Abstract

Depth-fused multi-focal-plane display was proposed to create a fixed-viewpoint volumetric display capable of rendering correct or nearly-correct focus cues in a stereoscopic display through a small number of discretely placed focal planes. It may effectively address the negative effects of conventional stereoscopic displays on depth perception accuracy and visual fatigue due to the lack of focus cues. In this paper, we presented the design and assessment of a novel depth-fused six-focal plane display prototype, capable of rendering nearly-accurate focus cues for a depth range of 3 diopters with high image quality at flicker-free speed. The optical system design, prototype implementation and demonstration, and experimental assessment of the prototype were discussed in detail.

© 2014 IEEE

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  17. T. Schowengerdt, E. J. Seibel, "True 3-D scanned voxel displays using single or multiple light sources," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 135 (2006).
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  25. S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, "Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays," Opt. Exp. 19, 20940 (2011).
  26. M. Alpern, "Variability of accommodation during steady fixation at various levels of illuminance," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 193 (1958).
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  28. G. G. Heath, "Components of accommodation," Optom. Vision Sci. 33, 569-579 (1956).
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  31. A. Owens, "A comparison of accommodative responsiveness and contrast sensitivity for sinusoidal gratings," Vision Res. 20, 159-167 (1980).
  32. S. G. D. Groot, J. W. Gebhard, "Pupil size as determined by adapting luminance," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 492 (1952).

2012 (2)

N. Tsutsumi, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, J. Nishide, Y. Kawabe, H. Sasabe, "Real-time three-dimensional holographic display using a monolithic organic compound dispersed film," Opt. Mat. Exp. 2, 1003 (2012).

K. J. MacKenzie, "Vergence and accommodation to multiple-image-plane stereoscopic displays: ‘real world’ responses with practical image-plane separations?," J. Electron. Imag. 21, 011002 (2012).

2011 (1)

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, "Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays," Opt. Exp. 19, 20940 (2011).

2010 (4)

S. L. Hua, "A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays," Opt. Express 18, 11562 (2010).

K. J. MacKenzie, D. M. Hoffman, S. J. Watt, "Accommodation to multiple-focal-plane displays: Implications for improving stereoscopic displays and for accommodation control," J. Vision 10, 22-22 (2010).

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, "Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer," Nature 468, 80-83 (2010).

S. Liu, H. Hua, D. Cheng, "A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16, 381-393 (2010).

2009 (4)

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, M. S. Banks, "High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display," Opt. Express 17, 15716 (2009).

S. Liu, H. Hua, "Time-multiplexed dual-focal plane head-mounted display with a liquid lens," Opt. Lett. 34, 1642 (2009).

C. Lee, S. DiVerdi, T. Hollerer, "Depth-fused 3D imagery on an immaterial display," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15, 20-33 (2009).

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, I. Heynderickx, "Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: A review," J. Imag. Sci. Technol. 53, 030201 (2009).

2008 (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, "Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue," J. Vision 8, 33-33 (2008).

2007 (1)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, "Rendering for an interactive 360 $^{\circ}$ light field display," ACM SIGGRAPH 40 (2007).

2006 (1)

T. Schowengerdt, E. J. Seibel, "True 3-D scanned voxel displays using single or multiple light sources," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 135 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. Emoto, T. Niida, F. Okano, "Repeated vergence adaptation causes the decline of visual functions in watching stereoscopic television," J. Display Technol. 1, 328-340 (2005).

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks, "Focus cues affect perceived depth," J. Vision 5, 7-7 (2005).

2004 (2)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, M. S. Banks, "A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances," ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004).

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, "Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths," Vision Res. 44, 785-793 (2004).

2002 (1)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, "100-million-voxel volumetric display," Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

2000 (2)

J. P. Rolland, M. W. Krueger, A. Goon, "Multifocal planes head-mounted displays," Appl. Opt. 39, 3209 (2000).

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, "Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480-484 (2000).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

J. P. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, "Natural problems for stereoscopic depth perception in virtual environments," Vision Res. 35, 2731-2736 (1995).

1986 (1)

J. C. Kotulak, C. M. Schor, "A computational model of the error detector of human visual accommodation," Biol. Cybern. 54, 189-194 (1986).

1984 (1)

R. E. Manny, M. S. Banks, "A model of steady-state accommodation: II. Effects of luminance," Investigative Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 182 (1984).

