Abstract

Disparity control plays an important role in 3D stereoscopic displays. It aims to produce high-quality 3D images and videos which can offer realistic visual experiences. We propose a disparity control method guided by stereoscopic visual attention. Firstly, the fundamental principle of disparity control is derived. Then, a stereoscopic visual attention model is introduced to get the key-point of disparity control. Finally, the disparity control for multiview images is conducted based on the stereoscopic visual attention model and the principle of disparity control. The experimental results on multiview sequences demonstrate that the proposed method is effective. The salient regions detected by the proposed stereoscopic visual attention model are displayed as the viewer's expectation, and the vivid 3D scenes are presented in autostereoscopic displays.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, L. Pockett, "Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57, 362-371 (2011).
  2. J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. Yano, K.-H. Choi, "Recent developments in 3-D imaging technologies," J. Display Technol. 6, 394-403 (2010).
  3. R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 97, 1067-1077 (2009).
  4. X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, A. Stern, "Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: Sensing, display, and applications [Invited]," Appl. Opt. 52, 546-560 (2013).
  5. R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Enhanced depth of field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints," Opt. Express 12, 5237-5242 (2004).
  6. G. B. Akar, A. M. Tekalp, C. Fehn, M. R. Civanlar, "Transport methods in 3DTV—A survey," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1622-1630 (2007).
  7. P.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Lai, "Perceptual awareness rate control for multi-view video encoder in stereoscopic display," J. Display Technol. 9, 552-560 (2013).
  8. S. Li, J. Lei, C. Zhu, L. Yu, C. Hou, "Pixel-based inter prediction in coded texture assisted depth coding," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 21, 74-78 (2014).
  9. A. Woods, T. Docherty, R. Koch, "Image distortions in stereoscopic video systems," Proc. SPIE, Stereoscopic Displays and Appl. (1993) pp. 36-48.
  10. K.-C. Kwon, Y.-T. Lim, N. Kim, "Vergence control of binocular stereoscopic camera using disparity information," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 379-385 (2009).
  11. H. Deng, Q.-H. Wang, D.-H. Li, W.-X. Zhao, Y.-H. Tao, A.-H. Wang, "Disparity images acquired by parallel camera array with shift," Act. Photon. Sinica 38, 2985-2988 (2009).
  12. J. Lei, H. Zhang, C. Hou, L. Lin, "Segmentation-based adaptive vergence control for parallel multiview stereoscopic images," Optik 124, 2097-2100 (2013).
  13. D. A. Wismeijer, C. J. Erkelens, R. V. Ee, M. Wexler, "Depth cue combination in spontaneous eye movement," J. Vision 10, 1-15 (2010).
  14. Q. Huynh-Thu, M. Barkowsky, P. L. Callet, "The importance of visual attention in improving the 3D-TV viewing experience: Overview and new perspectives," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57, 421-431 (2011).
  15. J. Lei, H. Zhang, L. You, C. Hou, L. Wang, "Evaluation and modeling of depth feature incorporated visual attention for salient object segmentation," Neurocomputing 120, 24-33 (2013).
  16. J. Lei, M. Wu, K. Feng, C. Hu, C. Hou, "Multilevel region of interest guided bit allocation for multiview video coding," Optik 125, 39-43 (2014).
  17. K. Muller, P. Merkle, T. Wiegand, "3-D video representation using depth maps," Proc. IEEE 99, 643-656 (2011).
  18. M.-M. Cheng, G.-X. Zhang, N. J. Mitra, X. Huang, S.-M. Hu, "Global contrast based salient region detection," Proc. IEEE Conf. on Comput. Vision and Pattern Recogn. (2011) pp. 409-416.
  19. P. F. Felzenszwalb, D. P. Huttenlocher, "Efficient graph-based image segmentation," Int. J. Computer Vision 59, 167-181 (2004).
  20. H. Zhang, J. Lei, X. Fan, M. Wu, P. Zhang, S. Bu, "Depth combined saliency detection based on region contrast model," Proc. Int. Conf. on Comput. Sci. Educ. (2012) pp. 763-766.
  21. I. Feldmann, M. Muller, F. Zilly, R. Tanger, K. Mueller, A. Smolic, P. Kauff, T. Wiegand, “HHI Test Material for 3D Video,” ISOArchampsFrance ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, Doc. M15413 (2008).
  22. M. Tanimoto, T. Fujii, K. Suzuki, N. Fukushima, Y. Mori, “Reference Softwares for Depth Estimation and View Synthesis,” ISOArchampsFrance ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, Doc. M15413 (2008).
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2014 (2)

S. Li, J. Lei, C. Zhu, L. Yu, C. Hou, "Pixel-based inter prediction in coded texture assisted depth coding," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 21, 74-78 (2014).

J. Lei, M. Wu, K. Feng, C. Hu, C. Hou, "Multilevel region of interest guided bit allocation for multiview video coding," Optik 125, 39-43 (2014).

2013 (4)

P.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Lai, "Perceptual awareness rate control for multi-view video encoder in stereoscopic display," J. Display Technol. 9, 552-560 (2013).

J. Lei, H. Zhang, L. You, C. Hou, L. Wang, "Evaluation and modeling of depth feature incorporated visual attention for salient object segmentation," Neurocomputing 120, 24-33 (2013).

J. Lei, H. Zhang, C. Hou, L. Lin, "Segmentation-based adaptive vergence control for parallel multiview stereoscopic images," Optik 124, 2097-2100 (2013).

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, A. Stern, "Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: Sensing, display, and applications [Invited]," Appl. Opt. 52, 546-560 (2013).

2011 (3)

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, L. Pockett, "Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57, 362-371 (2011).

