Abstract

Quantum dots (QDs)-based backlight greatly enhances the color performance for liquid crystal displays (LCDs). In this review paper, we start with a brief introduction of QD backlight, and then present a systematic photometric approach to reveal the remarkable advantages of QD backlight over white LED, such as much wider color gamut, higher optical efficiency, enhanced ambient contrast ratio, and smaller color shift. Some popular LC modes are investigated, including twisted nematic, fringing field switching (FFS) for touch panels, multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA) for TVs, and blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) for next-generation displays. Especially, QD-enhanced BPLC combines the major advantages of FFS and submillisecond response time. It has potential to become a unified display solution.

© 2014 IEEE

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2014

C. B. J. Steckel, W. Liu, J. Xi, C. Hamilton, S. Coe-Sullivan, "Quantum dots: The ultimate down-conversion material for LCDs," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 45, (2014).

Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, "Recent advances on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal materials and devices," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 40556 (2014).

H.-M. Kim, J. Jang, "High-Efficiency inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes for displays," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 45, (2014).

J. H. Oh, K.-H. Lee, H. C. Yoon, H. Yang, Y. R. Do, "Color-by-blue display using blue quantum dot light-emitting diodes and green/red color converting phosphors," Opt. Express 22, A511-A520 (2014).

J. Kurtin, N. Puetz, B. Theobald, N. Stott, J. Osinski, "12.5: quantum dots for high-color-gamut LCDs using an on-chip LED solution," SID Dig. Tech. Papers (2014).

Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, "A spatiotemporal four-primary color LCD with quantum dots," J. Display Technol. 10, 367-372 (2014).

2013

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, S. T. Wu, "Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal," J. Display Technol. 9, 74-77 (2013).

D. M. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. F. Liu, S. T. Wu, "Refraction effect in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal cell," Opt. Express 21, 24721-24735 (2013).

Z. Luo, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, "Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight," Opt. Express 21, 26269-26284 (2013).

J.-K. Yoon, E.-M. Park, J.-S. Son, H.-W. Shin, H.-E. Kim, M. Yee, H.-G. Kim, C.-H. Oh, B.-C. Ahn, "27.2: the study of picture quality of OLED TV with WRGB OLEDs structure," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 326-329 (2013).

C.-Y. Tsai, T.-J. Tseng, L.-Y. Wang, F.-C. Yu, Y.-F. Lan, P.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Lin, K.-M. Chen, B.-S. Tseng, C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, "17.1: Invited paper: Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays applying novel groove cell structure," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 182-183 (2013).

M. J. Anc, N. L. Pickett, N. C. Gresty, J. A. Harris, K. C. Mishra, "Progress in Non-Cd quantum dot development for lighting applications," J. Solid State Sci. Technol 2, R3071-R3082 (2013).

S. Coe-Sullivanz, W. Liu, P. Allen, J. S. Steckel, "Quantum dots for LED downconversion in display applications," J. Solid State Sci. Technol 2, 3026-3030 (2013).

Y. F. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. X. Zhang, R. D. Zhu, D. M. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, S. T. Wu, "Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131102 (2013).

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, S. T. Wu, "High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications," Crystals 3, 483-503 (2013).

J. S. Steckel, R. Colby, W. Liu, K. Hutchinson, C. Breen, J. Ritter, S. Coe-Sullivan, "68.1: Invited paper: Quantum dot manufacturing requirements for the high volume LCD market," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 943-945 (2013).

J. Chen, V. Hardev, J. Yurek, "Quantum-Dot displays: Giving LCDs a competitive edge through color," Inf. Display 29, 12-17 (2013).

D. Barnes, "5.1: Invited paper: LCD or OLED: Who wins?," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 26-27 (2013).

J. H. Lee, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, H. C. Choi, B. K. Kim, Y. Yin, "5.3: Invited paper: AH-IPS, superb display for mobile device," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 32-33 (2013).

Y. Ukai, "5.2: Invited paper: TFT-LCDs as the future leading role in FPD," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 28-31 (2013).

