Abstract

This paper reports a photolithographic process for fabricating organic field-effect transistors which provides two layers of metal with arbitrary via placement, and optionally allows for subtractive lithographic patterning of the transistor active layer. The demonstrated pentacene transistors have a field-effect mobility of 0.1 ± 0.05 cm<sup>2</sup>/(V·s). Parylene-C is used both as the gate dielectric and an encapsulation layer which allows for subtractive lithographic patterning. Also demonstrated is a PMOS inverter without level shifting circuitry and level-restoring V<sub>High</sub> and V<sub>Low</sub>. This work demonstrates a high definition, multilayer, integrated photolithographic process which creates organic field effect transistors suitable for use in integrated circuit applications such as a display backplanes.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. Van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. Van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B. H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. Van Rens and D. M. De Leeuw, "Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors", Nature Materials, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 106-110, Feb. 2004.
  2. T. Someya and T. Sakurai, "Integration of orgnaic field effect transistors and rubbery pressure sensors for artificial skin applications", presented at the Int. Electron Devices Meeting, Washington, DC, 2003.
  3. P. F. Baude, D. A. Ender, M. A. Haase, T. W. Kelley, D. V. Muyres and S. D. Theiss, "Pentacene-based radio-frequency identification circuitry", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 22, pp. 3964-3966, Jun. 2003.
  4. M. G. Kane, J. Campi, M. S. Hammond, F. P. Cuomo, B. Greening, C. D. Sheraw, J. A. Nichols, D. J. Gundlach, J. R. Huang, C. C. Kuo, L. Jia, H. Klauk and T. N. Jackson, "Analog and digital circuits using organic thin-film transistors on polyester substrates", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 534-536, Nov. 2000.
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  10. B. K. Crone, A. Dodabalapur, R. Sarpeshkar, R. W. Filas, Y. Y. Lin, Z. Bao, J. H. O'Neill, W. Li and H. E. Katz, "Design and fabrication of organic complementary circuits", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 5125-5132, May 2001.
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  15. K. E. Paul, W. S. Wong, S. E. Ready and R. A. Street, "Additive jet printing of polymer thin-film transistors", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 2070-2072, Sep. 2003.
  16. I. Kymissis, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos and S. Purushothaman, "Patterning pentacene organic thin film transistors", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 956-959, May-Jun. 2002.
  17. D. J. Gundlach, Y. Y. Lin, T. N. Jackson, S. F. Nelson and D. G. Schlom, "Pentacene organic thin-film transistors-molecular ordering and mobility", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 87-89, Mar. 1997.
  18. Y. Y. Lin, D. J. Gundlach, S. F. Nelson and T. N. Jackson, "Stacked pentacene layer organic thin-film transistors with improved characteristics", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. I8, no. 12, pp. 606-608, Dec. 1997.
  19. I. Kymissis, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos and S. Purushothaman, "High-performance bottom electrode organic thin-film transistors", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1060-1064, Jun. 2001.
  20. A. R. Volkel, R. A. Street and D. Knipp, "Carrier transport and density of state distributions in pentacene transistors", Phys. Rev. B, vol. 66, no. 19, Nov. 2002.
  21. G. Horowitz, "Tunneling current in polycrystalline organic thin-film transistors", Adv. Functional Materials, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 53-60, Jan. 2003.
  22. D. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1998, pp. 242-248.
  23. C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, B. K. Furman, T. Graham, S. Hegde and S. Purushothaman, "Field-effect transistors comprising molecular beam deposited alpha, omega-di-hexyl-hexathienylene and polymeric insulator", Synthetic Metals, vol. 92, no. l, pp. 47-52, Jan. 1998.
  24. T. Yasuda, K. Fujita, H. Nakashima and T. Tsutsui, "Organic field-effect transistors with gate dielectric films of poly-p-xylylene derivatives prepared by chemical vapor deposition", Jpn. J. Appl.Phys. pt. 1-Regular Papers, Short Notes, and Review Papers, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 6614-6618, Oct. 2003.
  25. Amer. Soc. Testing and Materials, "Standard test methods for measuring adhesion by tape test", Standard D3359-02 Test B, 2002.
  26. D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, D. G. Schlom and S. F. Nelson, "Solvent-induced phase transition in thermally evaporated pentacene films", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 74, no. 22, pp. 3302-3304, May 1999.
  27. A. I. Wang, l. Kymissis, V. Bulovic and A. I. Akinwande, Unpublished data.
  28. M. W. Lee and C. K. Song, "Oxygen plasma effects on performance of pentacene thin film transistor", Jpn. J, Appl. Phys. pt. 1-Regular Papers, Short Notes, and Review Papers, vol. 42, no. 7A, pp. 4218-4221, Jul. 2003.

Other (28)

G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. Van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. Van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B. H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. Van Rens and D. M. De Leeuw, "Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors", Nature Materials, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 106-110, Feb. 2004.

T. Someya and T. Sakurai, "Integration of orgnaic field effect transistors and rubbery pressure sensors for artificial skin applications", presented at the Int. Electron Devices Meeting, Washington, DC, 2003.

P. F. Baude, D. A. Ender, M. A. Haase, T. W. Kelley, D. V. Muyres and S. D. Theiss, "Pentacene-based radio-frequency identification circuitry", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 22, pp. 3964-3966, Jun. 2003.

