Abstract

A heads-up display (HUD) commonly uses liquid crystal technology to generate images. However, the intensity of the light decreases significantly due to passing through polarizers. Therefore, a polarizer-free display is a superior approach to utilize light more efficiently. We demonstrate the feasibility of using polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which consists of polymer and liquid crystal, as an optical shutter to fabricate a simple see-through projected display device. The unique electro-optical characteristics of PDLC make it suitable to define the projected image shape. In our device, we used a 36 watts collimated light emitting diode as a backlight source so that the projected image can also be seen clearly under daylight. Since PDLC does not require/utilize polarizers, it achieved high light efficiency $({\sim}{{70}}{\%})$. In this paper, we showed promising results of projected images with various colors (red, green, and blue) that can be applied to see-through projected displays. From our experimental results, the see-through projected display device by PDLC can achieve a contrast ratio of 1000:1 and the response time is approximately 15 ms. The driving voltage is less than 25 V and brightness is over 3000 nit.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, "Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization," Presence 9, 287-309 (2000).
  2. K. Kiyokawaa, Y. Kuratab, H. Ohnoa, "An optical see-through display for mutual occlusion with a real-time stereovision system," Computers & Graphics 25, 765-779 (2001).
  3. T. P. Caudell, D. W. Mizell, "Augmented reality: An application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes," Syst. Sci. 2, 659-669 (1992).
  4. H. T. Zwahlen, C. C. Adams, D. P. Debald, Vision in Vehicles II (Elsevier, 1988).
  5. Y.-C. Liu, "Effects of using head-up display in automobile context on attention demand and driving performance," Displays 24, 157-165 (2003).
  6. L. Seime, J. Y. Hardeberg, "Colorimetric characterization of LCD and DLP projection displays," J. SID 11, 349-358 (2003).
  7. B. E. Riecke, H. G. Nusseck, J. Schulte-Pelkum, “Selected technical and perceptual aspects of virtual reality displays,” Tech. Rep. 154 (2006) www.researchgate.net.
  8. D. Andrienko, "Introduction to liquid crystal," Modelling of Soft Matter (2006).
  9. S. T. Wu, D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).
  10. D. K. Yang, S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).
  11. P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, 1995).
  12. N. A. Vaz, G. W. Smith, G. P. Montgomery, "A light control film composed of liquid crystal droplets dispersed in an epoxy matrix," Mol. Cryst. Liq, Cryst. 146, 17-34 (1987).
  13. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, "Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269-271 (1986).
  14. F. Basile, F. Bloisi, L. Vicari, F. Simoni, "Optical phase shift of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 48, 432-438 (1993).
  15. F. Bloisi, P. Terrecuso, L. Vicari, F. Simoni, "Voltage controlled light transmittance in polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 266, 229-239 (1995).
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  18. R. Akins, J. West, "Effect of thickness on PDLC electro-optics," SPIE 1665, Liquid Crystal Mater., Devices, and Appl. (1992) pp. 280-289.
  19. K. W. Gish, L. Staplin, "Human factors aspects of using head up displays in automobiles: A review of the literature," U.S. Dep. Transportation (1995).
  20. J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, J. H. Erdmann, E. Sherman, "Addressing factors for polymer dispersed liquid crystal displays," Proc. SPIE 1455, Liquid Crystal Devices and Mater. (1991) pp. 27-38.
  21. P. Malik, K. K. Raina, "Droplet orientation and optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal composite films," Opt. Mater. 27, 613-617 (2004).
  22. S. Patterson, J. Farrer, R. Sargent, "Automotive head-up display," Proc. SPIE 0958, Automotive Displays and Industrial Illumination (1988) pp. 114-123.
  23. S. Ohta, S. Inasawa, Y. Yamaguchi, "Size control of phase-separated liquid crystal droplets in a polymer matrix based on the phase diagram," J. Polymer Sci. Part B: Polymer Phys. 50, 863-869 (2012).
  24. J. Sun, Y. Chen, S. Wu, "Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators," Opt. Express 20, 20124-20129 (2012).

2012 (2)

S. Ohta, S. Inasawa, Y. Yamaguchi, "Size control of phase-separated liquid crystal droplets in a polymer matrix based on the phase diagram," J. Polymer Sci. Part B: Polymer Phys. 50, 863-869 (2012).

J. Sun, Y. Chen, S. Wu, "Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators," Opt. Express 20, 20124-20129 (2012).

2004 (2)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. T. Wu, "High contrast polymer-dispersed liquid crystal in a 90 $^{\circ}$ twisted cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4083-4085 (2004).

P. Malik, K. K. Raina, "Droplet orientation and optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal composite films," Opt. Mater. 27, 613-617 (2004).