R. M. Soneira, "Tablet display technology shoot-out," Inf. Display 29, 12-21 (2013).

S. H. Ji, H. C. Lee, J. M. Yoon, J. C. Lim, M. Jun, E. Yeo, "P.91: adobe RGB LCD monitor with 3 primary colors by deep green color filter technology," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 1332-1334 (2013).

S. Kim, S. H. Im, S. W. Kim, "Performance of light-emitting-diode based on quantum dots," Nanoscale 5, 5205-5214 (2013).

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, V. Bulovic, "Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies," Nat. Photonics 7, 13-23 (2013).

2012

S. H. Lee, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. S. Jin, K. U. Jeong, "Devices and materials for high-performance mobile liquid crystal displays," J. Mater. Chem. 22, 11893-11903 (2012).

J. Chen, V. Hardev, J. Hartlove, J. Hofler, E. Lee, "66.1: Distinguised paper: A high-efficiency wide-color-gamut solid-state backlight system for LCDs using quantum dot enhancement film," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 43, 895-896 (2012).

X. Y. Yang, D. W. Zhao, K. S. Leck, S. T. Tan, Y. X. Tang, J. L. Zhao, H. V. Demir, X. W. Sun, "Full visible range covering InP/ZnS nanocrystals with high photometric performance and their application to white quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 24, 4180-4185 (2012).

Y. Hirakata, D. Kubota, A. Yamashita, T. Ishitani, T. Nishi, H. Miyake, H. Miyairi, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, T. Cho, M. Sakakura, "A novel field-sequential blue-phase-mode AMLCD," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 20, 38-46 (2012).

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, H. J. Hur, "Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy," Liq. Cryst. 39, 1141-1148 (2012).

J. Lim, W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, S. Lee, C. Lee, K. Char, "Perspective on synthesis, device structures, and printing processes for quantum dot displays," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 594-628 (2012).

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, S. T. Wu, "Blue-Phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching," J. Display Technol. 8, 98-103 (2012).

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, C. H. Lin, K. H. Liu, S. T. Wu, "Wide-View vertical field switching blue-phase LCD," J. Display Technol. 8, 627-633 (2012).

2011

H. Menkara, R. A. Gilstrap, T. Morris, M. Minkara, B. K. Wagner, C. J. Summers, "Development of nanophosphors for light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 19, A972-A981 (2011).

S. Ithurria, G. Bousquet, B. Dubertret, "Continuous transition from 3D to 1D confinement observed during the formation of cdse nanoplatelets," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 133, 3070-3077 (2011).

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, D. Y. Jeon, "Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED," J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90-93 (2011).

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, "A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201105 (2011).

R. L. Donofrio, "Review paper: The Helmholtz–Kohlrausch effect," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 658-664 (2011).

A. Sitt, A. Salant, G. Menagen, U. Banin, "Highly emissive nano rod-in-rod heterostructures with strong linear polarization," Nano Lett. 11, 2054-2060 (2011).

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, E. Mutlugun, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmuller, "Quantum dot integrated LEDs using photonic and excitonic color conversion," Nano Today 6, 632-647 (2011).

J. Yan, L. H. Rao, M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, S. T. Wu, "Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 7870-7877 (2011).

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. G. Xue, P. H. Holloway, "Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures," Nat. Photon. 5, 543-548 (2011).

J. Lim, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, X. Zuo, R. Yang, Y. Ko, H. Jung, "P-213L: late-news poster: Optimization of high-aperture-ratio fringe-field-switching pressure-resistance characteristic for touch-screen display," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 1650-1653 (2011).

2010

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Z. Jiao, L. H. Rao, S. T. Wu, "Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).

H. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, B. H. Han, "Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 18, 57-65 (2010).

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, Y. Kim, "White-Light-Emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights," Adv. Mater. 22, 3076-3080 (2010).

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, "Zigzag electrodes for suppressing the color shift of Kerr effect-based liquid crystal displays," J. Display Technol. 6, 115-120 (2010).

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, "Zigzag electrodes for suppressing the color shift of Kerr effect-based liquid crystal displays," J. Display Technol. 6, 115-120 (2010).

