Abstract

Monocular head-mounted displays (HMDs) can be used with wearable computers. However, such displays can cause binocular rivalry, a phenomenon in which the left and right images alternate, and is unstable. Binocular rivalry, when using HMD, causes the image of the environment to alternate with the HMD image, or even the total loss of perception of the image from the HMD. Binocular rivalry can occur with displays of any resolution.In this study, we used optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) to reduce binocular rivalry. A special stimulus synchronized to the occurrence of binocular rivalry was used to trigger OKN. The subject was asked to observe a visual stimulus and press a trigger button whenever binocular rivalry occurred. This initiated the presentation of a specific spatial frequency stimulus that broke up the rivalry. Electro-oculogram (EOG) electrodes recorded the observer's possible loss of perception of the HMD image, helping to confirm the occurrence of binocular rivalry. Sixteen subjects participated in the experiments. The results indicate that synchronizing special stimuli to the viewers' responses in order to induce OKN can reduce binocular rivalry.

© 2007 IEEE

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Baifukan (1)

T. Matsuda, "Basics of cognitive psychology," (in Japanese) Baifukan 294 (2000).

J. Cogn Neurosci (1)

R. Kanai, Y. Kamitani, "Time-locked perceptual fading induced by visual transients," J. Cogn Neurosci 15, 664-672 (2003).

J. IEICE (1)

M. Maruyama, T. Kobayashi, S. Kuriki, "The change in optokinetic nystagmus reflecting the alternation of perceived images in binocular rivalry," (in Japanese) J. IEICE J84-D-2, 196-202 (2001).

Jpn. J. Ergonomics (4)

H. Izumi, H. Togami, N. Sato, M. Kumashiro, "A study on workload during VDT work with use of a monocular head mounted display," (in Japanese) Jpn. J. Ergonomics 40, 203-211 (2004).

K. Hirasawa, N. Shiramatu, T. Okamoto, Y. Sato, A. Michimori, H. Okuda, M. Hashimoto, T. Makita, "Evaluation of the optical characteristic of monocular head mounted display with the low divergence of the backlight source," (in Japanese) Jpn. J. Ergonomics 40, 315-322 (2004).

T. Kobayashi, K. Kato, "Measurements and analyses of eye movements during binocular rivalry caused by two competitive moving gratings," (in Japanese) Jpn. J. Ergonomics 34, 446-447 (1998) Supplement.

M. Maruyama, T. Kobayashi, "Eye movements reflecting alternation of perceived drifting direction in binocular rivalry," (in Japanese) Jpn. J. Ergonomics 35 Supplement, 230-231 (1999).

Nature (1)

F. Crick, "Visual perception: rivalry and consciousness," Nature 379, 485-486 (1996).

Neuron (1)

F. Tong, K. Nakayama, J. T. Vaughan, N. Kanwisher, "Binocular rivalry and visual awareness in human extrastriate cortex," Neuron 21, 753-759 (1998).

Percept. Mot. Skills (1)

T. Sohmiya, K. Sohmiya, "Analysis of temporal suppression mechanism in binocular rivalry," Percept. Mot. Skills 60, 995-998 (1985).

Perception (2)

T. L. Ooi, Z. He, J. He, "Binocular rivalry and visual awareness: The role of attention ," Perception 28, 551-574 (1999).

R. Kanai, F. Moradi, S. Shimojo, F. A. Verstraten, "Perceptual alternation induced by visual transients," Perception 34, 803-822 (2005).

Perception & Psychophys. (1)

N. J. Wade, C. M. M. Weert, M. T. Swanston, "Binocular rivalry with moving patterns," Perception & Psychophys. 35, 111-122 (1984).

Sangyoutosho (1)

T. Fukuda, "Human information system," (in Japanese) Sangyoutosho 242 (1995).

Science (1)

Y. Nakajima, "Psychology of motion picture—basics of multimedia," (in Japanese) Science 270 (1996).

Seishinshobo (1)

R. H. Day, "Human perception," (in Japanese) Seishinshobo 249 (1972).

Sinrigaku-kenkyu (1)

M. Suzuki, "Binocular rivalry in half-occluded region is weakened by eye movement," Sinrigaku-kenkyu 73, 270-274 (2002).

Vision Res. (3)

D. Alais, R. Blake, "Grouping visual features during binocular rivalry," Vision Res. 39, 4341-4353 (1999).

R. Fox, S. Todd, L. A. Bettinger, "Optokinetic nystagmus as an objective indicator of binocular rivalry," Vision Res. 15, 849-853 (1975).

N. K. Logothetis, J. D. Schall, "Binocular motion rivalry in macaque monkeys: eye dominance and tracking eye movements," Vision Res. 30, 1409-1419 (1990).

Other (5)

M. Maruyama, T. Kobayashi, S. Kuriki, Analysis of the alternation of perceived images in binocular rivalry based on the change in eye movements IEICE Tech. Rep. 99 (1999) pp. 47-54.

J. S. Crowley, Human factors of night vision devices: Anecdotes from the field concerning visual illusions and other effects USAARL Rep. 91-15 (1991).

K. L. Hiatt, M. G. Braithwaite, J. S. Crowley, C. E. Rash, C. V. Pol, The effect of a monocular helmet-mounted display on aircrew health: A cohort study of Apache AH MK1 pilots USAARL Rep. 2002-04 (2002) Initial report.

P. H. Lindsay, D. A. Norman, Human Information Processing: An Introduction to Psychology (Academic, 1977) pp. 319.

K. Tanaka, Y. Kishino, M. Miyamae, T. Terada, S. Nishio, "Object arrangement technique for considering background using optical see-through type head mount display," J. Inf. Process. Soc. Japan Symp. Issue (2005) pp. 749-752.

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