Abstract

Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

© 2006 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. S.-T. Wu and D.-K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, New York: Wiley, 2001.
  2. D.-K. Yang and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer gel dispersions: Reflective displays", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 23, 1992, p. 759.
  3. D.-K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv and J. Glasser, "Cholesteric reflective display: Drive scheme and contrast,", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 65, no. 1905, 1994.
  4. D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien and J. W. Doane, "Control of the reflectivity and bistability in displays based on cholesteric liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, no. 1331, 1994.
  5. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, New York, NY: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.
  6. M. Xu, F. D. Xu and D.-K. Yang, "Effects of cell structure on the reflection of cholesteric liquid crystal display", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 83, no. 1938, 1998.
  7. W. Greubel, U. Wolf and H. Kruger, "Electric field induced texture changes in certain nematic/cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures", Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. , vol. 24, no. 103, 1973.
  8. J. W. Doane, D.-K. Yang and Z. Yaniv, "Front-lit flat panel display from polymer stabilized cholesteric textures", in Proc. Jpn. Display, vol. 92, 1992.
  9. Z.-J. Lu, W. D. St. John, X.-Y. Huang, D.-K. Yang and J. W. Doane, "Surface modified reflective cholesteric displays", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 26, 1995.
  10. M. H. Lu, H. J. Yuan and Z. Yaniv, "Color Reflective Liquid Crystal Display", U.S. Patent 5 493 430, 1996.
  11. D. Davis, A. Kahn, X.-Y. Huang and J. W. Doane, "Eight-color high-resolution reflective cholesteric LCDs", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 29, 1998.
  12. D. Davis, K. Hoke, A. Khan, C. Jones, X. Y. Huang and J. W. Doane, "Multiple color high resolution reflective cholesteric liquid crystal displays", in Proc. Int. Display Res. Conf., vol. 242, 1997.
  13. K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa and T. Taniguchi, "Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 29, 1998.
  14. J. L. West and V. Bodnar, "Optimization of stacks of reflective cholesteric films for full color displays", in Proc. 5th Asian Symp. on Inf. Display , vol. 29, 1999.
  15. X.-Y. Huang, N. Miller, A. Khan, D. Davis and J. W. Doane, "Gray scale of bistable reflective cholesteric displays", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 29, 1998.
  16. J. Gandhi, D.-K. Yang, X.-Y. Huang and N. Miller, "Gray scale drive schemes for bistable cholesteric reflective displays", in Proc. Asia Display' 98, vol. 127, 1998.
  17. X.-Y. Huang, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos and J. W. Doane, "Dynamic drive for bistable cholesteric displays: A rapid addressing scheme", J. SID, vol. 3, no. 165, 1995.
  18. X.-Y. Huang, D.-K. Yang, P. Bos and J. W. Doane, "Dynamic drive for bistable reflective cholesteric displays: A rapid addressing scheme", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 26, 1995.
  19. R. B. Meyer, "Distortion of a cholesteric structure by a magnetic field", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 14, no. 208, 1969.
  20. M. Kawachi, O. Kogure, S. Yosji and Y. Kato, "Field-induced nematic-cholesteric relaxation in a small angle wedge", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 14, no. 1063, 1975.
  21. D.-K. Yang, Z. J. Lu, L. C. Chien and J. W. Doane, "Bistable polymer dispersed cholesteric reflective display", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXIV, 2003, pp. 959-961.
  22. I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, G. Magyar and J. W. Doane, "Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable and foldable", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXVI, 2005, pp. 1556-1559.
  23. T. Schneider, F. Nicholson, A. Kahn and J. W. Doane, "Flexible encapsulated cholsteric LCD's by polymerization induced phase separation", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXVI, 2005, pp. 1568-1571.
  24. N. Hiji, T. Kakinuma, M. Araki and Y. Hikichi, "Cholesteric liquid crystal micro-capsules with perpendicular alignment shell for photo-addressable electronic paper", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2005, pp. 1560-1563.
  25. D. R. Cairns, "Mechanical reliability of conducting polymers for rollable display applications," in Flexible Flat Panel Displays, G. P. Crawford, Ed. New York: Wiley, 2005.
  26. J. L. West, G. R. Novotny, Y. Kim and H. Wonderly, "New techniques for fabrication of flexible plastic LCDs", in Proc. IMID'01, 2001, pp. 3 -6.
  27. J. L. West, M. Roubero, J. J. Franci, Y. Ji, J. W. Doane and M. Pfeiffer, "Flexible displays untilizing bistable, refelctive cholesteric/polymer dispersions and polymer substrates", in Asia Display'95, Proc., vol. 55, 1995.
  28. S. W. Stephenson, D. M. Johnson, J. I. Kilburn, X.-D. Mi, C. M. Rankin and R. G. Capurso, "Development of a flexible electronic display using photographic technology", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXV, 2004, pp. 774-777.
  29. G. T. McCollough, C. M. Johnson and M. L. Weiner, "Roll-to-roll manufacturing considerations for flexible, cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLC) display media", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXVI, 2005, pp. 64-47.
  30. A. Poor, "Seeing big and seeing double", Inf. Display , vol. 20, Sept. 2004.
  31. T. Smith, "Fujitsu creates `first color, nonvolatile e-paper'", The Register, Jul. 13th, 2005.