M. Green, "The nature of quantum dot capping ligands," J. Mater. Chem. 20, 5797-5809 (2010).

A. M. Smith, S. M. Nie, "Semiconductor nanocrystals: Structure, properties, and band gap engineering," Accounts Chem Res 43, 190-200 (2010).

L. H. Rao, H. C. Cheng, S. T. Wu, "Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields," J. Display Technol. 6, 287-289 (2010).

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, "Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals," J. Display Technol. 6, 318-322 (2010).

2009

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, H. P. D. Shieh, "A field sequential color LCD based on color fields arrangement for color breakup and flicker reduction," J. Display Technol. 5, 34-39 (2009).

P. Reiss, M. Protiere, L. Li, "Core/shell semiconductor nanocrystals," Small 5, 154-168 (2009).

S. H. Lee, S. M. Kim, S.-T. Wu, "Review paper: Emerging vertical-alignment liquid-crystal technology associated with surface modification using UV-curable monomer," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 551-559 (2009).

H. Choi, J. H. Yeo, G. D. Lee, "Zig-zag electrode pattern for high brightness in a super in-plane-switching liquid-crystal cell," J. Soc. Info. Disp. 17, 827-831 (2009).

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. H. Lee, "Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).

M. Schadt, "Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 03B001 (2009).

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, T. Takeda, "Wide color gamut backlight for liquid crystal displays using three-band phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys.Express 2, 022401 (2009).

2008

R. B. Lu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "LED-lit LCD TVs," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 246-259 (2008).

M. Anandan, "Progress of LED backlights for LCDs," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 287-310 (2008).

S. Ithurria, B. Dubertret, "Quasi 2D colloidal CdSe platelets with thicknesses controlled at the atomic level," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 130, 16504-16505 (2008).

T. Ishinabe, K. Wako, K. Sekiya, T. Kishimoto, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, "High-performance OCB-mode field-sequential-color LCD," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 16, 251-256 (2008).

Y. Zhang, X. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Shi, W. Song, W. Lei, "Motion-blur characterization with simulation method for mobile LCDs," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 1115-1123 (2008).

2007

H. Hong, H. Shin, I. Chung, "In-plane switching technology for liquid crystal display television," J. Display Technol. 3, 361-370 (2007).

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Y. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, "Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots," Nat. Photon. 1, 717-722 (2007).

2006

2005

R. B. Lu, X. Y. Zhu, S. T. Wu, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, "Ultrawide-View liquid crystal displays," J. Display Technol. 1, 3-14 (2005).

J. H. Lee, X. Y. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, S. T. Wu, "High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device," Opt. Express 13, 9431-9438 (2005).

H. Y. Kim, S. M. Seen, Y. H. Jeong, G. H. Kim, T. Y. Eom, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, "P-164: pressure-resistant characteristic of fringe-field switching (FFS) mode depending on the distance between pixel electrodes," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 36, 325-327 (2005).

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Y. Zhu, R. B. Lu, S. T. Wu, "Extraordinarily high-contrast and wide-view liquid-crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).

2004

S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, K. H. Kim, J. K. Song, "New technologies for advanced LCD-TV performance," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 12, 353-359 (2004).

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, Y. Nishida, T. Kurita, "43.3: summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 35, 1262-1265 (2004).

2002

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, "Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases," Nat. Mater 1, 64-68 (2002).

2001

J. T. Hu, L. S. Li, W. D. Yang, L. Manna, L. W. Wang, A. P. Alivisatos, "Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods," Sci. 292, 2060-2063 (2001).

1998

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, "41.1: a super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077-1080 (1998).

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).

1986

L. Brus, "Electronic wave-functions in semiconductor clusters—experiment and theory," J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2555-2560 (1986).

1985

P. K. Kaiser, "The Helmholtz–Kohlrausch effect," Color Res. Appl. 10, 187 (1985).

1971

M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, "Voltage-Dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127 (1971).

Accounts Chem Res

A. M. Smith, S. M. Nie, "Semiconductor nanocrystals: Structure, properties, and band gap engineering," Accounts Chem Res 43, 190-200 (2010).

Adv. Mater.

