Abstract

Design of stable active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays comes with significant challenges that stem from the electrical property of the backplane materials, line parasitics in the matrix, and the opto-electronic property of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED). This paper reviews voltage and current programming schemes for AMOLEDs. Following a systematic review of pixel circuits, design considerations are examined for both current and voltage schemes with focus on stability and programming speed for both amorphous silicon (a-Si) and low temperature polysilicon (LTPS) pixel circuits. In particular, spatial parameter variations and stability, which hinder reliable operation of AMOLED display backplanes, are discussed. Analysis shows that while driving schemes reported hitherto maybe suitable for small and medium size displays, new schemes are critically needed for large-area high-resolution AMOLED displays.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan and D. Striakhilev, "Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1477-1486, Sep. 2004.
  2. G. Gu and S. R. Forest, "Design of flat-panel displays based on organic light-emitting devices", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 4, pp. 83-99, Jan. 1998.
  3. R. M. Dawson and M. G. Kane, "Pursuit of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays", in Dig. Tech. Papers, SID Int. Symp., San Jose, CA, June 5-7 2001, pp. 372- 375.
  4. T. F. Chen, C. F. Yeh and J. C. Lou, "Investigation of grain boundary control in the drain junction on laser-crystalized poly-si thin film transistors", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 457-459, Jul. 2003.
  5. M. J. Powell, C. Berkel and J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 54, pp. 1323-1325, Jan. 1989.
  6. Y. He, R. Hattori and J. Kanicki, "Improved a-Si:H TFT circuits for active-matrix organic light emitting displays", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1322-1325, Jul. 2001.
  7. S. J. Ashtiani, P. Servati, D. Striakhilev and A. Nathan, "A 3-TFT current-programmed pixel circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1514-1518, Jul. 2005.
  8. J. Lee, W. Nam, S. Jung and M. Han, "A new current-scaling pixel circuit for AMOLED", IEEE Electron Device. Lett., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 280 -282, May 2003.
  9. Y. Lin and H.-P. D. Shieh, "A novel current memory circuit for AMOLEDs", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1037 -1040, Jun. 2004.
  10. M. Ohta, H. Tsutsu, H. Takahara, I. Kobayashi, T. Uemura and Y. Takubo, "A novel current programmed pixel for active matrix OLED displays", in Dig. Tech. Papers, SID Int. Symp., San Jose, CA, 2003, pp. 108- 111.
  11. T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura and T. Urabe, "A 13-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC)", in Dig. Tech. Papers, SID Int. Symp., 2001, pp. 384 -386.
  12. K. Sakariya, P. Servati and A. Nathan, "Stability analysis of current programmed a-Si:H AMOLED pixel circuits", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1477-1486, Dec. 2004.
  13. K. S. Karim, A. Nathan, M. Hack and W. I. Milne, "Drain-bias dependence of threshold voltage stability of amorphous silicon TFTs", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 188-190, Apr. 2004.
  14. G. Wegmann, E. A. Vittoz and F. Rahali, "Charge injection in analog MOS switches", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-22, no. 6, pp. 1091 -1097, Dec. 1987.
  15. P. Servati, D. Striakhilev and A. Natan, "Above-threshold parameter extraction and modeling for amorphous silicon thin-film transistors", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 2227-2235, Nov. 2003.
  16. J. L. Sanford and F. R. Libsch, "TFT AMOLED pixel circuits and driving methods", in Dig. of Tech. Papers, SID Int. Symp., Baltimore, MD, 2003, pp. 10-13.
  17. S. Ono and Y. Kobayashi, "An accelerative current-programming method for AM-OLED", IEICE Trans. Electronics, vol. E88-C, pp. 264-269, Feb. 2005 .
  18. G. R. Chaji, S. Ashtiani, S. Alexander, R. Huang, D. Striakhilev, P. Servati, K. Sakariya, A. Kumar and A. Nathan, "Pixel circuits and drive schemes for large-area a-Si AMOLED", presented at the IDMC 2005, Taiwan, R.O.C.,2005.
  19. G. R. Chaji, P. Servati and A. Nathan, "A new driving scheme for the stable operation of the 2-TFT a-Si AMOLED pixel", Electron. Lett., vol. 41, pp. 499-500, Apr. 2005.
  20. J. C. Goh, J. Jang, K. S. Cho and C. K. Kim, "A new a-Si:H thin-film transistor pixel circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 583-585, Sept. 2003.
  21. J. C. Goh, C. K. Kim and J. Jang, "A novel pixel circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes", in Dig. Tech. Paper, SID Int. Symp., Baltimore, MD, 2003, pp. 494- 497.
  22. S. W. Tam, Y. Matsueda, M. Kimura, H. Maeda, T. Shimoda and P. Migliorato, "Poly-Si driving circuits for organic EL displays", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4295, Apr. 2001, pp. 125- 133.
  23. J. C. Goh, J. Jang, K. S. Cho and C. K. Kim, "A new pixel circuit for active matrix organic light emitting diodes", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 583-585, Sept. 2002.
  24. S. H. Jung, W. J. Nam and M. K. Han, "A new voltage-modulated AMOLED pixel design compensating for threshold voltage variation in poly-Si TFTs", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 690-692, Oct. 2004.
  25. R. M. A. Dawson, et al. "A polysilicon active matrix organic light emitting diode display with integrated drivers", in Dig. Tech. Paper, SID Int. Symp., May 1999, pp. 438- 441.

