Abstract

In LED lighting systems, consideration about dimming and flicker is necessary. It is found that conventional DC-mode technique produces flicker-free light and high luminous efficacy but poor dimming function, whereas pulse-width-modulation (PWM) technique offers better dimming flexibility but inherent flicker in comparison to DC technique. Although increasing the PWM dimming frequency could make the flicker invisible to the human eyes, the flicker still exists, and the potential health risks should not be ignored. In this paper, a cost-effective DC driving technique is proposed to improve dimming flexibility of existing DC technique while retaining flicker-free and high luminous efficacy. A current-controlled buck converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). LED current is regulated by the number of inductor current pulses during the dimming period. A method to distribute PWM pulses over the dimming period is utilized to ensure a small output voltage ripple without a large output capacitor for the buck converter. A RGB LED lamp was used in the experimental verifications. The results show that linear constant DC through LEDs could be obtained and flicker could not be found. The main tradeoff is the reduction of control precision, which is acceptable for LED outdoor lighting systems.

© 2014 IEEE

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  2. W. K. Lun, K. H. Loo, S. C. Tan, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, "Bilevel current driving technique for LEDs," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 24, 2920-2932 (2009).
  3. S. K. Ng, K. H. Loo, S. K. Ip, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, K. T. Mok, "Sequential variable bilevel driving approach suitable for use in high-color-precision LED display panels," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59, 4637-4645 (2012).
  4. L. Svilainis, "Comparison of the EMI performance of LED PWM dimming techniques for LED video display application," J. Display Technol. 8, 162-165 (2012).
  5. Y.-T. Hsieh, Y.-Z. Juang, "Analysis and suppression of overcurrent in boost LED drivers," J. Display Technol. 9, 388-395 (2013).
  6. K. I. Hwu, W. C. Tu, Y. T. Fang, "Dimmable AC LED driver with efficiency improved based on switched LED module," J. Display Technol. 10, 171-181 (2014).
  7. J.-Z. Tsai, R.-S. Chang, T.-Y. Li, T. C. Chuang, "LED backlight module by a lightguide-diffusive component with tetrahedron reflector array," J. Display Technol. 8, 321-328 (2012).
  8. D. Tran, Y. K. Tan, "Sensorless illumination control of a networked LED-lighting system using feedforward neural network," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61, 2113-2121 (2014).
  9. Y. J. Yu, F. H. Zhang, J. J. Ni, "Capacitor clamped current-sharing circuit for multistring LEDs," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61, 2423-2 (2014).
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  15. E. M. Jaén, E. M. Colombo, C. F. Kirschbaum, "A simple visual task to assess flicker effects on visual performance," Lighting Res. Technol. 43, 457-471 (2011).
  16. C.-S. Wang, "Flicker-insensitive light dimmer for incandescent lamps," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 55, 767-772 (2008).
  17. J. E. Roberts, A. J. Wilkins, "Flicker can be perceived during saccades at frequencies in excess of 1 kHz," Lighting Res. Technol. 45, 124-132 (2013).
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  21. Y. C. Li, C. L. Chen, "A novel primary-side regulation scheme for single-stage high-power-factor AC–DC LED driving circuit," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 4978-4986 (2013).
  22. D. G. Lamar, M. Arias, A. Rodriguez, A. Fernandez, M. M. Hernando, J. Sebastian, "Design-oriented analysis and performance evaluation of a low-cost high-brightness LED driver based on flyback power factor corrector," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 2614-2626 (2013).
  23. S. Buso, G. Spiazzi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, "Performance degradation of high-brightness light emitting diodes under DC and pulsed bias," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Rel. 8, 312-322 (2008).
  24. S. K. Ng, K. H. Loo, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, "Color control system for RGB LED with application to light sources suffering from prolonged aging," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61, 1788-1798 (2014).
  25. C. C. Chen, C. Y. Wu, Y. M. Chen, T. F. Wu, "Sequential color LED backlight driving system for LCD panels," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 22, 919-925 (2007).
  26. Y. Hu, M. M. Jovanovic, "LED driver with self-adaptive drive voltage," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 23, 3116-3125 (2008).
  27. S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, "Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, (2005) Art. ID 054506.
  28. A. Eastman, J. H. Campbell, "Stroboscopic and Flicker Effects from fluorescent lamps," Illum. Eng. 27-47 (1952).
  29. J. F. Kaufman, J. F. Christensen, IES Lighting Handbook (Illuminating Eng. Soc. of North Amer., 1984).
  30. A. J. Wilkins, Visual Stress (Oxford Univ., 1995).
  31. R. B. Khaparde, S. Puthiyadan, "Efficiency of a light emitting diode," Phys. Education 23, 291-298 (2007).
  32. Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) http://course.ee.ust.hk/elec342/notes/Lecture%2011_Light-emitting%20diodes%20(LEDs).pdf.
  33. T. Mukai, M. Yamada, S. Nakamura, "Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3976-3981 (1999).
  34. J. Piprek, "Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes," Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 207, 2217-2225 (2010).
  35. M. R. Krames, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
  36. M. H. Crawford, "LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1028-1040 (2009).
  37. G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, N. Tansu, "Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013).
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2014 (4)