X. Y. Yang, D. W. Zhao, K. S. Leck, S. T. Tan, Y. X. Tang, J. L. Zhao, H. V. Demir, X. W. Sun, "Full visible range covering InP/ZnS nanocrystals with high photometric performance and their application to white quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 24, 4180-4185 (2012).

Adv. Mater.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, Y. Kim, "White-Light-Emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights," Adv. Mater. 22, 3076-3080 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, "Voltage-Dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127 (1971).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, "A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201105 (2011).

Y. F. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. X. Zhang, R. D. Zhu, D. M. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, S. T. Wu, "Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131102 (2013).

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. H. Lee, "Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Y. Zhu, R. B. Lu, S. T. Wu, "Extraordinarily high-contrast and wide-view liquid-crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Z. Jiao, L. H. Rao, S. T. Wu, "Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).

Appl. Phys.Express

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, T. Takeda, "Wide color gamut backlight for liquid crystal displays using three-band phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys.Express 2, 022401 (2009).

Color Res. Appl.

P. K. Kaiser, "The Helmholtz–Kohlrausch effect," Color Res. Appl. 10, 187 (1985).

Crystals

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, S. T. Wu, "High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications," Crystals 3, 483-503 (2013).

Inf. Display

J. Chen, V. Hardev, J. Yurek, "Quantum-Dot displays: Giving LCDs a competitive edge through color," Inf. Display 29, 12-17 (2013).

R. M. Soneira, "Tablet display technology shoot-out," Inf. Display 29, 12-21 (2013).

Int. J. Comput. Intell. Res

M. Reyes-Sierra, C. A. C. Coello, "Multi-objective particle swarm optimizers: A survey of the state-of-the-art," Int. J. Comput. Intell. Res 2, 287-308 (2006).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc.

S. Ithurria, B. Dubertret, "Quasi 2D colloidal CdSe platelets with thicknesses controlled at the atomic level," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 130, 16504-16505 (2008).

J. Appl. Polymer Sci.

Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, "Recent advances on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal materials and devices," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 40556 (2014).

J. Mater. Chem.

J. Yan, L. H. Rao, M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, S. T. Wu, "Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 7870-7877 (2011).

J. Phys. Chem.

L. Brus, "Electronic wave-functions in semiconductor clusters—experiment and theory," J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2555-2560 (1986).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

Y. Zhang, X. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Shi, W. Song, W. Lei, "Motion-blur characterization with simulation method for mobile LCDs," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 1115-1123 (2008).

J. Solid State Sci. Technol

M. J. Anc, N. L. Pickett, N. C. Gresty, J. A. Harris, K. C. Mishra, "Progress in Non-Cd quantum dot development for lighting applications," J. Solid State Sci. Technol 2, R3071-R3082 (2013).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc.

S. Ithurria, G. Bousquet, B. Dubertret, "Continuous transition from 3D to 1D confinement observed during the formation of cdse nanoplatelets," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 133, 3070-3077 (2011).

J. Cryst. Growth

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, D. Y. Jeon, "Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED," J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90-93 (2011).

J. Display Technol.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. T. Wu, "Zigzag electrodes for suppressing the color shift of Kerr effect-based liquid crystal displays," J. Display Technol. 6, 115-120 (2010).

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, "Zigzag electrodes for suppressing the color shift of Kerr effect-based liquid crystal displays," J. Display Technol. 6, 115-120 (2010).

J. Display Technol.

R. B. Lu, X. Y. Zhu, S. T. Wu, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, "Ultrawide-View liquid crystal displays," J. Display Technol. 1, 3-14 (2005).

X. Zhu, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, "Analytical solutions for uniaxial-film-compensated wide-view liquid crystal displays," J. Display Technol. 2, 2-20 (2006).

R. B. Lu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, K. H. Peng, H. S. Hsieh, "Quantitative comparison of color performances between IPS and MVA LCDs," J. Display Technol. 2, 319-326 (2006).

H. Hong, H. Shin, I. Chung, "In-plane switching technology for liquid crystal display television," J. Display Technol. 3, 361-370 (2007).

