Abstract

Amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) backplanes are very promising for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays (AMOLEDs) on plastic. The technology benefits from a large manufacturing base, simple fabrication process, and low production cost. The concern lies in the instability of the TFTs threshold voltage (V<sub>T</sub>) and its low device mobility. Although V<sub>T</sub>-instability can be compensated by means of advanced multi-transistor pixel circuits, the lifetime of the display is still dependent on the TFT process quality and bias conditions. A-Si TFTs with field-effect mobility of 1.1 cm<sup>2</sup>/V · s and pixel driver circuits have been fabricated on plastic substrates at 150 °C. The circuits are characterized in terms of current drive capability and long-term stability of operation. The results demonstrate sufficient and stable current delivery and the ability of the backplane on plastic to meet AMOLED requirements.

© 2006 IEEE

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  2. T. Tsujimura, "A 20-inch OLED display driven by super amorphous silicon technology," SID'03 Dig. (2003) pp. 6-9.
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  5. Y.-J. Tung, T. Ngo, M. Hack, J. Brown, N. Koide, Y. Nagara, Y. Kato, H. Ito, "High efficiency phosphorescent white OLED for LCD backlight and display applications," SID'04 Dig. (2004) pp. 48-51.
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  31. A. Nathan, S. Alexander, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Tao, D. Striakhilev, A. Kumar, S. Sambadan, S. Jafarabadiashtiani, Y. Vygranenko, C. Church, J. Wzorek, P. Arsenault, "Extreme AMOLED backplanes in aSi with proven stability," SID'04 Dig. (2004) pp. 1508-1511.
  32. K. R. Sharma, J. Schmidt, J. Roush, C. Chanley, S. Dodd, "AM OLED using a-Si TFT backplane on flexible substrate," Proc. SPIE 5443, 165-176 (2004).

Appl. . Physics Lett.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, "High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. . Physics Lett. 81, 3921-3926 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. M. Smith, P. G. Carey, T. M. Sigmon, "Excimer Laser recrystallization and doping of silicon films on plastic substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 342-344 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

P. Servati, D. Striakhilev, A. Nathan, "Above-threshold parameter extraction and modeling for amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 2227-2235 (2003).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

J.-C. Goh, J. Jang, K.-S. Cho, C.-K. Kim, "A new a-Si:H thin-film transistor pixel circuit for active-matrix organic light emitting diodes," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 583-585 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

S. Inoue, S. Untomoniya, S. Saeki, T. Shimoda, "Surface-free technology by laser annealing (SUFTLA) and its application to poly-Si TFT-LCD on plastic with integrated drivers," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1353-1360 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

A. Kumar, A. Nathan, G. E. Jabbour, "Does TFT mobility impacts pixel size in AMOLED backplanes?," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 2386-2394 (2005).

S. J. Ashtiani, P. Servati, D. Striakhilev, A. Nathan, "A 3-TFT current-programmed pixel circuit for AMOLED," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 1514-1518 (2005).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

A. Sazonov, A. Nathan, D. Striakhilev, "Materials optimization for TFTs fabricated at low temperature on plastic substrate," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 1329-1333 (2000).

J. Electrochem. Soc.

H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, V. Gašparik, P. Kovác, "150 $^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$ amorphous thin-film transistor technology for polyimide substrates," J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, G370-G374 (2001).

J. Vac. Sci. Tech A.

K. Sakariya, S. Sambandan, P. Servati, A. Nathan, "Analysis and characterization of self- compensating current-programmed aSi:H active-materix organic light-emitting diode pixel circuits," J. Vac. Sci. Tech A. 22, 1001-1004 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys

D. P. Gosain, T. Noguchi, S. Usui, "High mobility thin-film transistors fabricated on plastic substrate at a processing temperature of 110 $^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys L179, (2000).

Proc. SPIE

K. R. Sharma, J. Schmidt, J. Roush, C. Chanley, S. Dodd, "AM OLED using a-Si TFT backplane on flexible substrate," Proc. SPIE 5443, 165-176 (2004).