1980 (1)

A. Owens, "A comparison of accommodative responsiveness and contrast sensitivity for sinusoidal gratings," Vision Res. 20, 159-167 (1980).

1964 (1)

H. Fender, "Control mechanisms of the eye," Sci. Amer. 211, 24-32 (1964).

1958 (1)

M. Alpern, "Variability of accommodation during steady fixation at various levels of illuminance," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 193 (1958).

1956 (1)

G. G. Heath, "Components of accommodation," Optom. Vision Sci. 33, 569-579 (1956).

1952 (1)

S. G. D. Groot, J. W. Gebhard, "Pupil size as determined by adapting luminance," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 492 (1952).

ACM SIGGRAPH (1)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, "Rendering for an interactive 360 $^{\circ}$ light field display," ACM SIGGRAPH 40 (2007).

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, M. S. Banks, "A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances," ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biol. Cybern. (1)

J. C. Kotulak, C. M. Schor, "A computational model of the error detector of human visual accommodation," Biol. Cybern. 54, 189-194 (1986).

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. (1)

S. Liu, H. Hua, D. Cheng, "A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16, 381-393 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. (1)

C. Lee, S. DiVerdi, T. Hollerer, "Depth-fused 3D imagery on an immaterial display," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15, 20-33 (2009).

Investigative Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

R. E. Manny, M. S. Banks, "A model of steady-state accommodation: II. Effects of luminance," Investigative Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 182 (1984).

J. Display Technol. (1)

M. Emoto, T. Niida, F. Okano, "Repeated vergence adaptation causes the decline of visual functions in watching stereoscopic television," J. Display Technol. 1, 328-340 (2005).

J. Electron. Imag. (1)

K. J. MacKenzie, "Vergence and accommodation to multiple-image-plane stereoscopic displays: ‘real world’ responses with practical image-plane separations?," J. Electron. Imag. 21, 011002 (2012).

J. Imag. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, I. Heynderickx, "Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: A review," J. Imag. Sci. Technol. 53, 030201 (2009).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

T. Schowengerdt, E. J. Seibel, "True 3-D scanned voxel displays using single or multiple light sources," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 135 (2006).

J. Vision (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, "Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue," J. Vision 8, 33-33 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

M. Alpern, "Variability of accommodation during steady fixation at various levels of illuminance," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 193 (1958).

S. G. D. Groot, J. W. Gebhard, "Pupil size as determined by adapting luminance," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 492 (1952).

J. Vision (2)

K. J. MacKenzie, D. M. Hoffman, S. J. Watt, "Accommodation to multiple-focal-plane displays: Implications for improving stereoscopic displays and for accommodation control," J. Vision 10, 22-22 (2010).

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks, "Focus cues affect perceived depth," J. Vision 5, 7-7 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, "Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480-484 (2000).

Nature (1)

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, "Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer," Nature 468, 80-83 (2010).

Opt. Express (1)

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, M. S. Banks, "High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display," Opt. Express 17, 15716 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, "Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays," Opt. Exp. 19, 20940 (2011).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mat. Exp. (1)

N. Tsutsumi, K. Kinashi, W. Sakai, J. Nishide, Y. Kawabe, H. Sasabe, "Real-time three-dimensional holographic display using a monolithic organic compound dispersed film," Opt. Mat. Exp. 2, 1003 (2012).

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

G. G. Heath, "Components of accommodation," Optom. Vision Sci. 33, 569-579 (1956).

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, "100-million-voxel volumetric display," Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

Sci. Amer. (1)

H. Fender, "Control mechanisms of the eye," Sci. Amer. 211, 24-32 (1964).

Vision Res. (2)

J. P. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, "Natural problems for stereoscopic depth perception in virtual environments," Vision Res. 35, 2731-2736 (1995).

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, "Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths," Vision Res. 44, 785-793 (2004).

Vision Res. (1)

A. Owens, "A comparison of accommodative responsiveness and contrast sensitivity for sinusoidal gratings," Vision Res. 20, 159-167 (1980).

Other (2)

X. Hu, H. Hua, "48.1: distinguished student paper: A depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype enabling focus cues in stereoscopic displays," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2011) pp. 691-694.

A. Sullivan, "58.3: a solid-state multi-planar volumetric display," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2003) pp. 1531.

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