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, H. P. D. Shieh, "A field sequential color LCD based on color fields arrangement for color breakup and flicker reduction," J. Display Technol. 5, 34-39 (2009).

L. H. Rao, H. C. Cheng, S. T. Wu, "Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields," J. Display Technol. 6, 287-289 (2010).

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, "Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals," J. Display Technol. 6, 318-322 (2010).

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, S. T. Wu, "Blue-Phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching," J. Display Technol. 8, 98-103 (2012).

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, C. H. Lin, K. H. Liu, S. T. Wu, "Wide-View vertical field switching blue-phase LCD," J. Display Technol. 8, 627-633 (2012).

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, S. T. Wu, "Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal," J. Display Technol. 9, 74-77 (2013).

Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, "A spatiotemporal four-primary color LCD with quantum dots," J. Display Technol. 10, 367-372 (2014).

J. Mater. Chem.

M. Green, "The nature of quantum dot capping ligands," J. Mater. Chem. 20, 5797-5809 (2010).

S. H. Lee, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. S. Jin, K. U. Jeong, "Devices and materials for high-performance mobile liquid crystal displays," J. Mater. Chem. 22, 11893-11903 (2012).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

S. H. Lee, S. M. Kim, S.-T. Wu, "Review paper: Emerging vertical-alignment liquid-crystal technology associated with surface modification using UV-curable monomer," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 551-559 (2009).

M. Anandan, "Progress of LED backlights for LCDs," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 287-310 (2008).

R. L. Donofrio, "Review paper: The Helmholtz–Kohlrausch effect," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 658-664 (2011).

J. Soc. Inf. Displays

S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, K. H. Kim, J. K. Song, "New technologies for advanced LCD-TV performance," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 12, 353-359 (2004).

T. Ishinabe, K. Wako, K. Sekiya, T. Kishimoto, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, "High-performance OCB-mode field-sequential-color LCD," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 16, 251-256 (2008).

H. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, B. H. Han, "Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 18, 57-65 (2010).

Y. Hirakata, D. Kubota, A. Yamashita, T. Ishitani, T. Nishi, H. Miyake, H. Miyairi, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, T. Cho, M. Sakakura, "A novel field-sequential blue-phase-mode AMLCD," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 20, 38-46 (2012).

J. Soc. Info. Disp.

H. Choi, J. H. Yeo, G. D. Lee, "Zig-zag electrode pattern for high brightness in a super in-plane-switching liquid-crystal cell," J. Soc. Info. Disp. 17, 827-831 (2009).

J. Solid State Sci. Technol

S. Coe-Sullivanz, W. Liu, P. Allen, J. S. Steckel, "Quantum dots for LED downconversion in display applications," J. Solid State Sci. Technol 2, 3026-3030 (2013).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Schadt, "Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 03B001 (2009).

Liq. Cryst.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, H. J. Hur, "Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy," Liq. Cryst. 39, 1141-1148 (2012).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

R. B. Lu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "LED-lit LCD TVs," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 246-259 (2008).

Nano Lett.

A. Sitt, A. Salant, G. Menagen, U. Banin, "Highly emissive nano rod-in-rod heterostructures with strong linear polarization," Nano Lett. 11, 2054-2060 (2011).

Nano Today

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, E. Mutlugun, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmuller, "Quantum dot integrated LEDs using photonic and excitonic color conversion," Nano Today 6, 632-647 (2011).

Nanoscale

S. Kim, S. H. Im, S. W. Kim, "Performance of light-emitting-diode based on quantum dots," Nanoscale 5, 5205-5214 (2013).

Nat. Mater

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, "Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases," Nat. Mater 1, 64-68 (2002).

Nat. Photon.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. G. Xue, P. H. Holloway, "Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures," Nat. Photon. 5, 543-548 (2011).

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Y. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, "Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots," Nat. Photon. 1, 717-722 (2007).

Nat. Photonics

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, V. Bulovic, "Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies," Nat. Photonics 7, 13-23 (2013).

Opt. Express

J. H. Oh, K.-H. Lee, H. C. Yoon, H. Yang, Y. R. Do, "Color-by-blue display using blue quantum dot light-emitting diodes and green/red color converting phosphors," Opt. Express 22, A511-A520 (2014).

