Abstract

Hybrid sensor/display pixels and their operating schemes are proposed, simulated, and characterized. The circuit design implemented a phototransistor connected to a drive thin-film transistor (TFT) and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The circuits were fabricated using hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) TFTs as a hybrid photosensor/switching device. The light sensitivity of the phototransistors and response to incident illumination were modeled and verified experimentally for different white-light intensities. The pixel gray scale was determined by the pulse-height voltage modulation from the phototransistor, which was varied by changing the light intensity. The resulting circuits have a wide dynamic range with a light to dark output current ratio of $10^{4}$ for TFTs having channel lengths of $<{{10}}\ \mu{m}$ and light intensity up to $\sim {{8}}\ {{mW/cm}}^{2}$. A 256-RGB-level imaging scale is possible with 5-nA steps for each grey scale in a pixel array matrix having a refresh rate of more than 200 Hz.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. L. E. Antonuk, J. M. Boudry, C. W. Kim, M. Longo, E. J. Morton, J. Yorkston, R. A. Street, "Signal, noise, and readout considerations in the development of amorphous silicon photodiode arrays for radiotherapy and diagnostic x-ray imaging," Proc. SPIE (1991) pp. 108.
  2. K. S. Karim, A. Nathan, J. A. Rowlands, "Amorphous silicon active pixel sensor readout circuit for digital imaging," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 200-208 (2003).
  3. N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, D. K. Papakostas, "An improved optical feedback pixel driver circuit," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 229-235 (2009).
  4. B. Richter, U. Vogel, R. Herold, K. Fehse, S. Brenner, L. Kroker, J. Baumgarten, "Bidirectional OLED microdisplay: Combining display and image sensor functionality into a monolithic CMOS chip," IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers pp. 314-316.
  5. T. Nishibe, H. Nakamura, "Value-added circuit and function integration for SOG (System-on Glass) based on LTPS technology," SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1091.
  6. K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, D. Palanker, "Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density," Nature Photon. 6, 391-397 (2012).
  7. H. S. Park, T. J. Ha, Y. Hong, M. K. Han, D. H. Woo, K. S. Shin, C. W. Kim, "A self-reset ambient-light sensor system for low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon active-matrix displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 16, 889 (2008).
  8. S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Park, N. K. Son, A. R. Kim, J. H. Hur, J. H. Kwo, J. Jang, K. J. Im, D. Lee, D. S. Jeong, Y. G. Mo, H. K. Chung, "A 2 inch LTPS AMOLED with an embedded lateral p-i-n photodiode sensors," SID 08 Dig. pp. 724-727.
  9. A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, "Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology," Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 12, 113-142 (2004).
  10. W. Ji, L. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Wang, G. Liu, W. Xie, H. Zhang, "High efficiency top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices with a (metal/organic)2 cathode," Current Appl. Phys. 11, 1410-1413 (2011).
  11. M. R. Esmaeili-Rad, N. P. Papadopoulos, M. Bauza, A. Nathan, W. S. Wong, "Blue light sensitive phototransistor for indirect X-ray image sensors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 567-569 (2012).
  12. N. P. Papadopoulos, M. Yang, M. R. Esmaeili-Rad, M. Sachdev, W. S. Wong, "Discussing pixel circuits for hybrid sensor and display pixel arrays," Proc. IDW/AD () pp. 325-328.
  13. M. R. Esmaeili-Rad, F. Li, A. Sazonov, A. Nathan, "Stability of nanocrystalline silicon bottom-gate thin film transistors with silicon nitride gate dielectric," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064512-1-7 (2007) Also appeared in Virtual J. Nanoscale Sci. Technol., vol. 16, no. 16, 2007.
  14. N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, D. K. Papakostas, R. Picos, C. A. Dimitriadis, S. Siskos, "A light-impact model for p-type and n-type poly-Si TFTs," J. Display Technol. 5, 265-272 (2009).
  15. K. Ishihara, T. Tsuruma, Y. Iguchi, T. Sawada, M. Watanabe, Y. Maki, "Implementation of optical response of thin film transistor with verilog-a for mobile LCD applications," Proc. IEEE Int. Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Workshop (2008) pp. 39-44.
  16. F. Taghibakhsh, I. Khodami, K. S. Karim, "Characterization of short-wavelength-selective a-Si:H MSM photoconductors for large-area digital-imaging applications," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 337-342 (2008).
  17. K. Sakariya, A. Nathan, "Leakage and charge injection optimization in a-Si AMOLED displays," J. Display Technol. 2, 254-257 (2006).

2012

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, D. Palanker, "Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density," Nature Photon. 6, 391-397 (2012).

M. R. Esmaeili-Rad, N. P. Papadopoulos, M. Bauza, A. Nathan, W. S. Wong, "Blue light sensitive phototransistor for indirect X-ray image sensors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 567-569 (2012).

2011

W. Ji, L. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Wang, G. Liu, W. Xie, H. Zhang, "High efficiency top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices with a (metal/organic)2 cathode," Current Appl. Phys. 11, 1410-1413 (2011).

