Abstract

The wide viewing angle technologies for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are reviewed. The most promising liquid crystal modes for wide view technologies, such as in-plane switching, multidomain vertical alignment, patterned vertical alignment, and advanced-super-view are compared. By optimizing the phase-compensation films and their device configurations, the ultrawide-view LCDs with a contrast ratio higher than 100:1 at ± 85° viewing cone are demonstrated.

© 2005 IEEE

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  2. E. Lueder, Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects, New York: Wiley, 2001.
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  4. S. Kim, "AMLCD manufacturing technology", in SID Seminar Lecture Notes, vol. 1, 2003.
  5. I. Miller, "LCD television", in SID Seminar Lecture Notes, vol. 1, 2004.
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  7. K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki and Y. Koike, "Development of super-high-image-quality vertical-alignment-mode LCD", in SID Tech. Dig., vol. 28, 1997, pp. 845-848.
  8. S. T. Wu, "Film compensated homeotropic liquid crystal cell for direct view display", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 5975-5980, 1994.
  9. P. Bos and K. Koehler/Beran, "The pi -cell: a fast liquid crystal optical switching device", Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., vol. 113, pp. 329, 1984.
  10. R. A. Soref, "Transverse field effect in nematic liquid crystals", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 165-166, 1973.
  11. R. A. Soref, "Field effect in nematic liquid crystals obtained with interdigital electrodes", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 45, pp. 5466-5468, 1974.
  12. M. Koden, "Wide viewing angle technologies for TFT-LCD's", Sharp Tech. J., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1-6, 1999.
  13. M. Yamahara, S. Mizushima, I. Inoue and T. Nakai, "Technology of the GRP formula for wide-viewing-angle LCDs", Sharp Tech. J., no. 4, pp. 1-7, 2003.
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  16. R. Kiefer, B. Webber, F. Windscheid and G. Baur, "In-plane switching of nematic liquid crystals", in Proc. Japan Displays'92, 1992, pp. 547-550.
  17. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, pp. 3895-3897, 1995.
  18. M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya and K. Kondo, "Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by the in-plane electric field", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 82, pp. 528-535, 1997.
  19. A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike and K. Okamoto, "A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology", in SID Dig., 1998, pp. 1077- 1100.
  20. Y. Tanaka, Y. Taniguchi, T. Sasaki, A. Takeda, Y. Koibe and K. Okamoto, "A new design to improve performance and simplify the manufacturing process of high-quality MVA TFT-LCD panels", in SID Dig., 1999, pp. 206-209.
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  24. Y. Ishii, S. Mizushima and M. Hijikigawa, "High performance TFT-LCD's for AVC applications", in SID Dig., 2001, pp. 1090- 1093.
  25. Y. Yamada, K. Miyachi, M. Kubo, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii and M. Hijikigawa, "Fast response and wide viewing angle technologies for LC-TV application", in Proc. IDW, 2002, pp. 203-206.
  26. T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida and Y. Fujimura, "A wide viewing angle polarizer and a quarter-wave plate with a wide wavelength range for extremely high quality LCDs", in Proc. IDW, 2001, pp. 485-488.
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  29. K. Kim, S. Park, J. Shim, J. Souk and J. Chen, "New LCD modes for wide-viewing-angle applications", in SID Dig., 1998, pp. 1085- 1088.
  30. S. Aratani, H. Klausmann, M. Oh-e, M. Ohta, K. Ashizawa, K. Yanagawa and K. Kondo, "Complete suppression of color shift in in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays with a multidomain structure obtained by unidirectional rubbing", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. L27-L29, 1997.
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  32. Y. Mishima, T. Nakayama, N. Suzuki, M. Ohta, S. Endoh, Y. Iwakabe and H. Kagawa, "Development of a 19-in.-diagonal UXGA super TFT-LCM applied with Super-IPS technology", in SID Dig., 2000, pp. 260-263.
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  34. Y. Saitoh, S. Kimura, K. Kusafuka and H. Shimizu, "Optimum film compensation of viewing angle of contrast in in-plane-switching-mode liquid crystal display", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 4822-4828, 1998.
  35. T. Uchida and T. Ishinabe, "Optimization of the viewing angle of LCD's", in Proc. Eurodisplay'02, 2002, pp. 173-177.
  36. X. Zhu and S. T. Wu, "Super wide view in-plane switching LCD with positive and negative uniaxial a-films compensation", in SID Dig., 2005, pp. 1165-1167.
  37. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee and H. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 73, pp. 2881-2883, 1998.
  38. I. Wu, D. Ting and C. Chang, "Advancement in wide viewing angle LCDs", in Proc. 6th Int. Display Workshops, 1999, p. 383.
  39. W. Liu, J. Kelly and J. Chen, "Electro-optic performance of a self-compensated vertically-aligned liquid crystal display mode", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , vol. 38, pp. 2779-2784, 1999.
  40. Y. Sun, Z. Zhang, H. Ma, X. Zhu and S. T. Wu, "Optimal rubbing angle for reflective in-plane switching liquid crystal displays", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 4907-4909, 2002.
  41. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Response mechanism of nematic liquid crystals using the in-plane switching mode", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 69, pp. 623-625, 1996.
  42. S. H. Hong, Y. H. Jeong, H. Y. Kim, H. M. Cho, W. G. Lee and S. H. Lee, "Electro-optic characteristics of 4-domain vertical alignment nematic liquid crystal display with interdigital electrode", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, pp. 8259-8263, 2000.
  43. H. Yoshida, Y. Tasaka, Y. Tanaka, H. Sukenori, Y. Koike and K. Okamoto, "MVA LCD for notebook or mobile PC's with high transmittance, high contrast ratio and wide angle viewing", in SID Dig. , 2004, pp. 6-9.
  44. K. Okamoto, "Recent development in MVA-LCDs", in IDMC'03, 2003, pp. 143-146.
  45. A. Lien, C. Cai, R. Runes, R. John, A. Galligan, E. Colgan and J. Wilson, "Ridge and fringe field multi-domain homeotropic liquid crystal display", in SID Dig., 1998, pp. 1123-1126.
  46. A. Lien, C. Cai, R. John, E. Galligan and J. Wilson, "16.3' QSXGA high resolution wide viewing angle TFT-LCD's based on ridge and fringe-field structures", Displays, vol. 22, pp. 9-14, 2001.
  47. Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu and S. T. Wu, "Extraordinarily-high-contrast and wide-view liquid crystal displays", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, pp. 121107-121107-3, 2005 .
  48. A. Lien, "Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence", App. Phys. Lett., vol. 57, pp. 2767-2769, 1990.
  49. S. Huard, Polarization of Light, New York: Wiley, 1997.
  50. K. Kim and S. Kim, "Advance of PVA technology for multi medium applications", in SID Dig. , 2003, pp. 1208-1211.

