Abstract

Head-up displays (HUDs) have become an integral part of the fighter aircraft and are now becoming increasingly popular in various nonmilitary sectors also. It enhances the pilot's performance by providing him with all of the flight, aircraft, target, and weapon data in collimated fashion superimposed on his forward view. The collimation of HUD symbology and infrared raster image removes requirement of refocusing eyes on outside events. However, there are attention capture and cognitive tunneling issues related with usage of HUD in aircraft. In this paper, effect of obstruction due to beam combiner frame in form of misaccommodation, misconvergence, and limited horizontal field of view (FOV) on attention capture of aircraft pilot has been presented. While the beam combiner frame is necessary to hold wavelength selective glasses, they provide obscuration in forward view of pilot in both, total field of view (TFOV) as well as instantaneous field of view (IFOV). Angle of combiner frame structure and its width present different degrees of obscuration to the pilot within the head motion box (HMB). These limitations cause inappropriate distribution of pilot's attention on outside events and aircraft events, as he has to adjust his head position to view the obscured part of outside world. This forces him to focus his attention more on outside events which may make him miss some event on HUD symbology. The study and experimental results have been presented in detail to corroborate this fact.

© 2014 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Y. C. Chen, R. V. N. Oden, L. Eifert, A. L. Rodriguez, "Effectiveness of head-up display for driver performance," WSTIAC J. 11, 3-8 (2011) http://wstiac.alionscience.com/pdf/WQV11N1.pdf.
  2. K. Vinod, S. Yaduvir, P. P. Bajpai, H. Garg, "Study of attention capture aspects with respect to contrast ratio for wide background luminance range in head-up displays," Proc. Int. Multiconf. Eng. Comput. Scientists (2012).
  3. W. Ercoline, "The good, the bad, and the ugly of head-up displays," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 19, 66-70 (2000).
  4. G. O. Billingsley, J. K. Kuchar, S. W. Jacobson, "Head-up display symbology for ground collision avoidance," Proc. 18th AIAA/IEEE/SAE Digital Avionics Syst. Conf. (1999) pp. 4.D.1-1-4.D.1-8.
  5. P. A. May, C. D. Wickens, "The role of visual attention in head-up displays: Design implications for varying symbol intensity," Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomics Soc. 39th Annu. Meeting (1995) pp. 50-54.
  6. D. J. Weintraub, R. F. Haines, R. J. Randle, "Head-up display (HUD) utility: Runway to HUD transition monitoring eye focus and decision times," Proc. Human Factors Soc. 29th Annu. Meeting (1985) pp. 615-619.
  7. R. M. Hueschen, W. W. Hankins, L. K. Barker, "Description and flight test of a rollout and turnoff (ROTO) head-up display (HUD) guidance system," Proc. 17th AIAA/IEEE/SAE Digital Avionics Syst. Conf. (1998) pp. F22/1-F22/8.
  8. P. M. Ververs, C. D. Wickens, “Conformal flight path symbology for head-up displays: Defining the distribution of visual attention in three-dimensional space,” Univ. Illinois—Inst. of Aviation Tech. Rep. ARL-9-5/FAA-98-1 (1998).
  9. V. Karar, S. Ghosh, "Soft computing based hud brightness switching system for mitigating tunneling effect," Int. J. Electron. Commun. Comput. Eng. 3, 919-925 (2012).
  10. G. L. Calhoun, Pilot-Vehicle Interface pp. 5.1-5.20.
  11. M. B. Micheal, E. R. Clarence, H. B. James, "Introduction to helmet mounted displays," Proc. SPIE Helmet-Mounted Displays: Sensation, Perception and Cognition Issues (2000) pp. 57-84.
  12. W. G. Kenneth, L. Staplin, “Human factors aspects of using head UP displays in automobiles: A review of the literature,” U.S. Dep. Transportation, Nat. Highway Traffic Safety Admin. (1995) Interim Rep..
  13. S. Klepper, "Augmented reality—Display systems," Article on Surveys of Display Systems Prominently Employed in AR Applications (2007) pp. 1-24.
  14. L. J. Prinzel, M. Risser, “Head-up displays and attention capture,” Langley Res. Center Tech. Rep. NASA/TM-2004 (2004).
  15. J. Crawford, A. Neal, "A review of the perceptual and cognitive issues associated with the use of head-up displays in commercial aviation," Int. J. Aviation Psychol. 16, 1-19 (2006).
  16. J. Mandelbaum, "An accommodation phenomenon," Archives Ophthalmol. 63, 923-926 (1960).
  17. D. B. Beringer, J. D. Ball, "A comparison of pilot navigation performance using conventional instrumentation, head-down, and head-up highway-in-the-sky primary flight displays," Proc. Human Factors and Ergonom. Soc. 45th Annu. Meeting (2001).
  18. L. Biberman, E. Aliuisi, “Pilot errors involving head-up displays (HUDs), helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), and night-vision goggles (NVGs),” Inst. Defense AnalysesAlexandriaVAUSA IDA Tech. Rep. P-2638 (1992).
  19. D. J. Weintraub, M. J. Ensing, “Human factors issues in head-up display design: Book of HUD AAMRLWright-Patterson AFBOHUSA State of the Art Rep. 92-2 (1992).
  20. K. Leslie, “Issues and challenges of 3D user interfaces: Effects of distraction,” (2007) www.informatik.tu-uenchen.de/konferenzen/Jass07/courses/3/1_3D-UIs-Effects-of-Distraction_Report.pdf.
  21. C. D. Wickens, A. L. Alexander, "Attentional tunneling and task management in synthetic vision displays," Int. J. Aviation Psychol. 19, 182-199 (2009).
  22. M. Tonnis, “Time-critical supportive augmented reality-issues on cognitive capture and perceptional tunnelling,” http://campar.in.tum.de/pub/toennis2006ismarsc/toennis2006ismarsc.pdf (2006).
  23. R. Bhola, Binocular Vision MD Dep. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. Univ. IowaAmesIAUSA (2006) http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/eyeforum/tutorials/BINOCULAR-VISION.pdf.
  24. V. Charissis, S. Papanastasiou, "Human–machine collaboration through vehicle head up display interface," Cogn., Technol. Work 12, 41-50 (2010).
  25. "HUD with a velocity (flight path) vector reduces lateral error during landing in restricted visibility," Int. J. Aviation Psychol. 17, 91-108 (2007).
  26. B. D. Lawson, A. M. Kelley, J. R. Athy, "Team performance measures for use in military research," Aviation, Space, Environmen. Med. 82, 261-262 (2011).

