Dixon, D. A. Sealer, "Geometrical properties of random particles and the extraction of photons from electroluminescent diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2229-2253 (1974).

1966 (1)

G. E. Stillman, M. D. Sirkis, J. A. Rossi, M. R. Johnson, N. Holonyak, Jr."Volume excitation of an ultrathin single-code CdSe laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 268-269 (1966).

Am. J. Phys. (1)

N. Holonyak, Jr."Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?," Am. J. Phys. 68, 864-866 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. H. Huang, "Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045-1047 (1992).

F. A. Kish, "Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate $({\rm Al}_{x}{\hbox{Ga}}_{1-{x}})_{0.5}{\hbox{In}}_{0.5}{\rm P/GaP}$ light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839-2841 (1994).

M. R. Krames, "High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid $({\rm Al}_{x}{\hbox{Ga}}_{1-{x}})_{0.5}{\hbox{In}}_{0.5}{\rm P/GaP}$ light-emitting diodes exhibiting $>$50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).

R. Sharma, "Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231110 (2005).

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. M. Yu, "On the crystalline structure, stoichiometry and band gap of InN thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071910 (2005).

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 353-355 (1986).

O. B. Shchekin, "High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).

Appl. Phys. A (1)

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, J. Schneider, "Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (16)

G. E. Stillman, M. D. Sirkis, J. A. Rossi, M. R. Johnson, N. Holonyak, Jr."Volume excitation of an ultrathin single-code CdSe laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 268-269 (1966).

J. J. Wierer, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Kellogg, N. Holonyak, Jr."Tunnel contact junction native-oxide aperture and mirror vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 926-928 (1999).

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, "Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 599-601 (1998).

J. J. Wierer, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).

Y.-C. Shen, "Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2221-2223 (2003).

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