Abstract

Photonic-crystal (PhC)-assisted light extraction is a promising method for ultrahigh efficiency, planar light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, modeling of such structures is challenging due to the variety of their parameters and the heavy computational burden they represent. We present a thorough theoretical discussion of the optimization of PhC LEDs, which relies both on approximate treatments and on rigorous 3-D calculations. Two material systems (GaAs and GaN) are investigated, leading to quite different optimal regimes. Notably, it appears that besides the properties of the 2-D PhC itself, design of the vertical structure plays a major role in optimization.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, R. A. Logan, G. J. Zydzik, "Enhanced spectral power-density and reduced linewidth at 1.3-mu-m in an InGaAsP quantum-well resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," Appl.Phys. Lett. 61, 2287-2289 (1992).
  2. H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).
  3. H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1632-1643 (1998).
  4. D. Delbeke, R. Bockstaele, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, H. Benisty, "High-efficiency semiconductor resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 189-206 (2002).
  5. M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).
  6. M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, "Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036-1038 (1999).
  7. A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
  8. A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, (2005) 101107.
  9. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 061124.
  10. A. David, T. Fujii, E. Matioli, R. Sharma, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Gan light-emitting diodes with Archimedean lattice photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 073510.
  11. A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic crystal laser lift-off gan light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 133514.
  12. R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, H. Benisty, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, "Radiation losses in planar photonic crystals: Two-dimensional representation of hole depth and shape by an imaginary dielectric constant," J. OSA B—Opt. Phys. 20, 469-478 (2003).
  13. H. Benisty, D. Labilloy, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, D. Cassagne, A. Beraud, C. Jouanin, "Radiation losses of waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals: Positive role of the substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 532-534 (2000).
  14. R. Ferrini, B. Lombardet, B. Wild, R. Houdre, G. H. Duan, "Hole depth- and shape-induced radiation losses in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1009-1011 (2003).
  15. H. Benisty, P. Lalanne, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, C. Jouanin, D. Cassagne, "Finite-depth and intrinsic losses in vertically etched two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 205-215 (2002).
  16. S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, (2002) 045102.
  17. A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Fast factorization rule and plane-wave expansion method for two-dimensional photonic crystals with arbitrary hole-shape," Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006) 075107.
  18. W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, "Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in gaas-gaalas lasers and waveguides," IIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 422-428 (1976).
  19. M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79-89 (2002).
  20. M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Carlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Toward ultrahigh-efficiency aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 238-247 (2002).
  21. M. Palamaru, P. Lalanne, "Photonic crystal waveguides: Out-of-plane losses and adiabatic modal conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1466-1468 (2001).
  22. G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).
  23. L. Chen, A. V. Nurmikko, "Fabrication and performance of efficient blue light emitting III–nitride photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3663-3665 (2004).
  24. J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O'Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Gotz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
  25. T. Fujii, A. David, C. Schwach, P. M. Pattison, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, T. Margalith, S. P. Denbaars, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, "Micro cavity effect in GaN-based light-emitting diodes formed by laser lift-off and etch-back technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. 43, L411-L413 (2004).
  26. M. Rattier, H. Benisty, E. Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, "Omnidirectional and compact guided light extraction from archimedean photonic lattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1283-1285 (2003).
  27. T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Iii-nitride photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231-1233 (2003).
  28. P. L. Hagelstein, D. R. Denison, "Nearly isotropic photonic bandgap structures in two dimensions," Opt. Lett. 24, 708-710 (1999).
  29. D. Delbeke, P. Bienstman, R. Bockstaele, R. Baets, "Rigorous electromagnetic analysis of dipole emission in periodically corrugated layers: The grating-assisted resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," J. OSA—Opt. Image Sci. Vision 19, 871-880 (2002).
  30. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
  31. A. L. Fehrembach, S. Enoch, A. Sentenac, "Highly directive light sources using two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4280-4282 (2001).

2006 (4)

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 061124.

A. David, T. Fujii, E. Matioli, R. Sharma, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Gan light-emitting diodes with Archimedean lattice photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 073510.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic crystal laser lift-off gan light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 133514.

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Fast factorization rule and plane-wave expansion method for two-dimensional photonic crystals with arbitrary hole-shape," Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006) 075107.

2005 (2)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, (2005) 101107.

2004 (3)

L. Chen, A. V. Nurmikko, "Fabrication and performance of efficient blue light emitting III–nitride photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3663-3665 (2004).

T. Fujii, A. David, C. Schwach, P. M. Pattison, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, T. Margalith, S. P. Denbaars, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, "Micro cavity effect in GaN-based light-emitting diodes formed by laser lift-off and etch-back technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. 43, L411-L413 (2004).

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).

2003 (4)

M. Rattier, H. Benisty, E. Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, "Omnidirectional and compact guided light extraction from archimedean photonic lattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1283-1285 (2003).

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Iii-nitride photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231-1233 (2003).

R. Ferrini, B. Lombardet, B. Wild, R. Houdre, G. H. Duan, "Hole depth- and shape-induced radiation losses in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1009-1011 (2003).

