Abstract

The authors experimentally studied GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with both an staircase electron injector (SEI) structure and a conventional electron blocking layer (EBL). With the EBL, it was found that we could enhance LED output power, reduce forward voltage, and mitigate efficiency droop by inserting the SEI structure. These improvements could all be attributed to the effective cooling of the injected hot electrons. However, it was also found that some of the injected electrons could still leak into the p-GaN layer in the LED with SEI structure but without the EBL.

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  1. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, "Candela-class high brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687-1689 (1994).
  2. I. Akasaki, H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III-nitride semiconductors and their applications to short wavelength light emitters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 5393-5408 (1997).
  3. S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "InGaN/GaN multiquantum well blue and green light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 278-283 (2002).
  4. S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. M. Tsai, "400 nm InGaN/GaN and InGaN/AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 744-748 (2002).
  5. J. T. Chu, H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, W. D. Liang, F. I. Lai, C. F. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2509-2511 (2005).
  6. W. H. Lan, "Wavelength shift of gallium nitride light emitting diode with p-down structure," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1217-1219 (2005).
  7. M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. J. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based LEDs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 183507.
  8. D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 9, 190-198 (2013).
  9. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol 27, (2012) Art. no. 024001.
  10. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500–540 nm," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1104-1114 (2009).
  11. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Self consistent analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN-GaNAs quantum well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 104, (2008) Art. ID. 043104.
  12. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Optical gain and laser characteristics of InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 2600111.
  13. J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, (2013) Art. ID 177406.
  14. C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Y. Liu, B. O. Tayo, N. Tansu, "First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters," J. Display Technol. 9, 272-279 (2013).
  15. S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, "Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 103507.
  16. S. Choi, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, (2012) Art. ID 161110.
  17. G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, N. Tansu, "Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 2201011.
  18. X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, K. R. Evans, "InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 031110.
  19. F. Zhang, X. Li, S. Hafiz, S. Okur, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, "The effect of stair case electron injector design on electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, (2013) Art. ID 051122.
  20. L. W. Wu, S. J. Chang, T. C. Wen, Y. K. Su, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, C. H. Chen, J. K. Sheu, "Influence of Si-doping on the characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 446-450 (2002).
  21. S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, S. C. Shei, C. F. Shen, T. K. Ko, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, A. J. Lin, S. C. Hung, "GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with Cu submount," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1287-1291 (2009).
  22. C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, T. K. Lin, "GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1809-1811 (2012).
  23. S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).
  24. J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, "Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1164-1166 (2001).
  25. C. H. Chen, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, G. C. Chi, J. K. Sheu, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "High brightness green light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling structure," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 23, 130-132 (2002).
  26. C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, J. K. Sheu, J. F. Chen, "High efficient InGaN/GaN MQW green light emitting diodes with CART and DBR structures," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 284-288 (2002).

2013 (6)

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 9, 190-198 (2013).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Optical gain and laser characteristics of InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 2600111.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, (2013) Art. ID 177406.

C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Y. Liu, B. O. Tayo, N. Tansu, "First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters," J. Display Technol. 9, 272-279 (2013).

G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, N. Tansu, "Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 2201011.

F. Zhang, X. Li, S. Hafiz, S. Okur, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, "The effect of stair case electron injector design on electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, (2013) Art. ID 051122.

2012 (3)

C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, T. K. Lin, "GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1809-1811 (2012).

S. Choi, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, (2012) Art. ID 161110.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol 27, (2012) Art. no. 024001.

2010 (1)

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, K. R. Evans, "InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 031110.

2009 (2)

S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, S. C. Shei, C. F. Shen, T. K. Ko, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, A. J. Lin, S. C. Hung, "GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with Cu submount," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1287-1291 (2009).

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500–540 nm," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1104-1114 (2009).

2008 (1)

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Self consistent analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN-GaNAs quantum well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 104, (2008) Art. ID. 043104.

2007 (2)

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. J. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based LEDs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 183507.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, "Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 103507.

2005 (2)

J. T. Chu, H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, W. D. Liang, F. I. Lai, C. F. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2509-2511 (2005).

W. H. Lan, "Wavelength shift of gallium nitride light emitting diode with p-down structure," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1217-1219 (2005).

2003 (1)

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).

2002 (5)

C. H. Chen, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, G. C. Chi, J. K. Sheu, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "High brightness green light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling structure," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 23, 130-132 (2002).

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, J. K. Sheu, J. F. Chen, "High efficient InGaN/GaN MQW green light emitting diodes with CART and DBR structures," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 284-288 (2002).

L. W. Wu, S. J. Chang, T. C. Wen, Y. K. Su, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, C. H. Chen, J. K. Sheu, "Influence of Si-doping on the characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 446-450 (2002).

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "InGaN/GaN multiquantum well blue and green light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 278-283 (2002).

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. M. Tsai, "400 nm InGaN/GaN and InGaN/AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 744-748 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, "Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1164-1166 (2001).

1997 (1)

I. Akasaki, H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III-nitride semiconductors and their applications to short wavelength light emitters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 5393-5408 (1997).

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, "Candela-class high brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687-1689 (1994).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Choi, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, (2012) Art. ID 161110.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, K. R. Evans, "InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 031110.

F. Zhang, X. Li, S. Hafiz, S. Okur, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, "The effect of stair case electron injector design on electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, (2013) Art. ID 051122.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, "Candela-class high brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687-1689 (1994).

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, "Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 103507.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. J. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based LEDs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 183507.

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

C. H. Chen, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, G. C. Chi, J. K. Sheu, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "High brightness green light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling structure," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 23, 130-132 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, J. K. Sheu, J. F. Chen, "High efficient InGaN/GaN MQW green light emitting diodes with CART and DBR structures," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 284-288 (2002).

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500–540 nm," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1104-1114 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Optical gain and laser characteristics of InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 2600111.

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

W. H. Lan, "Wavelength shift of gallium nitride light emitting diode with p-down structure," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1217-1219 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).

L. W. Wu, S. J. Chang, T. C. Wen, Y. K. Su, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, C. H. Chen, J. K. Sheu, "Influence of Si-doping on the characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 446-450 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "InGaN/GaN multiquantum well blue and green light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 278-283 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. M. Tsai, "400 nm InGaN/GaN and InGaN/AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 744-748 (2002).

S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, S. C. Shei, C. F. Shen, T. K. Ko, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, A. J. Lin, S. C. Hung, "GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with Cu submount," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1287-1291 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Y. Chang, S. J. Chang, C. H. Liu, S. G. Li, T. K. Lin, "GaN-based LEDs with double strain releasing MQWs and Si delta-doping layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1809-1811 (2012).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, N. Tansu, "Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 2201011.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, "Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1164-1166 (2001).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Self consistent analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN-GaNAs quantum well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 104, (2008) Art. ID. 043104.

J. Display Technol. (1)

C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Y. Liu, B. O. Tayo, N. Tansu, "First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters," J. Display Technol. 9, 272-279 (2013).

J. Display Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. T. Chu, H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, W. D. Liang, F. I. Lai, C. F. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2509-2511 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Akasaki, H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III-nitride semiconductors and their applications to short wavelength light emitters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 5393-5408 (1997).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, (2013) Art. ID 177406.

Semicond. Sci. Technol (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol 27, (2012) Art. no. 024001.

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