Other

A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan and D. Striakhilev, "Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1477-1486, Sep. 2004.

G. Gu and S. R. Forest, "Design of flat-panel displays based on organic light-emitting devices", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 4, pp. 83-99, Jan. 1998.

R. M. Dawson and M. G. Kane, "Pursuit of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays", in Dig. Tech. Papers, SID Int. Symp., San Jose, CA, June 5-7 2001, pp. 372- 375.

T. F. Chen, C. F. Yeh and J. C. Lou, "Investigation of grain boundary control in the drain junction on laser-crystalized poly-si thin film transistors", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 457-459, Jul. 2003.

M. J. Powell, C. Berkel and J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 54, pp. 1323-1325, Jan. 1989.

Y. He, R. Hattori and J. Kanicki, "Improved a-Si:H TFT circuits for active-matrix organic light emitting displays", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1322-1325, Jul. 2001.

S. J. Ashtiani, P. Servati, D. Striakhilev and A. Nathan, "A 3-TFT current-programmed pixel circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1514-1518, Jul. 2005.

J. Lee, W. Nam, S. Jung and M. Han, "A new current-scaling pixel circuit for AMOLED", IEEE Electron Device. Lett., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 280 -282, May 2003.

Y. Lin and H.-P. D. Shieh, "A novel current memory circuit for AMOLEDs", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1037 -1040, Jun. 2004.

M. Ohta, H. Tsutsu, H. Takahara, I. Kobayashi, T. Uemura and Y. Takubo, "A novel current programmed pixel for active matrix OLED displays", in Dig. Tech. Papers, SID Int. Symp., San Jose, CA, 2003, pp. 108- 111.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura and T. Urabe, "A 13-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC)", in Dig. Tech. Papers, SID Int. Symp., 2001, pp. 384 -386.

K. Sakariya, P. Servati and A. Nathan, "Stability analysis of current programmed a-Si:H AMOLED pixel circuits", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1477-1486, Dec. 2004.

K. S. Karim, A. Nathan, M. Hack and W. I. Milne, "Drain-bias dependence of threshold voltage stability of amorphous silicon TFTs", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 188-190, Apr. 2004.

G. Wegmann, E. A. Vittoz and F. Rahali, "Charge injection in analog MOS switches", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-22, no. 6, pp. 1091 -1097, Dec. 1987.

P. Servati, D. Striakhilev and A. Natan, "Above-threshold parameter extraction and modeling for amorphous silicon thin-film transistors", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 2227-2235, Nov. 2003.

J. L. Sanford and F. R. Libsch, "TFT AMOLED pixel circuits and driving methods", in Dig. of Tech. Papers, SID Int. Symp., Baltimore, MD, 2003, pp. 10-13.

S. Ono and Y. Kobayashi, "An accelerative current-programming method for AM-OLED", IEICE Trans. Electronics, vol. E88-C, pp. 264-269, Feb. 2005 .

G. R. Chaji, S. Ashtiani, S. Alexander, R. Huang, D. Striakhilev, P. Servati, K. Sakariya, A. Kumar and A. Nathan, "Pixel circuits and drive schemes for large-area a-Si AMOLED", presented at the IDMC 2005, Taiwan, R.O.C.,2005.

G. R. Chaji, P. Servati and A. Nathan, "A new driving scheme for the stable operation of the 2-TFT a-Si AMOLED pixel", Electron. Lett., vol. 41, pp. 499-500, Apr. 2005.

J. C. Goh, J. Jang, K. S. Cho and C. K. Kim, "A new a-Si:H thin-film transistor pixel circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 583-585, Sept. 2003.

J. C. Goh, C. K. Kim and J. Jang, "A novel pixel circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes", in Dig. Tech. Paper, SID Int. Symp., Baltimore, MD, 2003, pp. 494- 497.

S. W. Tam, Y. Matsueda, M. Kimura, H. Maeda, T. Shimoda and P. Migliorato, "Poly-Si driving circuits for organic EL displays", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4295, Apr. 2001, pp. 125- 133.

J. C. Goh, J. Jang, K. S. Cho and C. K. Kim, "A new pixel circuit for active matrix organic light emitting diodes", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 583-585, Sept. 2002.

S. H. Jung, W. J. Nam and M. K. Han, "A new voltage-modulated AMOLED pixel design compensating for threshold voltage variation in poly-Si TFTs", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 690-692, Oct. 2004.

R. M. A. Dawson, et al. "A polysilicon active matrix organic light emitting diode display with integrated drivers", in Dig. Tech. Paper, SID Int. Symp., May 1999, pp. 438- 441.

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