Q. Huynh-Thu, M. Barkowsky, P. L. Callet, "The importance of visual attention in improving the 3D-TV viewing experience: Overview and new perspectives," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57, 421-431 (2011).

K. Muller, P. Merkle, T. Wiegand, "3-D video representation using depth maps," Proc. IEEE 99, 643-656 (2011).

2010 (2)

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. Yano, K.-H. Choi, "Recent developments in 3-D imaging technologies," J. Display Technol. 6, 394-403 (2010).

D. A. Wismeijer, C. J. Erkelens, R. V. Ee, M. Wexler, "Depth cue combination in spontaneous eye movement," J. Vision 10, 1-15 (2010).

2009 (3)

K.-C. Kwon, Y.-T. Lim, N. Kim, "Vergence control of binocular stereoscopic camera using disparity information," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 379-385 (2009).

H. Deng, Q.-H. Wang, D.-H. Li, W.-X. Zhao, Y.-H. Tao, A.-H. Wang, "Disparity images acquired by parallel camera array with shift," Act. Photon. Sinica 38, 2985-2988 (2009).

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 97, 1067-1077 (2009).

2007 (1)

G. B. Akar, A. M. Tekalp, C. Fehn, M. R. Civanlar, "Transport methods in 3DTV—A survey," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1622-1630 (2007).

2004 (2)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Enhanced depth of field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints," Opt. Express 12, 5237-5242 (2004).

P. F. Felzenszwalb, D. P. Huttenlocher, "Efficient graph-based image segmentation," Int. J. Computer Vision 59, 167-181 (2004).

Act. Photon. Sinica (1)

H. Deng, Q.-H. Wang, D.-H. Li, W.-X. Zhao, Y.-H. Tao, A.-H. Wang, "Disparity images acquired by parallel camera array with shift," Act. Photon. Sinica 38, 2985-2988 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (1)

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, A. Stern, "Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: Sensing, display, and applications [Invited]," Appl. Opt. 52, 546-560 (2013).

IEEE Signal Process. Lett. (1)

S. Li, J. Lei, C. Zhu, L. Yu, C. Hou, "Pixel-based inter prediction in coded texture assisted depth coding," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 21, 74-78 (2014).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, L. Pockett, "Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57, 362-371 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

Q. Huynh-Thu, M. Barkowsky, P. L. Callet, "The importance of visual attention in improving the 3D-TV viewing experience: Overview and new perspectives," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57, 421-431 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. (1)

G. B. Akar, A. M. Tekalp, C. Fehn, M. R. Civanlar, "Transport methods in 3DTV—A survey," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1622-1630 (2007).

Int. J. Computer Vision (1)

P. F. Felzenszwalb, D. P. Huttenlocher, "Efficient graph-based image segmentation," Int. J. Computer Vision 59, 167-181 (2004).

J. Display Technol. (1)

P.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Lai, "Perceptual awareness rate control for multi-view video encoder in stereoscopic display," J. Display Technol. 9, 552-560 (2013).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

K.-C. Kwon, Y.-T. Lim, N. Kim, "Vergence control of binocular stereoscopic camera using disparity information," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 379-385 (2009).

J. Vision (1)

D. A. Wismeijer, C. J. Erkelens, R. V. Ee, M. Wexler, "Depth cue combination in spontaneous eye movement," J. Vision 10, 1-15 (2010).

Neurocomputing (1)

J. Lei, H. Zhang, L. You, C. Hou, L. Wang, "Evaluation and modeling of depth feature incorporated visual attention for salient object segmentation," Neurocomputing 120, 24-33 (2013).

Opt. Express (1)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Enhanced depth of field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints," Opt. Express 12, 5237-5242 (2004).

Optik (2)

J. Lei, M. Wu, K. Feng, C. Hu, C. Hou, "Multilevel region of interest guided bit allocation for multiview video coding," Optik 125, 39-43 (2014).

J. Lei, H. Zhang, C. Hou, L. Lin, "Segmentation-based adaptive vergence control for parallel multiview stereoscopic images," Optik 124, 2097-2100 (2013).

Proc. IEEE (2)

K. Muller, P. Merkle, T. Wiegand, "3-D video representation using depth maps," Proc. IEEE 99, 643-656 (2011).

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 97, 1067-1077 (2009).

Other (6)

A. Woods, T. Docherty, R. Koch, "Image distortions in stereoscopic video systems," Proc. SPIE, Stereoscopic Displays and Appl. (1993) pp. 36-48.

M.-M. Cheng, G.-X. Zhang, N. J. Mitra, X. Huang, S.-M. Hu, "Global contrast based salient region detection," Proc. IEEE Conf. on Comput. Vision and Pattern Recogn. (2011) pp. 409-416.

H. Zhang, J. Lei, X. Fan, M. Wu, P. Zhang, S. Bu, "Depth combined saliency detection based on region contrast model," Proc. Int. Conf. on Comput. Sci. Educ. (2012) pp. 763-766.

I. Feldmann, M. Muller, F. Zilly, R. Tanger, K. Mueller, A. Smolic, P. Kauff, T. Wiegand, “HHI Test Material for 3D Video,” ISOArchampsFrance ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, Doc. M15413 (2008).

M. Tanimoto, T. Fujii, K. Suzuki, N. Fukushima, Y. Mori, “Reference Softwares for Depth Estimation and View Synthesis,” ISOArchampsFrance ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, Doc. M15413 (2008).

Methodology for the Subjective Assessment of the Quality of Television Pictures ITU-R Rec. BT.500-11Int. Telecommun. UnionGenevaSwitzerland (2002).

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