Other (50)

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays , New York: Wiley, 2001.

E. Lueder, Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects, New York: Wiley, 2001.

J. Souk, "Recent advances in LCD technology", in SID Seminar Lecture Notes, vol. 1, 2004.

S. Kim, "AMLCD manufacturing technology", in SID Seminar Lecture Notes, vol. 1, 2003.

I. Miller, "LCD television", in SID Seminar Lecture Notes, vol. 1, 2004.

S. T. Wu, "Design and fabrication of phase-matched compensation films for LCDs", in SID Application Dig., vol. 27, 1996, pp. 21-24.

K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki and Y. Koike, "Development of super-high-image-quality vertical-alignment-mode LCD", in SID Tech. Dig., vol. 28, 1997, pp. 845-848.

S. T. Wu, "Film compensated homeotropic liquid crystal cell for direct view display", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 5975-5980, 1994.

P. Bos and K. Koehler/Beran, "The pi -cell: a fast liquid crystal optical switching device", Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., vol. 113, pp. 329, 1984.

R. A. Soref, "Transverse field effect in nematic liquid crystals", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 165-166, 1973.

R. A. Soref, "Field effect in nematic liquid crystals obtained with interdigital electrodes", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 45, pp. 5466-5468, 1974.

M. Koden, "Wide viewing angle technologies for TFT-LCD's", Sharp Tech. J., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1-6, 1999.

M. Yamahara, S. Mizushima, I. Inoue and T. Nakai, "Technology of the GRP formula for wide-viewing-angle LCDs", Sharp Tech. J., no. 4, pp. 1-7, 2003.

J. Chen, K. Kim, J. Jyu, J. Souk, J. Kelly and P. Bos, "Optimum film compensation modes for TN and VA LCDs", in SID Dig., 1998, p. 315.

S. T. Wu, "Phase-matched biaxial compensation film for LCD's", in SID Tech. Dig., vol. 26, 1995, pp. 555-558.

R. Kiefer, B. Webber, F. Windscheid and G. Baur, "In-plane switching of nematic liquid crystals", in Proc. Japan Displays'92, 1992, pp. 547-550.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, pp. 3895-3897, 1995.

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya and K. Kondo, "Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by the in-plane electric field", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 82, pp. 528-535, 1997.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike and K. Okamoto, "A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology", in SID Dig., 1998, pp. 1077- 1100.

Y. Tanaka, Y. Taniguchi, T. Sasaki, A. Takeda, Y. Koibe and K. Okamoto, "A new design to improve performance and simplify the manufacturing process of high-quality MVA TFT-LCD panels", in SID Dig., 1999, pp. 206-209.

Y. Koike and K. Okamoto, "Super high quality MVA-TFT liquid crystal displays", Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J., vol. 35, pp. 221-228, 1999.

H. Kim, J. Song, S. Park, J. Lyu, J. Souk and K. Lee, "PVA technology for high performance LCD monitors", J. Info. Displays, vol. 1, pp. 3-8, 2000.