D. Tran, Y. K. Tan, "Sensorless illumination control of a networked LED-lighting system using feedforward neural network," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61, 2113-2121 (2014).

Y. J. Yu, F. H. Zhang, J. J. Ni, "Capacitor clamped current-sharing circuit for multistring LEDs," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61, 2423-2 (2014).

K. I. Hwu, W. C. Tu, Y. T. Fang, "Dimmable AC LED driver with efficiency improved based on switched LED module," J. Display Technol. 10, 171-181 (2014).

S. K. Ng, K. H. Loo, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, "Color control system for RGB LED with application to light sources suffering from prolonged aging," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61, 1788-1798 (2014).

2013 (5)

Y.-T. Hsieh, Y.-Z. Juang, "Analysis and suppression of overcurrent in boost LED drivers," J. Display Technol. 9, 388-395 (2013).

G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, N. Tansu, "Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013).

J. E. Roberts, A. J. Wilkins, "Flicker can be perceived during saccades at frequencies in excess of 1 kHz," Lighting Res. Technol. 45, 124-132 (2013).

Y. C. Li, C. L. Chen, "A novel primary-side regulation scheme for single-stage high-power-factor AC–DC LED driving circuit," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 4978-4986 (2013).

D. G. Lamar, M. Arias, A. Rodriguez, A. Fernandez, M. M. Hernando, J. Sebastian, "Design-oriented analysis and performance evaluation of a low-cost high-brightness LED driver based on flyback power factor corrector," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 2614-2626 (2013).

2012 (4)

J.-Z. Tsai, R.-S. Chang, T.-Y. Li, T. C. Chuang, "LED backlight module by a lightguide-diffusive component with tetrahedron reflector array," J. Display Technol. 8, 321-328 (2012).

D. Gacio, J. M. Alonso, A. Calleja, J. Garcia, L. Campa, M. J. Crespo, M. Rico-Secades, "PWM series dimming for slow-dynamics HPF LED drivers: The high-frequency approach," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59, 1717-1727 (2012).

S. K. Ng, K. H. Loo, S. K. Ip, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, K. T. Mok, "Sequential variable bilevel driving approach suitable for use in high-color-precision LED display panels," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59, 4637-4645 (2012).

L. Svilainis, "Comparison of the EMI performance of LED PWM dimming techniques for LED video display application," J. Display Technol. 8, 162-165 (2012).

2011 (3)

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, N. Narendran, "Effects of flicker characteristics from solid-state lighting on detection, acceptability and comfort," Lighting Res. Technol. 43, 337-348 (2011).

E. M. Jaén, E. M. Colombo, C. F. Kirschbaum, "A simple visual task to assess flicker effects on visual performance," Lighting Res. Technol. 43, 457-471 (2011).

W. Chen, S. Y. R. Hui, "A dimmable light-emitting diode (LED) driver with mag-amp postregulators for multistring applications," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 26, 1714-1722 (2011).