M. G. Kane, J. Campi, M. S. Hammond, F. P. Cuomo, B. Greening, C. D. Sheraw, J. A. Nichols, D. J. Gundlach, J. R. Huang, C. C. Kuo, L. Jia, H. Klauk and T. N. Jackson, "Analog and digital circuits using organic thin-film transistors on polyester substrates", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 534-536, Nov. 2000.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl and J. West, "Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1088-1090, Feb. 2002.

H. Klauk, M. Halik, U. Zschieschang, F. Eder, G. Schmid and C. Dehm, "Pentacene organic transistors and ring oscillators on glass and on flexible polymeric substrates", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 23, pp. 4175-4177, Jun. 2003.

A. R. Brown, C. P. Jarrett, D. M. deLeeuw and M. Matters, "Field-effect transistors made from solution-processed organic semiconductors", Synthetic Metals, vol. 88, no. l, pp. 37-55, Apr. 1997.

H. E. A. Huitema, G. H. Gelinck, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, K. E. Kuijk, K. M. Hart, E. Cantatore and D. M. de Leeuw, "Active-matrix displays driven by solution processed polymeric transistors", Advanced Materials, vol. 14, no. 17, p. 1201, Sep. 2002.

C. J. Drury, C. M. J. Mutsaers, C. M. Hart, M. Matters and D. M. de Leeuw, "Low-cost all-polymer integrated circuits", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 108-110, Jul. 1998.

B. K. Crone, A. Dodabalapur, R. Sarpeshkar, R. W. Filas, Y. Y. Lin, Z. Bao, J. H. O'Neill, W. Li and H. E. Katz, "Design and fabrication of organic complementary circuits", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 5125-5132, May 2001.

W. Fix, A. Ullmann, J. Picker and W. Clemens, "Fast polymer integrated circuits", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 1735-1737, Aug. 2002.

Y. Y. Lin, A. Dodabalapur, R. Sarpeshkar, Z. Bao, W. Li, K. Baldwin, V. R. Raju and H. E. Katz, "Organic complementary ring oscillators", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 74, no. 18, pp. 2714-2716, May 1999.

T. W. Kelley, D. V. Muyres, P. F. Baude, T. P. Smith and T. D. Jones, "High performance organic thin film transistors", in Material Research Society Symp. Proc., vol. 771, Boston, MA, 2003, pp. L6.5.1-L6.5.11.

G. B. Blanchet, Y. L. Loo, J. A. Rogers, F. Gao and C. R. Fincher, "Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 463-465, Jan. 2003.

K. E. Paul, W. S. Wong, S. E. Ready and R. A. Street, "Additive jet printing of polymer thin-film transistors", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 2070-2072, Sep. 2003.

I. Kymissis, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos and S. Purushothaman, "Patterning pentacene organic thin film transistors", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 956-959, May-Jun. 2002.

D. J. Gundlach, Y. Y. Lin, T. N. Jackson, S. F. Nelson and D. G. Schlom, "Pentacene organic thin-film transistors-molecular ordering and mobility", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 87-89, Mar. 1997.

Y. Y. Lin, D. J. Gundlach, S. F. Nelson and T. N. Jackson, "Stacked pentacene layer organic thin-film transistors with improved characteristics", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. I8, no. 12, pp. 606-608, Dec. 1997.

I. Kymissis, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos and S. Purushothaman, "High-performance bottom electrode organic thin-film transistors", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1060-1064, Jun. 2001.

A. R. Volkel, R. A. Street and D. Knipp, "Carrier transport and density of state distributions in pentacene transistors", Phys. Rev. B, vol. 66, no. 19, Nov. 2002.

G. Horowitz, "Tunneling current in polycrystalline organic thin-film transistors", Adv. Functional Materials, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 53-60, Jan. 2003.

D. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1998, pp. 242-248.

C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, B. K. Furman, T. Graham, S. Hegde and S. Purushothaman, "Field-effect transistors comprising molecular beam deposited alpha, omega-di-hexyl-hexathienylene and polymeric insulator", Synthetic Metals, vol. 92, no. l, pp. 47-52, Jan. 1998.

T. Yasuda, K. Fujita, H. Nakashima and T. Tsutsui, "Organic field-effect transistors with gate dielectric films of poly-p-xylylene derivatives prepared by chemical vapor deposition", Jpn. J. Appl.Phys. pt. 1-Regular Papers, Short Notes, and Review Papers, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 6614-6618, Oct. 2003.

Amer. Soc. Testing and Materials, "Standard test methods for measuring adhesion by tape test", Standard D3359-02 Test B, 2002.

D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, D. G. Schlom and S. F. Nelson, "Solvent-induced phase transition in thermally evaporated pentacene films", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 74, no. 22, pp. 3302-3304, May 1999.

A. I. Wang, l. Kymissis, V. Bulovic and A. I. Akinwande, Unpublished data.

M. W. Lee and C. K. Song, "Oxygen plasma effects on performance of pentacene thin film transistor", Jpn. J, Appl. Phys. pt. 1-Regular Papers, Short Notes, and Review Papers, vol. 42, no. 7A, pp. 4218-4221, Jul. 2003.

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