2009

N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, D. K. Papakostas, R. Picos, C. A. Dimitriadis, S. Siskos, "A light-impact model for p-type and n-type poly-Si TFTs," J. Display Technol. 5, 265-272 (2009).

N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, D. K. Papakostas, "An improved optical feedback pixel driver circuit," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 229-235 (2009).

2008

H. S. Park, T. J. Ha, Y. Hong, M. K. Han, D. H. Woo, K. S. Shin, C. W. Kim, "A self-reset ambient-light sensor system for low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon active-matrix displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 16, 889 (2008).

F. Taghibakhsh, I. Khodami, K. S. Karim, "Characterization of short-wavelength-selective a-Si:H MSM photoconductors for large-area digital-imaging applications," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 337-342 (2008).

2007

M. R. Esmaeili-Rad, F. Li, A. Sazonov, A. Nathan, "Stability of nanocrystalline silicon bottom-gate thin film transistors with silicon nitride gate dielectric," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064512-1-7 (2007) Also appeared in Virtual J. Nanoscale Sci. Technol., vol. 16, no. 16, 2007.

2006

K. Sakariya, A. Nathan, "Leakage and charge injection optimization in a-Si AMOLED displays," J. Display Technol. 2, 254-257 (2006).

2004

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, "Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology," Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 12, 113-142 (2004).

2003

K. S. Karim, A. Nathan, J. A. Rowlands, "Amorphous silicon active pixel sensor readout circuit for digital imaging," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 200-208 (2003).

Current Appl. Phys.

W. Ji, L. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Wang, G. Liu, W. Xie, H. Zhang, "High efficiency top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices with a (metal/organic)2 cathode," Current Appl. Phys. 11, 1410-1413 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

K. S. Karim, A. Nathan, J. A. Rowlands, "Amorphous silicon active pixel sensor readout circuit for digital imaging," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 200-208 (2003).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

M. R. Esmaeili-Rad, N. P. Papadopoulos, M. Bauza, A. Nathan, W. S. Wong, "Blue light sensitive phototransistor for indirect X-ray image sensors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 567-569 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

N. P. Papadopoulos, A. A. Hatzopoulos, D. K. Papakostas, "An improved optical feedback pixel driver circuit," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 229-235 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

F. Taghibakhsh, I. Khodami, K. S. Karim, "Characterization of short-wavelength-selective a-Si:H MSM photoconductors for large-area digital-imaging applications," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 337-342 (2008).

J. Soc. Inf. Display

H. S. Park, T. J. Ha, Y. Hong, M. K. Han, D. H. Woo, K. S. Shin, C. W. Kim, "A self-reset ambient-light sensor system for low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon active-matrix displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 16, 889 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys.

M. R. Esmaeili-Rad, F. Li, A. Sazonov, A. Nathan, "Stability of nanocrystalline silicon bottom-gate thin film transistors with silicon nitride gate dielectric," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064512-1-7 (2007) Also appeared in Virtual J. Nanoscale Sci. Technol., vol. 16, no. 16, 2007.

J. Display Technol.

K. Sakariya, A. Nathan, "Leakage and charge injection optimization in a-Si AMOLED displays," J. Display Technol. 2, 254-257 (2006).

J. Display Technol.

Nature Photon.

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, D. Palanker, "Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density," Nature Photon. 6, 391-397 (2012).

Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, "Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology," Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 12, 113-142 (2004).

Other

K. Ishihara, T. Tsuruma, Y. Iguchi, T. Sawada, M. Watanabe, Y. Maki, "Implementation of optical response of thin film transistor with verilog-a for mobile LCD applications," Proc. IEEE Int. Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Workshop (2008) pp. 39-44.

N. P. Papadopoulos, M. Yang, M. R. Esmaeili-Rad, M. Sachdev, W. S. Wong, "Discussing pixel circuits for hybrid sensor and display pixel arrays," Proc. IDW/AD () pp. 325-328.

L. E. Antonuk, J. M. Boudry, C. W. Kim, M. Longo, E. J. Morton, J. Yorkston, R. A. Street, "Signal, noise, and readout considerations in the development of amorphous silicon photodiode arrays for radiotherapy and diagnostic x-ray imaging," Proc. SPIE (1991) pp. 108.

S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Park, N. K. Son, A. R. Kim, J. H. Hur, J. H. Kwo, J. Jang, K. J. Im, D. Lee, D. S. Jeong, Y. G. Mo, H. K. Chung, "A 2 inch LTPS AMOLED with an embedded lateral p-i-n photodiode sensors," SID 08 Dig. pp. 724-727.

B. Richter, U. Vogel, R. Herold, K. Fehse, S. Brenner, L. Kroker, J. Baumgarten, "Bidirectional OLED microdisplay: Combining display and image sensor functionality into a monolithic CMOS chip," IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers pp. 314-316.

T. Nishibe, H. Nakamura, "Value-added circuit and function integration for SOG (System-on Glass) based on LTPS technology," SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1091.

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