Abstract

One of the main challenges in 3-D display and visualization is to overcome its limited depth of field. Such limitation is due to the fast deterioration of lateral resolution for out-of-focus object positions. Here we propose a new method to significantly extend the depth of field. The method is based on the combined benefits of a proper amplitude modulation of the microlenses, and the application of deconvolution tools. Numerical tests are presented to verify the theoretical analysis.

© 2005 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. M. G. Lippmann, "Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief", J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 7, pp. 821-825, 1908.
  2. H. E. Ives, "Optical properties of a Lippmann lenticulated sheet", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 21, pp. 171-176, 1931.
  3. C. B. Burckhardt, "Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 58, pp. 71-76, 1968.
  4. T. Okoshi, "Optimum design and depth resolution of lens-sheet and projection type three-dimensional displays", Appl. Opt., vol. 10, pp. 2284-2291, 1971.
  5. B. Javidi and F. Okano, Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technology, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2002.
  6. N. Davies, M. McCormick and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays", Opt. Eng., vol. 33, pp. 3624-3633, 1994.
  7. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai and I. Yayuma, "Real time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography", Appl. Opt., vol. 36, pp. 1598-1603, 1997.
  8. J. Arai, F. Okano, H. Hoshino and I. Yuyama, "Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images", Appl. Opt. , vol. 37, pp. 2034-2045, 1998.
  9. L. Erdmann and K. J. Gabriel, "High resolution digital photography by use of a scanning microlens array", Appl. Opt., vol. 40, pp. 5592-5599, 2001.
  10. S. Kishk and B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging", Opt. Exp., vol. 11, pp. 3528-3541, 2003.
  11. R. Martnez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martnez-Corral and B. Javidi, "Enhanced depth of field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints", Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 5237-5242, 2004.
  12. J. S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional synthetic aperture integral imaging", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 1144-1146, 2002.
  13. J. S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 324-326, 2002.
  14. J. H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using uniaxial crystal plate", Opt. Exp., vol. 11, pp. 1862-1875, 2003.
  15. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Large depth-of-focus time-multiplexed three-dimensional integral imaging by use of lenslets with nonuniform focal lengths and aperture sizes", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 1924-1926, 2003.
  16. M. Martnez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martnez-Cuenca and G. Saavedra, "Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude modulated microlens array", Appl. Opt. , vol. 43, pp. 5806-5813, 2004.
  17. A. Stokseth, "Properties of a defocused optical system", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 59, pp. 1314-1321, 1969.
  18. C. W. Helstrom, "Image restoration by the method of least squares", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 57, pp. 297-303, 1967.
  19. X. Lai, Z. Lin, E. S. Ward and R. J. Ober, "Noise suppression of point spread functions and its influence on deconvolution of three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy image sets", J. Micros., vol. 217, pp. 93-108, 2005.
  20. J. R. Fienup, D. Griffith, L. Harrington, A. M. Kowalczyk, J. J. Miller and J. A. Mooney, "Comparison of reconstruction algorithms for images from sparse-aperture systems", in Proc. SPIE 4792, 2002, pp. 1-8.
  21. M. Martnez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martnez-Cuenca and G. Saavedra, "Multifacet structure of observed reconstructed integral images", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 22, pp. 597-603, 2005.
  22. Y. Frauel, E. Tajahuerce, O. Matoba, A. Castro and B. Javidi, "Comparison of passive ranging integral imaging and active imaging digital holography for three-dimensional object recognition", Appl. Opt., vol. 43, pp. 452-462, 2004.
  23. C. J. R. Sheppard, "Binary optics and confocal imaging", Opt. Lett., pp. 505-506, 1999.
  24. M. Martnez-Corral, C. Ibez-Lpez, G. Saavedra and M. T. Caballero, "Axial gain resolution in optical sectioning fluorescence microscopy by shaded-ring filters", Opt. Exp. , vol. 11, pp. 1740-1745, 2003.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (17)

M. G. Lippmann, "Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief", J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 7, pp. 821-825, 1908.

H. E. Ives, "Optical properties of a Lippmann lenticulated sheet", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 21, pp. 171-176, 1931.

C. B. Burckhardt, "Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 58, pp. 71-76, 1968.

B. Javidi and F. Okano, Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technology, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2002.

N. Davies, M. McCormick and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays", Opt. Eng., vol. 33, pp. 3624-3633, 1994.

J. Arai, F. Okano, H. Hoshino and I. Yuyama, "Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images", Appl. Opt. , vol. 37, pp. 2034-2045, 1998.

S. Kishk and B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging", Opt. Exp., vol. 11, pp. 3528-3541, 2003.

R. Martnez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martnez-Corral and B. Javidi, "Enhanced depth of field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints", Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 5237-5242, 2004.

J. H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using uniaxial crystal plate", Opt. Exp., vol. 11, pp. 1862-1875, 2003.

M. Martnez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martnez-Cuenca and G. Saavedra, "Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude modulated microlens array", Appl. Opt. , vol. 43, pp. 5806-5813, 2004.

A. Stokseth, "Properties of a defocused optical system", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 59, pp. 1314-1321, 1969.

C. W. Helstrom, "Image restoration by the method of least squares", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 57, pp. 297-303, 1967.

X. Lai, Z. Lin, E. S. Ward and R. J. Ober, "Noise suppression of point spread functions and its influence on deconvolution of three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy image sets", J. Micros., vol. 217, pp. 93-108, 2005.

J. R. Fienup, D. Griffith, L. Harrington, A. M. Kowalczyk, J. J. Miller and J. A. Mooney, "Comparison of reconstruction algorithms for images from sparse-aperture systems", in Proc. SPIE 4792, 2002, pp. 1-8.

M. Martnez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martnez-Cuenca and G. Saavedra, "Multifacet structure of observed reconstructed integral images", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 22, pp. 597-603, 2005.

C. J. R. Sheppard, "Binary optics and confocal imaging", Opt. Lett., pp. 505-506, 1999.

M. Martnez-Corral, C. Ibez-Lpez, G. Saavedra and M. T. Caballero, "Axial gain resolution in optical sectioning fluorescence microscopy by shaded-ring filters", Opt. Exp. , vol. 11, pp. 1740-1745, 2003.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.