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater. Express

Sci.

J. T. Hu, L. S. Li, W. D. Yang, L. Manna, L. W. Wang, A. P. Alivisatos, "Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods," Sci. 292, 2060-2063 (2001).

SID Dig. Tech. Papers

C.-Y. Tsai, T.-J. Tseng, L.-Y. Wang, F.-C. Yu, Y.-F. Lan, P.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Lin, K.-M. Chen, B.-S. Tseng, C.-W. Kuo, C.-H. Lin, J.-K. Lu, N. Sugiura, "17.1: Invited paper: Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays applying novel groove cell structure," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 182-183 (2013).

SID Dig. Tech. Papers

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, Y. Nishida, T. Kurita, "43.3: summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 35, 1262-1265 (2004).

Y. Ukai, "5.2: Invited paper: TFT-LCDs as the future leading role in FPD," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 28-31 (2013).

SID Dig. Tech. Papers

S. H. Ji, H. C. Lee, J. M. Yoon, J. C. Lim, M. Jun, E. Yeo, "P.91: adobe RGB LCD monitor with 3 primary colors by deep green color filter technology," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 1332-1334 (2013).

H.-M. Kim, J. Jang, "High-Efficiency inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes for displays," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 45, (2014).

SID Dig. Tech. Papers

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, "41.1: a super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077-1080 (1998).

J.-K. Yoon, E.-M. Park, J.-S. Son, H.-W. Shin, H.-E. Kim, M. Yee, H.-G. Kim, C.-H. Oh, B.-C. Ahn, "27.2: the study of picture quality of OLED TV with WRGB OLEDs structure," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 326-329 (2013).

J. Kurtin, N. Puetz, B. Theobald, N. Stott, J. Osinski, "12.5: quantum dots for high-color-gamut LCDs using an on-chip LED solution," SID Dig. Tech. Papers (2014).

D. Barnes, "5.1: Invited paper: LCD or OLED: Who wins?," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 26-27 (2013).

J. H. Lee, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, H. C. Choi, B. K. Kim, Y. Yin, "5.3: Invited paper: AH-IPS, superb display for mobile device," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 32-33 (2013).

H. Y. Kim, S. M. Seen, Y. H. Jeong, G. H. Kim, T. Y. Eom, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, "P-164: pressure-resistant characteristic of fringe-field switching (FFS) mode depending on the distance between pixel electrodes," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 36, 325-327 (2005).

J. Lim, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, X. Zuo, R. Yang, Y. Ko, H. Jung, "P-213L: late-news poster: Optimization of high-aperture-ratio fringe-field-switching pressure-resistance characteristic for touch-screen display," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 1650-1653 (2011).

J. Chen, V. Hardev, J. Hartlove, J. Hofler, E. Lee, "66.1: Distinguised paper: A high-efficiency wide-color-gamut solid-state backlight system for LCDs using quantum dot enhancement film," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 43, 895-896 (2012).

C. B. J. Steckel, W. Liu, J. Xi, C. Hamilton, S. Coe-Sullivan, "Quantum dots: The ultimate down-conversion material for LCDs," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 45, (2014).

J. S. Steckel, R. Colby, W. Liu, K. Hutchinson, C. Breen, J. Ritter, S. Coe-Sullivan, "68.1: Invited paper: Quantum dot manufacturing requirements for the high volume LCD market," SID Dig. Tech. Papers 44, 943-945 (2013).

Small

P. Reiss, M. Protiere, L. Li, "Core/shell semiconductor nanocrystals," Small 5, 154-168 (2009).

Other

S. Kobayashi, S. Mikoshiba, S. Lim, LCD Backlights (Wiley, 2009).

J. H. Lee, D. N. Liu, S. T. Wu, Introduction to Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2008).

G. Wyszecki, W. Stiles, Color Science—Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulate (Wiley, 1982).

L. M. Blinov, V. G. Chigrinov, Electrooptic Effects in Liquid Crystal Materials (Springer-Verlag, 1994).

D. K. Yang, S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

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