Abstract

In this paper, we describe a new aspect to evaluating the robustness of the optical watermarking technique, which is a unique technology that can add watermarked information to object image data taken with digital cameras without any specific extra hardware architecture. However, since this technology uses light with embedded watermarked information, which is irradiated onto object images, the condition of taking a picture with digital cameras may affect the accuracy with which embedded watermarked data can be detected. Images taken with digital cameras are usually defocused, which occurs under non-optimal conditions. We evaluated the defocusing in images against the accuracy with which optical watermarking could be detected. Defocusing in images can be expressed with convolution with a line-spread function (LSF). We used the value of full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of a Gaussian function as the degree to which images were defocused, which could approximate LSF. We carried out experiments where the accuracies of detection were evaluated as we varied the degree to which images were defocused. The results from the experiments revealed that optical watermarking technology was extremely robust against defocusing in images.

© 2013 IEEE

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References

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  1. I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton, T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 1673-1687 (1997).
  2. M. Hartung, M. Kutter, "Multimedia watermarking techniques," Proc IEEE 87, 1079-1107 (1999).
  3. J. Haitsma, T. Kalker, "A watermarking scheme for digital cinema," ICIP2001 (2001) pp. 487-489.
  4. T. Mizumoto, K. Matsui, "Robustness investigation of DCT digital watermark for printing and scanning," Trans. IEICE (A) J85-A, 451-459 (2002).
  5. Z. Liu, Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications (Auerbach Publications, 2006) pp. 289-305.
  6. K. Uehira, M. Suzuki, "Digital watermarking technique using brightness-modulated light," Proc. ICME2008 (2008) pp. 257-260.
  7. Y. Tan, H. Liu, S. Huang, B. Sheng, Z. Pan, "An optical watermarking solution for color personal identification pictures," Proc. SPIE2009 (2009) pp. 75120A.
  8. Y. Ishikawa, K. Uehira, K. Yanaka, "Practical evaluation of Illumination watermarking technique using orthogonal transforms," J. Display Technol. 6, 351-358 (2010).
  9. T. Yamada, S. Gohshi, I. Echizen, "Re-shooting prevention based on difference between sensory perceptions of humans and devices," Proc. ICIP 2010 (2010).
  10. Y. Ishikawa, K. Uehira, K. Yanaka, "Optical watermarking technique robust to geometrical distortion in image," Proc. ISSPIT2010 (2010) pp. 67-72.
  11. Y. Ishikawa, K. Uehira, K. Yanaka, "Robust optical watermarking technique by optimizing the size of pixel blocks of orthogonal transforme," Proc. IAS2011 (2011).
  12. A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing (Academic Press, 1976).
  13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaussian_function Accessed: Dec. 30, 2012.
  14. Graphic Technology –Prepress Digital Data Exchange– CMYK Standard Colour Image Data (CMYK/SCID) ISO 12640 (1997).

2010 (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Uehira, K. Yanaka, "Practical evaluation of Illumination watermarking technique using orthogonal transforms," J. Display Technol. 6, 351-358 (2010).

2002 (1)

T. Mizumoto, K. Matsui, "Robustness investigation of DCT digital watermark for printing and scanning," Trans. IEICE (A) J85-A, 451-459 (2002).

1999 (1)

M. Hartung, M. Kutter, "Multimedia watermarking techniques," Proc IEEE 87, 1079-1107 (1999).

1997 (1)

I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton, T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 1673-1687 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton, T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 1673-1687 (1997).

J. Display Technol. (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Uehira, K. Yanaka, "Practical evaluation of Illumination watermarking technique using orthogonal transforms," J. Display Technol. 6, 351-358 (2010).

Proc IEEE (1)

M. Hartung, M. Kutter, "Multimedia watermarking techniques," Proc IEEE 87, 1079-1107 (1999).

Trans. IEICE (A) (1)

T. Mizumoto, K. Matsui, "Robustness investigation of DCT digital watermark for printing and scanning," Trans. IEICE (A) J85-A, 451-459 (2002).

Other (10)

Z. Liu, Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications (Auerbach Publications, 2006) pp. 289-305.

K. Uehira, M. Suzuki, "Digital watermarking technique using brightness-modulated light," Proc. ICME2008 (2008) pp. 257-260.

Y. Tan, H. Liu, S. Huang, B. Sheng, Z. Pan, "An optical watermarking solution for color personal identification pictures," Proc. SPIE2009 (2009) pp. 75120A.

T. Yamada, S. Gohshi, I. Echizen, "Re-shooting prevention based on difference between sensory perceptions of humans and devices," Proc. ICIP 2010 (2010).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Uehira, K. Yanaka, "Optical watermarking technique robust to geometrical distortion in image," Proc. ISSPIT2010 (2010) pp. 67-72.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Uehira, K. Yanaka, "Robust optical watermarking technique by optimizing the size of pixel blocks of orthogonal transforme," Proc. IAS2011 (2011).

A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing (Academic Press, 1976).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaussian_function Accessed: Dec. 30, 2012.

Graphic Technology –Prepress Digital Data Exchange– CMYK Standard Colour Image Data (CMYK/SCID) ISO 12640 (1997).

J. Haitsma, T. Kalker, "A watermarking scheme for digital cinema," ICIP2001 (2001) pp. 487-489.

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