2012

V. Karar, S. Ghosh, "Soft computing based hud brightness switching system for mitigating tunneling effect," Int. J. Electron. Commun. Comput. Eng. 3, 919-925 (2012).

2011

J. Y. C. Chen, R. V. N. Oden, L. Eifert, A. L. Rodriguez, "Effectiveness of head-up display for driver performance," WSTIAC J. 11, 3-8 (2011) http://wstiac.alionscience.com/pdf/WQV11N1.pdf.

B. D. Lawson, A. M. Kelley, J. R. Athy, "Team performance measures for use in military research," Aviation, Space, Environmen. Med. 82, 261-262 (2011).

2010

V. Charissis, S. Papanastasiou, "Human–machine collaboration through vehicle head up display interface," Cogn., Technol. Work 12, 41-50 (2010).

2009

C. D. Wickens, A. L. Alexander, "Attentional tunneling and task management in synthetic vision displays," Int. J. Aviation Psychol. 19, 182-199 (2009).

2007

"HUD with a velocity (flight path) vector reduces lateral error during landing in restricted visibility," Int. J. Aviation Psychol. 17, 91-108 (2007).

2006

J. Crawford, A. Neal, "A review of the perceptual and cognitive issues associated with the use of head-up displays in commercial aviation," Int. J. Aviation Psychol. 16, 1-19 (2006).

2000

W. Ercoline, "The good, the bad, and the ugly of head-up displays," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 19, 66-70 (2000).

1960

J. Mandelbaum, "An accommodation phenomenon," Archives Ophthalmol. 63, 923-926 (1960).

Archives Ophthalmol.

J. Mandelbaum, "An accommodation phenomenon," Archives Ophthalmol. 63, 923-926 (1960).

Aviation, Space, Environmen. Med.

B. D. Lawson, A. M. Kelley, J. R. Athy, "Team performance measures for use in military research," Aviation, Space, Environmen. Med. 82, 261-262 (2011).

Cogn., Technol. Work

V. Charissis, S. Papanastasiou, "Human–machine collaboration through vehicle head up display interface," Cogn., Technol. Work 12, 41-50 (2010).

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.

W. Ercoline, "The good, the bad, and the ugly of head-up displays," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 19, 66-70 (2000).

Int. J. Aviation Psychol.

C. D. Wickens, A. L. Alexander, "Attentional tunneling and task management in synthetic vision displays," Int. J. Aviation Psychol. 19, 182-199 (2009).

Int. J. Electron. Commun. Comput. Eng.