Other (31)

S.-T. Wu and D.-K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, New York: Wiley, 2001.

D.-K. Yang and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer gel dispersions: Reflective displays", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 23, 1992, p. 759.

D.-K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv and J. Glasser, "Cholesteric reflective display: Drive scheme and contrast,", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 65, no. 1905, 1994.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien and J. W. Doane, "Control of the reflectivity and bistability in displays based on cholesteric liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, no. 1331, 1994.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, New York, NY: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.

M. Xu, F. D. Xu and D.-K. Yang, "Effects of cell structure on the reflection of cholesteric liquid crystal display", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 83, no. 1938, 1998.

W. Greubel, U. Wolf and H. Kruger, "Electric field induced texture changes in certain nematic/cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures", Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. , vol. 24, no. 103, 1973.

J. W. Doane, D.-K. Yang and Z. Yaniv, "Front-lit flat panel display from polymer stabilized cholesteric textures", in Proc. Jpn. Display, vol. 92, 1992.

Z.-J. Lu, W. D. St. John, X.-Y. Huang, D.-K. Yang and J. W. Doane, "Surface modified reflective cholesteric displays", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 26, 1995.

M. H. Lu, H. J. Yuan and Z. Yaniv, "Color Reflective Liquid Crystal Display", U.S. Patent 5 493 430, 1996.

D. Davis, A. Kahn, X.-Y. Huang and J. W. Doane, "Eight-color high-resolution reflective cholesteric LCDs", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 29, 1998.

D. Davis, K. Hoke, A. Khan, C. Jones, X. Y. Huang and J. W. Doane, "Multiple color high resolution reflective cholesteric liquid crystal displays", in Proc. Int. Display Res. Conf., vol. 242, 1997.

K. Hashimoto, M. Okada, K. Nishguchi, N. Masazumi, E. Yamakawa and T. Taniguchi, "Reflective color display using cholesteric liquid crystals", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 29, 1998.

J. L. West and V. Bodnar, "Optimization of stacks of reflective cholesteric films for full color displays", in Proc. 5th Asian Symp. on Inf. Display , vol. 29, 1999.

X.-Y. Huang, N. Miller, A. Khan, D. Davis and J. W. Doane, "Gray scale of bistable reflective cholesteric displays", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 29, 1998.

J. Gandhi, D.-K. Yang, X.-Y. Huang and N. Miller, "Gray scale drive schemes for bistable cholesteric reflective displays", in Proc. Asia Display' 98, vol. 127, 1998.

X.-Y. Huang, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos and J. W. Doane, "Dynamic drive for bistable cholesteric displays: A rapid addressing scheme", J. SID, vol. 3, no. 165, 1995.

X.-Y. Huang, D.-K. Yang, P. Bos and J. W. Doane, "Dynamic drive for bistable reflective cholesteric displays: A rapid addressing scheme", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 26, 1995.

R. B. Meyer, "Distortion of a cholesteric structure by a magnetic field", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 14, no. 208, 1969.

M. Kawachi, O. Kogure, S. Yosji and Y. Kato, "Field-induced nematic-cholesteric relaxation in a small angle wedge", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 14, no. 1063, 1975.

D.-K. Yang, Z. J. Lu, L. C. Chien and J. W. Doane, "Bistable polymer dispersed cholesteric reflective display", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXIV, 2003, pp. 959-961.

I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, G. Magyar and J. W. Doane, "Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable and foldable", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXVI, 2005, pp. 1556-1559.

T. Schneider, F. Nicholson, A. Kahn and J. W. Doane, "Flexible encapsulated cholsteric LCD's by polymerization induced phase separation", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXVI, 2005, pp. 1568-1571.

N. Hiji, T. Kakinuma, M. Araki and Y. Hikichi, "Cholesteric liquid crystal micro-capsules with perpendicular alignment shell for photo-addressable electronic paper", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2005, pp. 1560-1563.

D. R. Cairns, "Mechanical reliability of conducting polymers for rollable display applications," in Flexible Flat Panel Displays, G. P. Crawford, Ed. New York: Wiley, 2005.

J. L. West, G. R. Novotny, Y. Kim and H. Wonderly, "New techniques for fabrication of flexible plastic LCDs", in Proc. IMID'01, 2001, pp. 3 -6.

J. L. West, M. Roubero, J. J. Franci, Y. Ji, J. W. Doane and M. Pfeiffer, "Flexible displays untilizing bistable, refelctive cholesteric/polymer dispersions and polymer substrates", in Asia Display'95, Proc., vol. 55, 1995.

S. W. Stephenson, D. M. Johnson, J. I. Kilburn, X.-D. Mi, C. M. Rankin and R. G. Capurso, "Development of a flexible electronic display using photographic technology", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXV, 2004, pp. 774-777.

G. T. McCollough, C. M. Johnson and M. L. Weiner, "Roll-to-roll manufacturing considerations for flexible, cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLC) display media", in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. XXXVI, 2005, pp. 64-47.

A. Poor, "Seeing big and seeing double", Inf. Display , vol. 20, Sept. 2004.

T. Smith, "Fujitsu creates `first color, nonvolatile e-paper'", The Register, Jul. 13th, 2005.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.