Abstract

POLICRYPS, an acronym of POlymer LIquid CRYstal Polymer Slices,is a structure made of perfectly aligned liquid crystal films separated by slices of almost pure polymer. Under suitable experimental and geometrical conditions, the structure is obtained by curing a homogeneous syrup of liquid crystal, monomer and curing agent molecules with a spatially modulated pattern of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. From an optical point of view, POLICRYPS is a holographic diffraction grating with a spatial periodicity that can be easily made of sub-micrometric scale, exhibiting diffraction efficiency values as high as 98%. Depending on the used geometry, the POLICRYPS grating can be utilized both in transmission or reflection, with negligible scattering losses,and can be switched ON and OFF by application of an external electric field of the order of few V/µm. In this paper, we review: 1) the"recipe"to fabricate POLICRYPS holographic gratings, along with their main optical and electro-optical properties; 2) a chemical-diffusive model that, taking into account sample temperature and intensity of the curing radiation, indicates the best conditions to fabricate these gratings; 3) a Kogelnik-like model that accounts for the dependence of the diffraction efficiency on material parameters, sample temperature, and applied electric field. Finally,we discuss the possibility of utilizing a micrometric sized POLICRYPS grating as a Grating Electro-Optical Pixel for high resolution display application.

© 2006 IEEE

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  13. R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton and R. F. Ushakov, "Formation of a grating of submicron nematic layers by photopolymerization of nematic-containing mixtures", J. Exp. Theor. Phys., vol. 91, pp. 1190-1197, 2000.
  14. P. W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, Oxford: U.K.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987.
  15. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 48, pp. 2909-2947, 1969.
  16. B. T. Hallam, C. V. Brown and J. R. Sambles, "Quantification of the surface-and bulk-order parameters of a homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal using fully leaky guided modes", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 86, pp. 6682-6689, 1999.
  17. Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics, New York: Wiley, 1984.
  18. P. J. de Gennes, Physics of Liquid Crystals, Oxford: U.K.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1974.
  19. A. Marino, F. Vita, V. Tkachenko, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri and G. Abbate, "Dynamical behavior of holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer slice sequence structure", Euro. Phys. J. E, vol. 15, p. 47, 2004.

Other (19)

D. M. Bloom, "The grating light valve: revolutionizing display technology", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3013, 1997, p. 165.

J. I. Trisnadi, C. B. Carlisle and R. Monteverde, "Overview and applications of grating light valve based optical write engines for high-speed digital imaging", in Photonics West 2004-Micromachining and Microfabrication Symp., San Jose, USA, 2004, paper 5348-05.

A. Payne, W. DeGroot, R. Monteverde and D. Amm, "Enabling high data-rate imaging applications with grating light valve technology", in Photonics West 2004-Micromachining and Microfabrication Symp., San Jose, USA, 2004,paper 5348-07.

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, E. Ramos, G. W. Smith, N. A. Vaz, J. L. Kohler and C. R. Allison, U.S. Patent 5 096 282, month? DAY?, (1992, filed 1990).

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning and W. W. Adams, "Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals", J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials, vol. 5, p. 89, 1996.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni and F. Simoni, "Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 91, p. 6060, 2002.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, p. 1261, 2004.

R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, A. V. Sukhov and N. V. Tabiryan, "Realization o Regular Layered Structures Made of Thin Liquid Crystal Films Separated by Slices of Polymeric Material (POLICRYPS)", Italian Patent request TO2003A000 530 of 7/9/2003,

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton and A. Veltri, "Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of new holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer slice sequence structure (POLICRYPS)", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 21, p. 1939, 2004.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, C. Umeton and R. F. Ushakov, "Mass transfer processes induced by inhomogeneous photo-polymerization in a multycomponent medium", Chem. Phys., vol. 271, p. 323, 2001.

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov and C. Umeton, "Model for the photoinduced formation of diffraction gratings in liquid-crystalline composite materials", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 84, p. 3492, 2004.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton and A. Veltri, "A Kotgelnik-like model for the diffraction efficiency of POLICRYPS gratings", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 22, p. 735, 2005.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton and R. F. Ushakov, "Formation of a grating of submicron nematic layers by photopolymerization of nematic-containing mixtures", J. Exp. Theor. Phys., vol. 91, pp. 1190-1197, 2000.

P. W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, Oxford: U.K.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987.

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 48, pp. 2909-2947, 1969.

B. T. Hallam, C. V. Brown and J. R. Sambles, "Quantification of the surface-and bulk-order parameters of a homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal using fully leaky guided modes", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 86, pp. 6682-6689, 1999.

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics, New York: Wiley, 1984.

P. J. de Gennes, Physics of Liquid Crystals, Oxford: U.K.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1974.

A. Marino, F. Vita, V. Tkachenko, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri and G. Abbate, "Dynamical behavior of holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer slice sequence structure", Euro. Phys. J. E, vol. 15, p. 47, 2004.

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