2010 (1)

J. Piprek, "Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes," Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 207, 2217-2225 (2010).

2009 (4)

M. H. Crawford, "LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1028-1040 (2009).

K. H. Loo, W. K. Lun, S. C. Tan, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, "On driving Techniques for LEDs: Toward a generalized methodology," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 24, 2967-2976 (2009).

W. K. Lun, K. H. Loo, S. C. Tan, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, "Bilevel current driving technique for LEDs," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 24, 2920-2932 (2009).

J. Garcia, M. A. Dalla-Costa, J. Cardesin, J. M. Alonso, M. Rico-Secades, "Dimming of high-brightness LEDs by means of luminous flux thermal estimation," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 24, 1107-1114 (2009).

2008 (3)

C.-S. Wang, "Flicker-insensitive light dimmer for incandescent lamps," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 55, 767-772 (2008).

S. Buso, G. Spiazzi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, "Performance degradation of high-brightness light emitting diodes under DC and pulsed bias," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Rel. 8, 312-322 (2008).

Y. Hu, M. M. Jovanovic, "LED driver with self-adaptive drive voltage," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 23, 3116-3125 (2008).

2007 (3)

C. C. Chen, C. Y. Wu, Y. M. Chen, T. F. Wu, "Sequential color LED backlight driving system for LCD panels," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 22, 919-925 (2007).

M. R. Krames, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

R. B. Khaparde, S. Puthiyadan, "Efficiency of a light emitting diode," Phys. Education 23, 291-298 (2007).

2005 (1)

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, "Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, (2005) Art. ID 054506.

1999 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, S. Nakamura, "Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3976-3981 (1999).

1989 (1)

A. J. Wilkins, I. M. Nimmo-Smith, A. Slater, L. Bedocs, "Fluorescent lighting, headaches and eye-strain," Lighting Res. Technol. 21, 11-18 (1989).

1952 (1)

A. Eastman, J. H. Campbell, "Stroboscopic and Flicker Effects from fluorescent lamps," Illum. Eng. 27-47 (1952).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. H. Crawford, "LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1028-1040 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (1)

D. Gacio, J. M. Alonso, A. Calleja, J. Garcia, L. Campa, M. J. Crespo, M. Rico-Secades, "PWM series dimming for slow-dynamics HPF LED drivers: The high-frequency approach," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59, 1717-1727 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Power Electron. (1)

J. Garcia, M. A. Dalla-Costa, J. Cardesin, J. M. Alonso, M. Rico-Secades, "Dimming of high-brightness LEDs by means of luminous flux thermal estimation," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 24, 1107-1114 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, N. Tansu, "Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013).

IEEE Trans. Power Electron. (1)

K. H. Loo, W. K. Lun, S. C. Tan, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, "On driving Techniques for LEDs: Toward a generalized methodology," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 24, 2967-2976 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Rel. (1)

S. Buso, G. Spiazzi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, "Performance degradation of high-brightness light emitting diodes under DC and pulsed bias," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Rel. 8, 312-322 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (7)

S. K. Ng, K. H. Loo, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, "Color control system for RGB LED with application to light sources suffering from prolonged aging," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61, 1788-1798 (2014).

Y. C. Li, C. L. Chen, "A novel primary-side regulation scheme for single-stage high-power-factor AC–DC LED driving circuit," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 4978-4986 (2013).

D. G. Lamar, M. Arias, A. Rodriguez, A. Fernandez, M. M. Hernando, J. Sebastian, "Design-oriented analysis and performance evaluation of a low-cost high-brightness LED driver based on flyback power factor corrector," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 2614-2626 (2013).

S. K. Ng, K. H. Loo, S. K. Ip, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, K. T. Mok, "Sequential variable bilevel driving approach suitable for use in high-color-precision LED display panels," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59, 4637-4645 (2012).

D. Tran, Y. K. Tan, "Sensorless illumination control of a networked LED-lighting system using feedforward neural network," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61, 2113-2121 (2014).

