Abstract

In this paper, we propose a technique to enable efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) composed of an arbitrary number of layers with different permittivity (including metals of a complex permittivity). The effects of the change of exciton radiative decay rate are explicitly included in the simulation. The numerical implementation of the technique is comprehensively discussed through an illustrative example. By using the proposed method, a bottom emitting OLED with a thick glass substrate is rigorously analyzed. The calculated results show a good agreement with the experimental results. The proposed method is efficient and well suited for optimizing OLEDs with complicated device structures. As a demonstration, we optimize the two-unit tandem top-emitting OLEDs with three types of charge generating layer. The results and design guidelines are given and discussed in detail.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl.Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).
  2. H. H. Fong, W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, Y. J. Liang, "Organic light-emitting diodes based on a co-host electron transporting composite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113510-113512 (2006).
  3. J. E. Burrows, G. Gu, S. R. Forrest, E. P. Vicenzi, T. X. Zhou, "Semitransparent cathodes for organic light emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3080-3085 (2000).
  4. H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, W. Rieß, "Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light out-coupling," Appl. Phys.Lett. 82, 466-468 (2003).
  5. R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).
  6. V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, "Transparent light-emitting devices," Nature 380, 29 (1996).
  7. G. Gu, G. Parthasarathy, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, "Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. II. Device performance and applications to displays," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4076-4084 (1999).
  8. L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, C. W. Tang, "High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 167-169 (2004).
  9. O. H. Crawford, "Radiation from oscillating dipoles embedded in a layered system," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6017-6027 (1989).
  10. V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).
  11. L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, "Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986-2988 (2004).
  12. C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
  13. J. Grüner, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, "Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207-215 (1996).
  14. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, "Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces," Adv. in Chemical Phys. 37, 1-63 (1978).
  15. K. B. Kahen, "Rigorous optical modeling of multilayer organic light emitting diode devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1649-1651 (2001).
  16. J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, "Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073-1081 (2000).
  17. W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers," Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).
  18. K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998).
  19. W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media (IEEE Press, 1995).
  20. K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).
  21. T. H. Liu, W. J. Shen, C. K. Yen, C. Y. Iou, H. H. Chen, B. Banumathy, C. H. Chen, "Doped blue emitters of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene in organic electroluminescent devices," Synthetic Metals 137, 1033-1034 (2003).
  22. P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).
  23. D. Zwillinger, Handbook of Integration (Jones and Bartlett, 1992).
  24. J. Shi, C. W. Tang, "Anthracene derivatives for stable blue-emitting organic electroluminescence devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3201-3203 (2002).
  25. T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Microcavity two-unit tandem organic light-emitting devices having a high efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111106 (2006).
  26. T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kavamura, A. Yokoi, J. Kido, "Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer," SID Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 979-981.
  27. J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, H. J. Peng, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, "Effective intermediate layers for highly efficient stacked organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093504 (2005).
  28. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  29. S. A. Aly, S. A. Mahmoud, N. Z. El-Sayed, M. A. Kaid, "Study on some optical properties of thermally evaporated ${\hbox{V}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{5}$ films," Vacuum 55, 159-163 (1999).

2006

H. H. Fong, W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, Y. J. Liang, "Organic light-emitting diodes based on a co-host electron transporting composite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113510-113512 (2006).

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).

T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Microcavity two-unit tandem organic light-emitting devices having a high efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111106 (2006).

2005

J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, H. J. Peng, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, "Effective intermediate layers for highly efficient stacked organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093504 (2005).

2004

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, "Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986-2988 (2004).

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, C. W. Tang, "High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 167-169 (2004).

2003

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, W. Rieß, "Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light out-coupling," Appl. Phys.Lett. 82, 466-468 (2003).

T. H. Liu, W. J. Shen, C. K. Yen, C. Y. Iou, H. H. Chen, B. Banumathy, C. H. Chen, "Doped blue emitters of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene in organic electroluminescent devices," Synthetic Metals 137, 1033-1034 (2003).

2002

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).

J. Shi, C. W. Tang, "Anthracene derivatives for stable blue-emitting organic electroluminescence devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3201-3203 (2002).

2001

K. B. Kahen, "Rigorous optical modeling of multilayer organic light emitting diode devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1649-1651 (2001).

2000

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, "Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073-1081 (2000).

J. E. Burrows, G. Gu, S. R. Forrest, E. P. Vicenzi, T. X. Zhou, "Semitransparent cathodes for organic light emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3080-3085 (2000).

K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).

1999

S. A. Aly, S. A. Mahmoud, N. Z. El-Sayed, M. A. Kaid, "Study on some optical properties of thermally evaporated ${\hbox{V}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{5}$ films," Vacuum 55, 159-163 (1999).

G. Gu, G. Parthasarathy, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, "Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. II. Device performance and applications to displays," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4076-4084 (1999).

1998

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998).

1996

J. Grüner, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, "Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207-215 (1996).

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, "Transparent light-emitting devices," Nature 380, 29 (1996).

1989

O. H. Crawford, "Radiation from oscillating dipoles embedded in a layered system," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6017-6027 (1989).

1987

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl.Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

1980

W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers," Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

1978

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, "Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces," Adv. in Chemical Phys. 37, 1-63 (1978).

Adv. in Chemical Phys.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, "Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces," Adv. in Chemical Phys. 37, 1-63 (1978).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, C. W. Tang, "High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 167-169 (2004).

H. H. Fong, W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, Y. J. Liang, "Organic light-emitting diodes based on a co-host electron transporting composite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113510-113512 (2006).

K. B. Kahen, "Rigorous optical modeling of multilayer organic light emitting diode devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1649-1651 (2001).

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, "Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986-2988 (2004).

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).

J. Shi, C. W. Tang, "Anthracene derivatives for stable blue-emitting organic electroluminescence devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3201-3203 (2002).

T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Microcavity two-unit tandem organic light-emitting devices having a high efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111106 (2006).

J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, H. J. Peng, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, "Effective intermediate layers for highly efficient stacked organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093504 (2005).

Appl. Phys.Lett.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, W. Rieß, "Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light out-coupling," Appl. Phys.Lett. 82, 466-468 (2003).

Appl.Phys. Lett.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl.Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. E. Burrows, G. Gu, S. R. Forrest, E. P. Vicenzi, T. X. Zhou, "Semitransparent cathodes for organic light emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3080-3085 (2000).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Grüner, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, "Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207-215 (1996).

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, "Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073-1081 (2000).

G. Gu, G. Parthasarathy, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, "Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. II. Device performance and applications to displays," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4076-4084 (1999).

J. Chem. Phys.

O. H. Crawford, "Radiation from oscillating dipoles embedded in a layered system," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6017-6027 (1989).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A

K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).

Nature

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, "Transparent light-emitting devices," Nature 380, 29 (1996).

Phys. Rev. B

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

Phys. Rev. B

W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers," Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

Synthetic Metals

T. H. Liu, W. J. Shen, C. K. Yen, C. Y. Iou, H. H. Chen, B. Banumathy, C. H. Chen, "Doped blue emitters of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene in organic electroluminescent devices," Synthetic Metals 137, 1033-1034 (2003).

Vacuum

S. A. Aly, S. A. Mahmoud, N. Z. El-Sayed, M. A. Kaid, "Study on some optical properties of thermally evaporated ${\hbox{V}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{5}$ films," Vacuum 55, 159-163 (1999).

Other

D. Zwillinger, Handbook of Integration (Jones and Bartlett, 1992).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kavamura, A. Yokoi, J. Kido, "Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer," SID Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 979-981.

W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media (IEEE Press, 1995).

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