Abstract

In this paper, we minimized efficiency droop by varying barrier thickness for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MWQs) featuring narrow quantum barriers (NQBs). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) for a light-emitting diode (LED) possessing NQBs improved by 18% at a current density of 200 A ⋅ cm<sup>-2</sup> , compared to that of a conventional LED incorporating a 12-nm-thick barrier. The enhanced carrier distribution resulting from the presence of NQBs was practically approved from another experimental design in this study. We suggest that the NQBs displayed uniform carrier distribution in active layer and decreased the carrier density in the active layer at a critical current density.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, "High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 79-87 (2010).
  2. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. no. 161107.
  3. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. no 261103.
  4. K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. no. 191109.
  5. M. F. Schubert, J. R. Xu, Q. Dai, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "On resonant optical excitation and carrier escape in GaInN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009).
  6. X. Li, H. Y. Liu, X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, "Effect of carrier spillover and Auger recombination on the efficiency droop in InGaN-based blue LEDs," Superlattices Microstruct. 47, 118-122 (2010).
  7. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, (2012) Art. no. 024001.
  8. R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. no. 171115.
  9. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  10. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. no. 131114.
  11. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, (2011) Art. no. 113110.
  12. Y. K. En, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).
  13. Y. K. En, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Crystal Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).
  14. Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011).
  15. T. S. Kim, B. J. Ahn, Y. Q. Dong, K. N. Park, J. G. Lee, Y. B. Moon, H. K. Yuh, S. C. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. K. Hong, J. H. Song, "Well-to-well non-uniformity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells characterized by capacitance-voltage measurement with additional laser illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, (2012).
  16. W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, M. Kneissl, "Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).
  17. N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, M. R. Krames, "Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007).
  18. M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, "Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009).
  19. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).
  20. A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008).
  21. U. Kaufmann, P. Schlotter, H. Obloh, K. Köhler, M. Maier, "Hole conductivity and compensation in epitaxial GaN:Mg layers," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10867-10872 (2000).
  22. D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, S. Y. Karpov, "Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modelling," Phys. Status Solid. A 209, 456-460 (2012).
  23. B. C. Chen, C. Y. Chang, Y. K. Fu, K. F. Huang, Y. H. Lu, Y. K. Su, "Improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thin intermediate barriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1682-1684 (2011).
  24. M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, Y. K. Kuo, "Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 76-78 (2011).

2012

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, (2012) Art. no. 024001.

T. S. Kim, B. J. Ahn, Y. Q. Dong, K. N. Park, J. G. Lee, Y. B. Moon, H. K. Yuh, S. C. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. K. Hong, J. H. Song, "Well-to-well non-uniformity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells characterized by capacitance-voltage measurement with additional laser illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, (2012).

D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, S. Y. Karpov, "Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modelling," Phys. Status Solid. A 209, 456-460 (2012).

2011

B. C. Chen, C. Y. Chang, Y. K. Fu, K. F. Huang, Y. H. Lu, Y. K. Su, "Improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thin intermediate barriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1682-1684 (2011).

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, Y. K. Kuo, "Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 76-78 (2011).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, (2011) Art. no. 113110.

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011).

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. no. 171115.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. no. 161107.

2010

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. no. 131114.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, "High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 79-87 (2010).

X. Li, H. Y. Liu, X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, "Effect of carrier spillover and Auger recombination on the efficiency droop in InGaN-based blue LEDs," Superlattices Microstruct. 47, 118-122 (2010).

Y. K. En, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Crystal Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, M. Kneissl, "Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

2009

Y. K. En, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. no. 191109.

M. F. Schubert, J. R. Xu, Q. Dai, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "On resonant optical excitation and carrier escape in GaInN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009).

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, "Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009).

2008

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. no 261103.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008).

2007

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, M. R. Krames, "Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007).

2000

U. Kaufmann, P. Schlotter, H. Obloh, K. Köhler, M. Maier, "Hole conductivity and compensation in epitaxial GaN:Mg layers," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10867-10872 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. no. 161107.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. no 261103.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. no. 191109.

M. F. Schubert, J. R. Xu, Q. Dai, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "On resonant optical excitation and carrier escape in GaInN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009).

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. no. 171115.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. no. 131114.

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011).

T. S. Kim, B. J. Ahn, Y. Q. Dong, K. N. Park, J. G. Lee, Y. B. Moon, H. K. Yuh, S. C. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. K. Hong, J. H. Song, "Well-to-well non-uniformity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells characterized by capacitance-voltage measurement with additional laser illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, (2012).

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, M. Kneissl, "Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, M. R. Krames, "Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007).

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, "Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009).

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

Y. K. En, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. C. Chen, C. Y. Chang, Y. K. Fu, K. F. Huang, Y. H. Lu, Y. K. Su, "Improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thin intermediate barriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1682-1684 (2011).

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, Y. K. Kuo, "Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 76-78 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, "High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 79-87 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, (2011) Art. no. 113110.

J. Crystal Growth

Y. K. En, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Crystal Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

U. Kaufmann, P. Schlotter, H. Obloh, K. Köhler, M. Maier, "Hole conductivity and compensation in epitaxial GaN:Mg layers," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10867-10872 (2000).

Phys. Status Solid. A

D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, S. Y. Karpov, "Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modelling," Phys. Status Solid. A 209, 456-460 (2012).

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, (2012) Art. no. 024001.

Solid-State Electron.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

Superlattices Microstruct.

X. Li, H. Y. Liu, X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, "Effect of carrier spillover and Auger recombination on the efficiency droop in InGaN-based blue LEDs," Superlattices Microstruct. 47, 118-122 (2010).

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