S. Kim, "Super PVA sets new state-of-the-art for LCD-TV", in SID Dig. , 2004, pp. 760-763.

Y. Ishii, S. Mizushima and M. Hijikigawa, "High performance TFT-LCD's for AVC applications", in SID Dig., 2001, pp. 1090- 1093.

Y. Yamada, K. Miyachi, M. Kubo, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii and M. Hijikigawa, "Fast response and wide viewing angle technologies for LC-TV application", in Proc. IDW, 2002, pp. 203-206.

T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida and Y. Fujimura, "A wide viewing angle polarizer and a quarter-wave plate with a wide wavelength range for extremely high quality LCDs", in Proc. IDW, 2001, pp. 485-488.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "The in-plane switching of homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystals", Liq. Cryst., vol. 22, pp. 379 -390, 1997.

S. H. Lee, H. Kim, I. Park, B. Rho, J. Park, H. Park and C. Lee, "Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, pp. 2851-2853, 1997.

K. Kim, S. Park, J. Shim, J. Souk and J. Chen, "New LCD modes for wide-viewing-angle applications", in SID Dig., 1998, pp. 1085- 1088.

S. Aratani, H. Klausmann, M. Oh-e, M. Ohta, K. Ashizawa, K. Yanagawa and K. Kondo, "Complete suppression of color shift in in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays with a multidomain structure obtained by unidirectional rubbing", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. L27-L29, 1997.

H. Klausmann, S. Aratani and K. Kondo, "Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 1854-1862, 1998.

Y. Mishima, T. Nakayama, N. Suzuki, M. Ohta, S. Endoh, Y. Iwakabe and H. Kagawa, "Development of a 19-in.-diagonal UXGA super TFT-LCM applied with Super-IPS technology", in SID Dig., 2000, pp. 260-263.

Y. Nakayoshi, N. Kurahashi, J. Tanno, E. Nishimura, K. Ogawa and M. Suzuki, "High transmittance pixel design of in-plane switching TFT-LCD's for TVs", in SID Dig., 2003, pp. 1100-1103.

Y. Saitoh, S. Kimura, K. Kusafuka and H. Shimizu, "Optimum film compensation of viewing angle of contrast in in-plane-switching-mode liquid crystal display", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 4822-4828, 1998.

T. Uchida and T. Ishinabe, "Optimization of the viewing angle of LCD's", in Proc. Eurodisplay'02, 2002, pp. 173-177.

X. Zhu and S. T. Wu, "Super wide view in-plane switching LCD with positive and negative uniaxial a-films compensation", in SID Dig., 2005, pp. 1165-1167.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee and H. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 73, pp. 2881-2883, 1998.

I. Wu, D. Ting and C. Chang, "Advancement in wide viewing angle LCDs", in Proc. 6th Int. Display Workshops, 1999, p. 383.

W. Liu, J. Kelly and J. Chen, "Electro-optic performance of a self-compensated vertically-aligned liquid crystal display mode", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , vol. 38, pp. 2779-2784, 1999.

Y. Sun, Z. Zhang, H. Ma, X. Zhu and S. T. Wu, "Optimal rubbing angle for reflective in-plane switching liquid crystal displays", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 4907-4909, 2002.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Response mechanism of nematic liquid crystals using the in-plane switching mode", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 69, pp. 623-625, 1996.

S. H. Hong, Y. H. Jeong, H. Y. Kim, H. M. Cho, W. G. Lee and S. H. Lee, "Electro-optic characteristics of 4-domain vertical alignment nematic liquid crystal display with interdigital electrode", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, pp. 8259-8263, 2000.

H. Yoshida, Y. Tasaka, Y. Tanaka, H. Sukenori, Y. Koike and K. Okamoto, "MVA LCD for notebook or mobile PC's with high transmittance, high contrast ratio and wide angle viewing", in SID Dig. , 2004, pp. 6-9.

K. Okamoto, "Recent development in MVA-LCDs", in IDMC'03, 2003, pp. 143-146.

A. Lien, C. Cai, R. Runes, R. John, A. Galligan, E. Colgan and J. Wilson, "Ridge and fringe field multi-domain homeotropic liquid crystal display", in SID Dig., 1998, pp. 1123-1126.

A. Lien, C. Cai, R. John, E. Galligan and J. Wilson, "16.3' QSXGA high resolution wide viewing angle TFT-LCD's based on ridge and fringe-field structures", Displays, vol. 22, pp. 9-14, 2001.

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu and S. T. Wu, "Extraordinarily-high-contrast and wide-view liquid crystal displays", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, pp. 121107-121107-3, 2005 .

A. Lien, "Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence", App. Phys. Lett., vol. 57, pp. 2767-2769, 1990.

S. Huard, Polarization of Light, New York: Wiley, 1997.

K. Kim and S. Kim, "Advance of PVA technology for multi medium applications", in SID Dig. , 2003, pp. 1208-1211.

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