R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, H. Benisty, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, "Radiation losses in planar photonic crystals: Two-dimensional representation of hole depth and shape by an imaginary dielectric constant," J. OSA B—Opt. Phys. 20, 469-478 (2003).

2002 (7)

H. Benisty, P. Lalanne, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, C. Jouanin, D. Cassagne, "Finite-depth and intrinsic losses in vertically etched two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 205-215 (2002).

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, (2002) 045102.

D. Delbeke, R. Bockstaele, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, H. Benisty, "High-efficiency semiconductor resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 189-206 (2002).

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79-89 (2002).

M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Carlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Toward ultrahigh-efficiency aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 238-247 (2002).

G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).

D. Delbeke, P. Bienstman, R. Bockstaele, R. Baets, "Rigorous electromagnetic analysis of dipole emission in periodically corrugated layers: The grating-assisted resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," J. OSA—Opt. Image Sci. Vision 19, 871-880 (2002).

2001 (4)

A. L. Fehrembach, S. Enoch, A. Sentenac, "Highly directive light sources using two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4280-4282 (2001).

M. Palamaru, P. Lalanne, "Photonic crystal waveguides: Out-of-plane losses and adiabatic modal conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1466-1468 (2001).

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O'Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Gotz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).

2000 (1)

H. Benisty, D. Labilloy, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, D. Cassagne, A. Beraud, C. Jouanin, "Radiation losses of waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals: Positive role of the substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 532-534 (2000).

1999 (2)

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, "Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036-1038 (1999).

P. L. Hagelstein, D. R. Denison, "Nearly isotropic photonic bandgap structures in two dimensions," Opt. Lett. 24, 708-710 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1632-1643 (1998).

1992 (1)

N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, R. A. Logan, G. J. Zydzik, "Enhanced spectral power-density and reduced linewidth at 1.3-mu-m in an InGaAsP quantum-well resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," Appl.Phys. Lett. 61, 2287-2289 (1992).

1976 (1)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, "Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in gaas-gaalas lasers and waveguides," IIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 422-428 (1976).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 061124.

H. Benisty, D. Labilloy, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, D. Cassagne, A. Beraud, C. Jouanin, "Radiation losses of waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals: Positive role of the substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 532-534 (2000).

M. Palamaru, P. Lalanne, "Photonic crystal waveguides: Out-of-plane losses and adiabatic modal conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1466-1468 (2001).

G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).

L. Chen, A. V. Nurmikko, "Fabrication and performance of efficient blue light emitting III–nitride photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3663-3665 (2004).

M. Rattier, H. Benisty, E. Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, "Omnidirectional and compact guided light extraction from archimedean photonic lattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1283-1285 (2003).

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, "Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036-1038 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, (2005) 101107.

R. Ferrini, B. Lombardet, B. Wild, R. Houdre, G. H. Duan, "Hole depth- and shape-induced radiation losses in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1009-1011 (2003).

A. David, T. Fujii, E. Matioli, R. Sharma, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Gan light-emitting diodes with Archimedean lattice photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 073510.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic crystal laser lift-off gan light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 133514.

A. L. Fehrembach, S. Enoch, A. Sentenac, "Highly directive light sources using two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4280-4282 (2001).

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Iii-nitride photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231-1233 (2003).

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O'Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y. C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Gotz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).

Appl.Phys. Lett. (1)

N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, R. A. Logan, G. J. Zydzik, "Enhanced spectral power-density and reduced linewidth at 1.3-mu-m in an InGaAsP quantum-well resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," Appl.Phys. Lett. 61, 2287-2289 (1992).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1632-1643 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Delbeke, R. Bockstaele, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, H. Benisty, "High-efficiency semiconductor resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 189-206 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Carlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Toward ultrahigh-efficiency aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 238-247 (2002).

IIEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, "Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in gaas-gaalas lasers and waveguides," IIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 422-428 (1976).

J. OSA B—Opt. Phys. (1)

R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, H. Benisty, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, "Radiation losses in planar photonic crystals: Two-dimensional representation of hole depth and shape by an imaginary dielectric constant," J. OSA B—Opt. Phys. 20, 469-478 (2003).

J. OSA—Opt. Image Sci. Vision (1)

D. Delbeke, P. Bienstman, R. Bockstaele, R. Baets, "Rigorous electromagnetic analysis of dipole emission in periodically corrugated layers: The grating-assisted resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," J. OSA—Opt. Image Sci. Vision 19, 871-880 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. (1)

T. Fujii, A. David, C. Schwach, P. M. Pattison, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, T. Margalith, S. P. Denbaars, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, "Micro cavity effect in GaN-based light-emitting diodes formed by laser lift-off and etch-back technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2—Lett. 43, L411-L413 (2004).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Benisty, P. Lalanne, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, C. Jouanin, D. Cassagne, "Finite-depth and intrinsic losses in vertically etched two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 205-215 (2002).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Rattier, T. F. Krauss, J. F. Carlin, R. Stanley, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "High extraction efficiency, laterally injected, light emitting diodes combining microcavities and photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 79-89 (2002).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, (2002) 045102.

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Fast factorization rule and plane-wave expansion method for two-dimensional photonic crystals with arbitrary hole-shape," Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006) 075107.

Science (1)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).

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