Other

K. Sakariya, P. Servati, D. Striakhilev, A. Nathan, "$(V_{T})$-shift compensating amorphous silicon pixel circuits for flexible AM-OLED displays," MRS. Symp. Proc. (2002).

P. Servati, S. Tao, E. Horne, D. Striakhilev, A. Nathan, "Mechanically strained a-Si AMOLED driver circuits," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2004).

N. D. Young, "Low-temperature poly-Si TFTs on polymer substrates for active-matrix displays and other applications," MRS. Symp. Proc. (2003).

A. M. Miri, S. G. Chamberlain, "A totally wet etch fabrication technique for amorphous silicon thin film transistors," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1995) pp. 737-742.

A. Nathan, S. Alexander, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Tao, D. Striakhilev, A. Kumar, S. Sambadan, S. Jafarabadiashtiani, Y. Vygranenko, C. Church, J. Wzorek, P. Arsenault, "Extreme AMOLED backplanes in aSi with proven stability," SID'04 Dig. (2004) pp. 1508-1511.

D. Striakhilev, P. Servati, K. Sakariya, S. Tao, S. Alexander, A. Kumar, Y. Vygranenko, A. Nathan, "a-Si pixel circuits on plastic substrates for flexible AMOLED displays," Proc. AsiaDisplay'04/IMID'04 (2004) pp. 746-748.

R. A. Street, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991).

S. Jafarabadiashtiani, G. Chaji, S. Sambandan, D. Striakhilev, P. Servati, A. Nathan, "A new driving method for a-Si AMOLED displays based on voltage feedback," SID'05 Dig. (2005) pp. 316-319.

A. Nathan, S. Alexander, P. Servati, K. Sakariya, D. Striakhilev, R. Huang, C. Church, A. Kumar, J. Wzorek, P. Arsenault, "Amorphous silicon enables large AMOLED displays for HDTV," SID'05 Dig. (2005) pp. 320-323.

J. L. Sanford, F. Libsh, "TFT AMOLED circuits and driving methods," SID'03 Dig. (2003) pp. 10-13.

H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, Z. Suo, "a-Si:H TFTs made on polyimide foil by PECVD at 150 $^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1998) pp. 65-70.

A. Nathan, D. Striakhilev, P. Servati, K. Sakariya, A. Sazonov, S. Alexander, S. Tao, C.-H. Lee, A. Kumar, S. Sambandan, S. Jafarabadiashtiani, Y. Vygranenko, I. W. Chan, "aSi AMOLED display backplanes on flexible substrates," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2004).

J. J. Lih, C. F. Sung, M. S. Weaver, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, "A phosphorescent active-matrix OLED display drive by amorphous silicon backplanes," SID'03 Dig. (2003) pp. 14-17.

T. Chuman, S. Ohta, S. Miyaguchi, H. Satoh, T. Tanabe, Y. Okuda, M. Tsichida, "Active matrix organic light emitting diode panel using organic thin-film transistors," SID'04 Dig. (2004) pp. 45-47.

K. R. Sharma, "a-Si TFT OLED fabricated on low-temperature flexible plastic substrate," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2004).

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, T. Urabe, "A 13-inch AM-OLED display with top-emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC)," SID'01 Dig. (2001) pp. 384-387.

T. Tsujimura, "A 20-inch OLED display driven by super amorphous silicon technology," SID'03 Dig. (2003) pp. 6-9.

R. M. A. Dawson, "A polysilicon active matrix organic light emitting diode display with integrated drivers," SID'99 Dig. (1999) pp. 438-441.

J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, J. Brandt, M. Hoffman, J. Birnstock, M. Pfeiffer, G. He, P. Wellmann, K. Leo, "Full-color active matrix OLED displays with high aperture ratio," SID'04 Dig. (2004) pp. 1000-1003.

Y.-J. Tung, T. Ngo, M. Hack, J. Brown, N. Koide, Y. Nagara, Y. Kato, H. Ito, "High efficiency phosphorescent white OLED for LCD backlight and display applications," SID'04 Dig. (2004) pp. 48-51.

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