2003 (2)

Y.-C. Liu, "Effects of using head-up display in automobile context on attention demand and driving performance," Displays 24, 157-165 (2003).

L. Seime, J. Y. Hardeberg, "Colorimetric characterization of LCD and DLP projection displays," J. SID 11, 349-358 (2003).

2001 (1)

K. Kiyokawaa, Y. Kuratab, H. Ohnoa, "An optical see-through display for mutual occlusion with a real-time stereovision system," Computers & Graphics 25, 765-779 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, "Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization," Presence 9, 287-309 (2000).

1995 (1)

F. Bloisi, P. Terrecuso, L. Vicari, F. Simoni, "Voltage controlled light transmittance in polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 266, 229-239 (1995).

1993 (1)

F. Basile, F. Bloisi, L. Vicari, F. Simoni, "Optical phase shift of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 48, 432-438 (1993).

1992 (1)

T. P. Caudell, D. W. Mizell, "Augmented reality: An application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes," Syst. Sci. 2, 659-669 (1992).

1987 (1)

N. A. Vaz, G. W. Smith, G. P. Montgomery, "A light control film composed of liquid crystal droplets dispersed in an epoxy matrix," Mol. Cryst. Liq, Cryst. 146, 17-34 (1987).

1986 (1)

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, "Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269-271 (1986).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. T. Wu, "High contrast polymer-dispersed liquid crystal in a 90 $^{\circ}$ twisted cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4083-4085 (2004).

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, "Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269-271 (1986).

Computers & Graphics (1)

K. Kiyokawaa, Y. Kuratab, H. Ohnoa, "An optical see-through display for mutual occlusion with a real-time stereovision system," Computers & Graphics 25, 765-779 (2001).

Displays (1)

Y.-C. Liu, "Effects of using head-up display in automobile context on attention demand and driving performance," Displays 24, 157-165 (2003).

J. Polymer Sci. Part B: Polymer Phys. (1)

S. Ohta, S. Inasawa, Y. Yamaguchi, "Size control of phase-separated liquid crystal droplets in a polymer matrix based on the phase diagram," J. Polymer Sci. Part B: Polymer Phys. 50, 863-869 (2012).

J. SID (1)

L. Seime, J. Y. Hardeberg, "Colorimetric characterization of LCD and DLP projection displays," J. SID 11, 349-358 (2003).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

F. Bloisi, P. Terrecuso, L. Vicari, F. Simoni, "Voltage controlled light transmittance in polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 266, 229-239 (1995).

Mol. Cryst. Liq, Cryst. (1)

N. A. Vaz, G. W. Smith, G. P. Montgomery, "A light control film composed of liquid crystal droplets dispersed in an epoxy matrix," Mol. Cryst. Liq, Cryst. 146, 17-34 (1987).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Malik, K. K. Raina, "Droplet orientation and optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal composite films," Opt. Mater. 27, 613-617 (2004).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

F. Basile, F. Bloisi, L. Vicari, F. Simoni, "Optical phase shift of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 48, 432-438 (1993).

Presence (1)

J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, "Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization," Presence 9, 287-309 (2000).

Syst. Sci. (1)

T. P. Caudell, D. W. Mizell, "Augmented reality: An application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes," Syst. Sci. 2, 659-669 (1992).

Other (11)

H. T. Zwahlen, C. C. Adams, D. P. Debald, Vision in Vehicles II (Elsevier, 1988).

B. E. Riecke, H. G. Nusseck, J. Schulte-Pelkum, “Selected technical and perceptual aspects of virtual reality displays,” Tech. Rep. 154 (2006) www.researchgate.net.

D. Andrienko, "Introduction to liquid crystal," Modelling of Soft Matter (2006).

S. T. Wu, D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

D. K. Yang, S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, 1995).

S. Patterson, J. Farrer, R. Sargent, "Automotive head-up display," Proc. SPIE 0958, Automotive Displays and Industrial Illumination (1988) pp. 114-123.

J. W. Doane, Liquid Crystals—Applications and Uses (Litton Systems, 1990).

R. Akins, J. West, "Effect of thickness on PDLC electro-optics," SPIE 1665, Liquid Crystal Mater., Devices, and Appl. (1992) pp. 280-289.

K. W. Gish, L. Staplin, "Human factors aspects of using head up displays in automobiles: A review of the literature," U.S. Dep. Transportation (1995).

J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lackner, J. H. Erdmann, E. Sherman, "Addressing factors for polymer dispersed liquid crystal displays," Proc. SPIE 1455, Liquid Crystal Devices and Mater. (1991) pp. 27-38.

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