Abstract

Staircase electron blocking layer (EBL) is incorporated in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes to numerically investigate the efficiency droop mechanism by using the APSYS simulation software. It is found that gradually reducing aluminum (Al) composition in the growth direction of the AlGaN staircase EBL can improve light output power, lower current leakage, and efficiency droop. To the contrary, increasing the Al composition in the staircase EBL along the growth direction will aggravate the electron leakage and efficiency droop. These distinct features are attributed mainly to discrepancy energy band tailoring in the EBL region, and finally different electron blocking efficiency.

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  1. J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406-1-177406-3 (2013).
  2. C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Liu, B. O. Tayo, N. Tansu, "First- principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters," J. Display Technol. 9, 272-279 (2013).
  3. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, (2012) Art. ID 024001.
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  6. R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, "Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 091110.
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  12. C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN lightemitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 261103.
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  16. J. Zhang, W. Tian, F. Wu, W. Yan, H. Xiong, J. Dai, Y. Fang, Z. Wu, C. Chen, "The advantages of AlGaN-based UV-LEDs inserted with a p-AlGaN layer between the EBL and active region," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 1600310.
  17. T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, Y. Zhou, "Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, (2012) Art. ID 141106.
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  19. S. Choi, M. H. Ji, J. M. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, (2012) Art. ID 161110.
  20. Y. Y. Zhang, Y. A. Yin, "Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. ID 221103.
  21. Y. H. Lu, Y. K. Fu, S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, R. Xuan, M. H. Pilkuhn, "Efficiency enhancement in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by manipulating polarization effect in electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, (2013) Art. ID 143504.
  22. S. J. Chang, S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. Li, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, C. H. Chen, "InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN staircase electron blocking layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1737-1740 (2012).
  23. APSYS Crosslight Software Inc.BurnabyCanada http://www.crosslight.com.
  24. V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, "Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1204-1206 (2002).
  25. M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, Y. K. Kuo, "Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 76-78 (2011).
  26. I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, "Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3675-3696 (2003).
  27. J. Piprek, Nitride Semiconductor Devices: Principles and Simulation (Springer-Verlag, 2007).
  28. A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 053502.

2013 (6)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406-1-177406-3 (2013).

C. K. Tan, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. Liu, B. O. Tayo, N. Tansu, "First- principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters," J. Display Technol. 9, 272-279 (2013).

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Semipolar (202 1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 9, 190-198 (2013).

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C.-K. Tan, N. Tansu, "Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 2201011.

J. Zhang, W. Tian, F. Wu, W. Yan, H. Xiong, J. Dai, Y. Fang, Z. Wu, C. Chen, "The advantages of AlGaN-based UV-LEDs inserted with a p-AlGaN layer between the EBL and active region," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 1600310.

Y. H. Lu, Y. K. Fu, S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, R. Xuan, M. H. Pilkuhn, "Efficiency enhancement in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by manipulating polarization effect in electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, (2013) Art. ID 143504.

2012 (6)

S. J. Chang, S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. Li, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, C. H. Chen, "InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN staircase electron blocking layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1737-1740 (2012).

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, Y. Zhou, "Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, (2012) Art. ID 141106.

S. Choi, M. H. Ji, J. M. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, (2012) Art. ID 161110.

C. Liu, T. Lu, L. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, Y. Zhou, S. Li, "Enhanced performance of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN superlattice as hole gathering layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1239-1241 (2012).

S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, S. J. Park, "Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1991-1994 (2012).

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, (2012) Art. ID 024001.

2011 (3)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN lightemitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

Y. Y. Zhang, Y. A. Yin, "Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. ID 221103.

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, Y. K. Kuo, "Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 76-78 (2011).

2010 (3)

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 221105.

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, "Enhancement in hole-injection efficiency of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes from reduced polarization by some specific designs for the electron blocking layer," Opt. Lett. 35, 3285-3287 (2010).

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN lightemitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 261103.

2009 (2)

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tasi, S. H. Yen, "Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009) Art. ID 011116.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, S. J. Park, "Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 231123.

2008 (2)

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, Y. Park, "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 041102.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 053502.

2007 (2)

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 183507.

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, "Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 091110.

2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, "Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3675-3696 (2003).

2002 (1)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, "Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1204-1206 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tasi, S. H. Yen, "Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009) Art. ID 011116.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 183507.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, Y. Park, "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 041102.

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, "Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 091110.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN lightemitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 261103.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, S. J. Park, "Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 231123.

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, Y. Zhou, "Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, (2012) Art. ID 141106.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 221105.

S. Choi, M. H. Ji, J. M. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, (2012) Art. ID 161110.

Y. Y. Zhang, Y. A. Yin, "Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. ID 221103.

Y. H. Lu, Y. K. Fu, S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, R. Xuan, M. H. Pilkuhn, "Efficiency enhancement in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by manipulating polarization effect in electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, (2013) Art. ID 143504.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, "Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1204-1206 (2002).

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 053502.

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

J. Zhang, W. Tian, F. Wu, W. Yan, H. Xiong, J. Dai, Y. Fang, Z. Wu, C. Chen, "The advantages of AlGaN-based UV-LEDs inserted with a p-AlGaN layer between the EBL and active region," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 1600310.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C.-K. Tan, N. Tansu, "Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 5, (2013) Art. ID 2201011.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

C. Liu, T. Lu, L. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, Y. Zhou, S. Li, "Enhanced performance of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN superlattice as hole gathering layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1239-1241 (2012).

S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, S. J. Park, "Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1991-1994 (2012).

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, Y. K. Kuo, "Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 76-78 (2011).

S. J. Chang, S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. Li, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, C. H. Chen, "InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN staircase electron blocking layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1737-1740 (2012).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, "Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3675-3696 (2003).

J. Display Technol. (2)

Opt. Exp. (1)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN lightemitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177406-1-177406-3 (2013).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, (2012) Art. ID 024001.

Other (2)

J. Piprek, Nitride Semiconductor Devices: Principles and Simulation (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

APSYS Crosslight Software Inc.BurnabyCanada http://www.crosslight.com.

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