Y. J. Yu, F. H. Zhang, J. J. Ni, "Capacitor clamped current-sharing circuit for multistring LEDs," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61, 2423-2 (2014).

C.-S. Wang, "Flicker-insensitive light dimmer for incandescent lamps," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 55, 767-772 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Power Electron. (4)

W. K. Lun, K. H. Loo, S. C. Tan, Y. M. Lai, C. K. Tse, "Bilevel current driving technique for LEDs," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 24, 2920-2932 (2009).

C. C. Chen, C. Y. Wu, Y. M. Chen, T. F. Wu, "Sequential color LED backlight driving system for LCD panels," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 22, 919-925 (2007).

Y. Hu, M. M. Jovanovic, "LED driver with self-adaptive drive voltage," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 23, 3116-3125 (2008).

W. Chen, S. Y. R. Hui, "A dimmable light-emitting diode (LED) driver with mag-amp postregulators for multistring applications," IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 26, 1714-1722 (2011).

Illum. Eng. (1)

A. Eastman, J. H. Campbell, "Stroboscopic and Flicker Effects from fluorescent lamps," Illum. Eng. 27-47 (1952).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J.-Z. Tsai, R.-S. Chang, T.-Y. Li, T. C. Chuang, "LED backlight module by a lightguide-diffusive component with tetrahedron reflector array," J. Display Technol. 8, 321-328 (2012).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, "Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 97, (2005) Art. ID 054506.

J. Display Technol. (1)

Y.-T. Hsieh, Y.-Z. Juang, "Analysis and suppression of overcurrent in boost LED drivers," J. Display Technol. 9, 388-395 (2013).

J. Display Technol. (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, S. Nakamura, "Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3976-3981 (1999).

Lighting Res. Technol. (2)

E. M. Jaén, E. M. Colombo, C. F. Kirschbaum, "A simple visual task to assess flicker effects on visual performance," Lighting Res. Technol. 43, 457-471 (2011).

J. E. Roberts, A. J. Wilkins, "Flicker can be perceived during saccades at frequencies in excess of 1 kHz," Lighting Res. Technol. 45, 124-132 (2013).

Lighting Res. Technol. (2)

A. J. Wilkins, I. M. Nimmo-Smith, A. Slater, L. Bedocs, "Fluorescent lighting, headaches and eye-strain," Lighting Res. Technol. 21, 11-18 (1989).

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, N. Narendran, "Effects of flicker characteristics from solid-state lighting on detection, acceptability and comfort," Lighting Res. Technol. 43, 337-348 (2011).

Phys. Education (1)

R. B. Khaparde, S. Puthiyadan, "Efficiency of a light emitting diode," Phys. Education 23, 291-298 (2007).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) (1)

J. Piprek, "Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes," Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 207, 2217-2225 (2010).

Other (7)

Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) http://course.ee.ust.hk/elec342/notes/Lecture%2011_Light-emitting%20diodes%20(LEDs).pdf.

J. F. Kaufman, J. F. Christensen, IES Lighting Handbook (Illuminating Eng. Soc. of North Amer., 1984).

A. J. Wilkins, Visual Stress (Oxford Univ., 1995).

B. Lehman, A. Wilkins, S. Berman, M. Poplawski, N. J. Miller, "Proposing measures of flicker in the low frequencies for lighting applications," Proc. IEEE Energy Conv. Congress Expo. (2011) pp. 2865-2872.

A Review of the Literature on Light Flicker: Ergonomics, Biological Attributes, Potential Health Effects, and Methods in Which Some LED Lighting May Introduce Flicker IEEE Standard P1789.

A. Wilkins, J. Veitch, B. Lehman, "LED lighting flicker and potential health concerns: IEEE Standard PAR1789 Update," Proc. IEEE Energy Conv. Congress Expo. (2010) pp. 171-178.

“Cree sets new R&D performance record with 254 lumen-per-watt power LED,” (2012) http://www.cree.com/news-and-events/cree-news/press-releases/2012/april/120412-254-lumen-per-watt.

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