Abstract

We present a review of light-emitting materials and devices that combine inorganic and organic lumophores and hosts. The essence of this hybrid inorganic/organic (I/O) approach is to combine materials, structures and devices from each category in such a way as to obtain best-of-both-worlds performance. The combination of high power/high efficiency inorganic light pump sources with high conversion efficiency organic lumophores is discussed in detail. In this type of Hybrid I/O device, near-ultraviolet (UV) or blue pump light is selectively converted to various visible colors based on the molecular structure of each lumophore. Since the lumophores are optically pumped their reliability is greatly increased compared to electrically pumped organic emitters. Methods for coupling the light from pumps to lumophores include direct path excitation (DPE) and light wave coupling (LWC). DPE uses one pump per lumophore pixel, which allows for active matrix style addressing, but requires large arrays of pumps. LWC uses either a single source or a small number of pump sources. To obtain pixelation for Hybrid I/O LWC devices we have developed a novel electrowetting switching method. Examples of Hybrid I/O displays and solid-state lighting are discussed.

© 2005 IEEE

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  2. A. J. Steckl, J. C. Heikenfeld, D. S. Lee, M. Garter, C. C. Baker, Y. Q. Wang and R. Jones, "Rare-earth-doped GaN: Growth, properties and fabrication of electroluminescent devices", IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. , vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 749-766, Jul. 2002.
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  14. E. Colgate and H. Matsumoto, "An investigation of electrowetting based microactuation", J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A, vol. 8, pp. 3625-3633, 1990.
  15. B. Janocha, H. Bauser, C. Oehr, H. Brunner and W. Göpel, "Competitive electrowetting of polymer surfaces by water and decane", Langmuir, vol. 16, pp. 3349-3354, 2000.
  16. R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-Speed electronic paper based on electrowetting", Nature, vol. 425, pp. 383-385, 2003.
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Other (20)

A. Kitai, Eds. Solid State Luminescence, London: U.K.: Chapman & Hall, 1993.

A. J. Steckl, J. C. Heikenfeld, D. S. Lee, M. Garter, C. C. Baker, Y. Q. Wang and R. Jones, "Rare-earth-doped GaN: Growth, properties and fabrication of electroluminescent devices", IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. , vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 749-766, Jul. 2002.

J. Shinar, Eds. Organic Light Emitting Diodes, New York: Springer, 2004.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars and A. Heeger, "White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 70, no. 20, pp. 2664-2666, 1997.

S. Guha, R. A. Haight, N. A. Bojarczuk and D. W. Kisker, "Hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor-based light emitting diodes", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 4126-4128, 1997.

J. Y. Tsao, Eds. (2002) Light Emitting Diodes for General Illumination. Optoelectronics Industry Association (OIDA), Washington, DC. [Online]. Available: www.oida.org

M. Krames, "Progress and future direction of LED technology", presented at the Solid State Lighting Workshop, Arlington, VA, Nov. 2003.

M. Bonse, D. B. Thomasson, H. Klauk, D. J. Gundlach and T. N. Jackson, "Integrated a-Si:H/pentacene inorganic/organic complementary circuits", in Int. Electron Devices Meeting Tech. Dig., Washington, DC, 1998.

X. Wu, D. Carkner, H. Hamada, I. Yoshida, M. Kutsukake and K. Dantani, "Large-screen flat panel displays based on thick-dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) technology", in Proc. Soc. Inf. Display , vol. 35, Seattle, 2004, pp. 1146- 1149.

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, "Intense switchable fluorescence in light wave coupled electrowetting devices", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 011 105-011 105-3, 2005.

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, "Liquid light-electrowetting emerging for displays", Inf. Displ., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 26-31, Nov. 2004.

M. G. Pollack, R. B. Fair and A. D. Shenderov, "Electrowetting-based actuation of liquid droplets for microfluidic applications", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 77, pp. 1725-1726, 2000.

J. Lee, H. Moon, J. Fowler, T. Schoellhammer and C. J. Kim, "Electrowetting and electrowetting-on-dielectric for microscale liquid handling", Sensors Actuators A, vol. 95, pp. 259-268, 2002.

E. Colgate and H. Matsumoto, "An investigation of electrowetting based microactuation", J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A, vol. 8, pp. 3625-3633, 1990.

B. Janocha, H. Bauser, C. Oehr, H. Brunner and W. Göpel, "Competitive electrowetting of polymer surfaces by water and decane", Langmuir, vol. 16, pp. 3349-3354, 2000.

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-Speed electronic paper based on electrowetting", Nature, vol. 425, pp. 383-385, 2003.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb and M. J. Ludowise, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 310-320, Mar. 2002.

H. Kudo, Y. Ohuchi, T. Jyouichi, T. Tsunekawa, H. Okagawa, K. Tadatomo, Y. Sudo, M. Kato and T. Taguchi, "Demonstration of high-efficient InGaN-based violet light-emitting diodes with an external-quantum efficiency of more than 40%", Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), vol. 200, no. 1, pp. 95-98, 2003.

Y. Ohno, "White LED simulator II," in Light Emitting Diodes for General Illumination, J. Y. Tsao, Eds. 2002, p. 12.

N. Narendran and Y. Gu, "Life of LED-based white light sources", J. Display Technol., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 167-171, Sep. 2005.

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