Abstract

The fabrication process and electrical characteristics of bottom-gate Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reported in details. The influence of post-annealing ambient (Oxygen or Nitrogen) is studied. It has been found that characteristics of TFTs strongly depend on annealing conditions. TFTs with Oxygen annealing exhibit standard TFT characteristics. In this case, we have obtained a mobility of 7.2 cm$^{2}/{{V}}\cdot{{s}}$, a subthreshold swing of 0.3 V/decade, high ${I}_{\rm on}/{I}_{\rm off}$ of ${{10}}^{7}$ and low leakage current of the order of ${{10}}^{-13}$ at ${V}_{\rm gs} = -20$ V. In the meantime, TFTs without a post-annealing or with Nitrogen annealing exhibited poor characteristics; more particularly the channel could not be depleted in the reverse mode. To understand the origins of this phenomenon, IGZO films from these devices have been analyzed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Experimental results show that IGZO layers after annealing in N$_{2}$ have higher concentration of oxygen vacancies. This is consistent with our electrical results since it is assumed that conduction in IGZO films is the result of oxygen vacancies.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. Y. Kuo, Thin Film Transistors: Materials and Processes (Springer, 2003).
  2. M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. French, D. H. Nicholls, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1244 (1987).
  3. G. K. Giust, T. W. Sigmon, J. B. Boyce, J. Ho, "High-performance laser-processed polysilicon thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 77-79 (1999).
  4. A. Hara, M. Takei, F. Takeuchi, K. Suga, K. Yoshino, M. Chida, T. Kakehi, Y. Ebiko, Y. Sand, N. Sasaki, "High performance low temperature polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors on non-alkaline glass produced using diode pumped solid state continuous wave laser lateral crystallization," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1269-1276.
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  6. E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, R. Martins, "Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: A review of recent advances," Adv. Mater. 24, 2945-2986 (2012).
  7. T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Material characteristics and applications of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors," NPG Asia Mater. 2, 15-22 (2010).
  8. J. H. Jeong, H. W. Yang, T. K. Ahn, M. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. S. Gu, H.-J. Chung, J.-S. Park, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, H. K. Chung, "12.1-in. WXGA AMOLED display driven by InGaZnO thin-film transistors," J. Soc. Inf. Display 17, 95 (2009).
  9. T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11, 044305 (2010).
  10. P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncçalves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Toward high-performance amorphous GIZO TFTs," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H161 (2009).
  11. C.-S. Fuh, S. M. Sze, P.-T. Liu, L.-F. Teng, Y.-T. Chou, "Role of environmental and annealing conditions on the passivation-free in-Ga–Zn–O TFT," Thin Solid Films 520, 1489-1494 (2011).
  12. T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Material characteristics and applications of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors," NPG Asia Mater. 2, 15-22 (2010).
  13. J. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. D. Shieh, P.-T. Liu, Y.-P. Huang, "Electrical and photosensitive characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs related to oxygen vacancy," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 1121-1126 (2011).
  14. S.-J. Jeon, J.-W. Chang, K.-S. Choi, J. P. Kar, T.-I. Lee, J.-M. Myoung, "Enhancement in electrical performance of indium gallium zinc oxide-based thin film transistors by low temperature thermal annealing," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 13, 320-324 (2010).

2012

E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, R. Martins, "Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: A review of recent advances," Adv. Mater. 24, 2945-2986 (2012).

2011

C.-S. Fuh, S. M. Sze, P.-T. Liu, L.-F. Teng, Y.-T. Chou, "Role of environmental and annealing conditions on the passivation-free in-Ga–Zn–O TFT," Thin Solid Films 520, 1489-1494 (2011).

J. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. D. Shieh, P.-T. Liu, Y.-P. Huang, "Electrical and photosensitive characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs related to oxygen vacancy," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 1121-1126 (2011).

2010

S.-J. Jeon, J.-W. Chang, K.-S. Choi, J. P. Kar, T.-I. Lee, J.-M. Myoung, "Enhancement in electrical performance of indium gallium zinc oxide-based thin film transistors by low temperature thermal annealing," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 13, 320-324 (2010).

T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Material characteristics and applications of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors," NPG Asia Mater. 2, 15-22 (2010).

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11, 044305 (2010).

T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Material characteristics and applications of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors," NPG Asia Mater. 2, 15-22 (2010).

2009

J. H. Jeong, H. W. Yang, T. K. Ahn, M. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. S. Gu, H.-J. Chung, J.-S. Park, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, H. K. Chung, "12.1-in. WXGA AMOLED display driven by InGaZnO thin-film transistors," J. Soc. Inf. Display 17, 95 (2009).

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncçalves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Toward high-performance amorphous GIZO TFTs," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H161 (2009).

1999

G. K. Giust, T. W. Sigmon, J. B. Boyce, J. Ho, "High-performance laser-processed polysilicon thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 77-79 (1999).

1996

H. Hosono, M. Yasukawa, H. Kawazoe, "Novel oxide amorphous semiconductors: Transparent conducting amorphous oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 334-344 (1996).

1987

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. French, D. H. Nicholls, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1244 (1987).

Adv. Mater.

E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, R. Martins, "Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: A review of recent advances," Adv. Mater. 24, 2945-2986 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. French, D. H. Nicholls, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1244 (1987).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

G. K. Giust, T. W. Sigmon, J. B. Boyce, J. Ho, "High-performance laser-processed polysilicon thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 77-79 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

J. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. D. Shieh, P.-T. Liu, Y.-P. Huang, "Electrical and photosensitive characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs related to oxygen vacancy," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 58, 1121-1126 (2011).

J. Electrochem. Soc.

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncçalves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Toward high-performance amorphous GIZO TFTs," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H161 (2009).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

H. Hosono, M. Yasukawa, H. Kawazoe, "Novel oxide amorphous semiconductors: Transparent conducting amorphous oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 334-344 (1996).

J. Soc. Inf. Display

J. H. Jeong, H. W. Yang, T. K. Ahn, M. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. S. Gu, H.-J. Chung, J.-S. Park, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, H. K. Chung, "12.1-in. WXGA AMOLED display driven by InGaZnO thin-film transistors," J. Soc. Inf. Display 17, 95 (2009).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Hara, M. Takei, F. Takeuchi, K. Suga, K. Yoshino, M. Chida, T. Kakehi, Y. Ebiko, Y. Sand, N. Sasaki, "High performance low temperature polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors on non-alkaline glass produced using diode pumped solid state continuous wave laser lateral crystallization," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1269-1276.

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.

S.-J. Jeon, J.-W. Chang, K.-S. Choi, J. P. Kar, T.-I. Lee, J.-M. Myoung, "Enhancement in electrical performance of indium gallium zinc oxide-based thin film transistors by low temperature thermal annealing," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 13, 320-324 (2010).

NPG Asia Mater.

T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Material characteristics and applications of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors," NPG Asia Mater. 2, 15-22 (2010).

T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Material characteristics and applications of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors," NPG Asia Mater. 2, 15-22 (2010).

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater.

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11, 044305 (2010).

Thin Solid Films

C.-S. Fuh, S. M. Sze, P.-T. Liu, L.-F. Teng, Y.-T. Chou, "Role of environmental and annealing conditions on the passivation-free in-Ga–Zn–O TFT," Thin Solid Films 520, 1489-1494 (2011).

Other

Y. Kuo, Thin Film Transistors: Materials and Processes (Springer, 2003).

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