V. Karar, S. Ghosh, "Soft computing based hud brightness switching system for mitigating tunneling effect," Int. J. Electron. Commun. Comput. Eng. 3, 919-925 (2012).

Int. J. Aviation Psychol.

"HUD with a velocity (flight path) vector reduces lateral error during landing in restricted visibility," Int. J. Aviation Psychol. 17, 91-108 (2007).

J. Crawford, A. Neal, "A review of the perceptual and cognitive issues associated with the use of head-up displays in commercial aviation," Int. J. Aviation Psychol. 16, 1-19 (2006).

WSTIAC J.

J. Y. C. Chen, R. V. N. Oden, L. Eifert, A. L. Rodriguez, "Effectiveness of head-up display for driver performance," WSTIAC J. 11, 3-8 (2011) http://wstiac.alionscience.com/pdf/WQV11N1.pdf.

Other

K. Vinod, S. Yaduvir, P. P. Bajpai, H. Garg, "Study of attention capture aspects with respect to contrast ratio for wide background luminance range in head-up displays," Proc. Int. Multiconf. Eng. Comput. Scientists (2012).

M. Tonnis, “Time-critical supportive augmented reality-issues on cognitive capture and perceptional tunnelling,” http://campar.in.tum.de/pub/toennis2006ismarsc/toennis2006ismarsc.pdf (2006).

R. Bhola, Binocular Vision MD Dep. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. Univ. IowaAmesIAUSA (2006) http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/eyeforum/tutorials/BINOCULAR-VISION.pdf.

D. B. Beringer, J. D. Ball, "A comparison of pilot navigation performance using conventional instrumentation, head-down, and head-up highway-in-the-sky primary flight displays," Proc. Human Factors and Ergonom. Soc. 45th Annu. Meeting (2001).

L. Biberman, E. Aliuisi, “Pilot errors involving head-up displays (HUDs), helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), and night-vision goggles (NVGs),” Inst. Defense AnalysesAlexandriaVAUSA IDA Tech. Rep. P-2638 (1992).

D. J. Weintraub, M. J. Ensing, “Human factors issues in head-up display design: Book of HUD AAMRLWright-Patterson AFBOHUSA State of the Art Rep. 92-2 (1992).

K. Leslie, “Issues and challenges of 3D user interfaces: Effects of distraction,” (2007) www.informatik.tu-uenchen.de/konferenzen/Jass07/courses/3/1_3D-UIs-Effects-of-Distraction_Report.pdf.

G. L. Calhoun, Pilot-Vehicle Interface pp. 5.1-5.20.

M. B. Micheal, E. R. Clarence, H. B. James, "Introduction to helmet mounted displays," Proc. SPIE Helmet-Mounted Displays: Sensation, Perception and Cognition Issues (2000) pp. 57-84.

W. G. Kenneth, L. Staplin, “Human factors aspects of using head UP displays in automobiles: A review of the literature,” U.S. Dep. Transportation, Nat. Highway Traffic Safety Admin. (1995) Interim Rep..

S. Klepper, "Augmented reality—Display systems," Article on Surveys of Display Systems Prominently Employed in AR Applications (2007) pp. 1-24.

L. J. Prinzel, M. Risser, “Head-up displays and attention capture,” Langley Res. Center Tech. Rep. NASA/TM-2004 (2004).

G. O. Billingsley, J. K. Kuchar, S. W. Jacobson, "Head-up display symbology for ground collision avoidance," Proc. 18th AIAA/IEEE/SAE Digital Avionics Syst. Conf. (1999) pp. 4.D.1-1-4.D.1-8.

P. A. May, C. D. Wickens, "The role of visual attention in head-up displays: Design implications for varying symbol intensity," Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomics Soc. 39th Annu. Meeting (1995) pp. 50-54.

D. J. Weintraub, R. F. Haines, R. J. Randle, "Head-up display (HUD) utility: Runway to HUD transition monitoring eye focus and decision times," Proc. Human Factors Soc. 29th Annu. Meeting (1985) pp. 615-619.

R. M. Hueschen, W. W. Hankins, L. K. Barker, "Description and flight test of a rollout and turnoff (ROTO) head-up display (HUD) guidance system," Proc. 17th AIAA/IEEE/SAE Digital Avionics Syst. Conf. (1998) pp. F22/1-F22/8.

P. M. Ververs, C. D. Wickens, “Conformal flight path symbology for head-up displays: Defining the distribution of visual attention in three-dimensional space,” Univ. Illinois—Inst. of Aviation Tech. Rep. ARL-9-5/FAA-98-1 (1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.