Abstract

Current injection efficiency and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in InGaN quantum well (QW) based light emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated. The analysis is based on current continuity relation for drift and diffusion carrier transport across the QW-barrier systems. A self-consistent 6-band <i>k ⋅ p</i> method is used to calculate the band structure for InGaN QW structure. Carrier-photon rate equations are utilized to describe radiative and non-radiative recombination in the QW and the barrier regions, carrier transport and capture time, and thermionic emission leading to carrier leakage out of the QW. Our model indicates that the IQE in the conventional 24-Å In<sub>0.28</sub>Ga<sub>0.72</sub>N-GaN QW structure reaches its peak at low injection current density and reduces gradually with further increase in current due to the large thermionic carrier leakage. The efficiency droop phenomenon at high current density in III-nitride LEDs is thus consistent with the high-driving-current induced quenching in current injection efficiency predicted by our model. The effects of the monomolecular recombination coefficient, Auger recombination coefficient and GaN hole mobility on the current injection efficiency and IQE are studied. Structures combining InGaN QW with thin larger energy bandgap barriers such as Al<sub>x</sub>Ga<sub>1-x</sub>N, lattice-matched Al<sub>x</sub>In<sub>1-x</sub>N, and lattice-matched Al<sub>x</sub>Ga<sub>1-x-y</sub>N have been analyzed to improve current injection efficiency and thus minimize droop at high current injection in III-nitride LEDs. Effect of the thickness of the larger energy bandgap barriers (AlGaN, AlInN and AlInGaN) on injection efficiency and IQE are investigated. The use of thin AlGaN barriers shows slight reduction of quenching of the injection efficiency as the current density increases. The use of thin lattice-matched AlInN or AlInGaN barriers shows significant suppression of efficiency-droop in nitride LEDs.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, (2012) Art. 024001.

L. Y. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, G. Borghs, "Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, (2012).

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, C. Sone, "Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161106 (2012).

J. Wang, L. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, A. Dempewolf, M. Muller, F. Bertram, J. Christen, "An improved carrier rate model to evaluate internal quantum efficiency and analyze efficiency droop origin of InGaN based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023107 (2012).

I. E. Titkov, "Blue light emitting diode internal and injection efficiency," AIP Adv. 2, 032117 (2012).

J. Y. Chang, Y. K. Kuo, "Influence of polarization-matched AlGaInN barriers in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes," Optics Lett. 37, 1574-1576 (2012).

Y. K. Kuo, T. H. Wang, J. Y. Chang, "Blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple GaN-InGaN Barriers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 946-951 (2012).

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 340, 66-73 (2012).

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. J. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, "High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (2021) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Exp. 5, (2012).

L. F. Xu, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni, J. Y. Yeh, L. J. Mawst, N. Tansu, "Experimental evidence of the impact of nitrogen on carrier capture and escape times in InGaAsN/GaAs single quantum well," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2262-2271 (2012).

2011

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Exp. 4, (2011).

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, C. P. Hsu, "Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211107 (2011).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

2010

C. T. Liao, M. C. Tsai, B. T. Liou, Y. K. Kuo, "Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well," J. Appl. Phys. 108, (2010).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131114 (2010).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, A. Schleife, F. Bechstedt, C. G. Van de Walle, "Free-carrier absorption in nitrides from first principles," Phys. Rev. B 81, (2010).

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221105 (2010).

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, "Enhancement in hole-injection efficiency of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes from reduced polarization by some specific designs for the electron blocking layer," Opt. Lett. 35, 3285-3287 (2010).

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).

H. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

2009

J. Xu, "Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN multi quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).

M. Maier, K. Kohler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, "Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041103 (2009).

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. V. d. Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109 (2009).

S. H. Park, Y. T. Lee, J. Park, "Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells," Opt. Quantum Electron. 41, 779-785 (2009).

H. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, J.-W. Kim, "Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 063507 (2009).

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, "Self-consistent analysis of strain compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 66-78 (2009).

2008

T.-S. Yeh, J.-M. Wu, W.-H. Lan, "Electrical properties and optical bandgaps of AlInN films by reactive sputtering," J. Crys. Growth 310, 5308-5311 (2008).

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261103 (2008).

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Nemoz, M. Korytov, P. Vennegues, A. D. Drager, A. Hangleiter, "Indium incorporation dynamics into AlInN ternary alloys for laser structures lattice matched to GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081116 (2008).

A. Knauer, H. Wenzel, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, G. Trankle, "Effect of the barrier composition on the polarization fields in near UV InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191912 (2008).

M. F. Schubert, "Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011104 (2008).

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II `W' InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 043104 (2008).

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, "On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121107 (2008).

X. F. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, "Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171113 (2008).

2007

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, "Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141101 (2007).

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, M. R. Krames, "Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506 (2007).

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, S. L. Chuang, "Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN– GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1175-1182 (2007).

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, M. A. Banas, "Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231114 (2007).

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, "Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091110 (2007).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007).

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

Y.-C. Lu, "Carrier trapping effects on photoluminescence decay time in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with nanocluster structures," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063511 (2007).

J. K. Son, "Radiative and non-radiative transitions in blue quantum wells embedded in AlInGaN-based laser diodes," Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) 4, 2780-2783 (2007).

2006

M. A. Khan, "AlGaN multiple quantum well based deep UV LEDs and their applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 203, 1764-1770 (2006).

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, "Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261905 (2006).

A. Efremov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, D. Lavrinovich, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkhin, Y. Shreter, "Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs," Semiconductors 40, 605-610 (2006).

2005

N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054502 (2005).

2003

N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "The role of hole-leakage in 1300-nm InGaAsN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1500-1502 (2003).

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, "Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3675-3696 (2003).

2001

M. Farahmand, "Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: Binaries and ternaries," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 535-542 (2001).

S. F. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, M. Sugiyama, T. Kitamura, Y. Ishida, H. Okumura, H. Nakanishi, T. Sota, T. Mukai, "Optical and structural studies in InGaN quantum well structure laser diodes," J. Vacuum Sci. & Technol. B 19, 2177-2183 (2001).

X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, "Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1936-1938 (2001).

2000

J. Zhang, "Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2668-2670 (2000).

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, W. C. Mitchel, "Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1832-1835 (2000).

1999

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, S. Nakamura, "Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3976-3981 (1999).

1997

S. L. Chuang, C. S. Chang, "A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 252-263 (1997).

1996

S. L. Chuang, "Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1791-1800 (1996).

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2L74-L76 (1996).

1988

H. Schneider, K. V. Klitzing, "Thermionic emission and Gaussian transport of holes in a GaAs/AlGaAs As multiple-quantum-well structure," Phys. Rev. B 38, 6160-6165 (1988).

AIP Adv.

I. E. Titkov, "Blue light emitting diode internal and injection efficiency," AIP Adv. 2, 032117 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Exp.

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. J. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, "High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (2021) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Exp. 5, (2012).

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Exp. 4, (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, "Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261905 (2006).

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Nemoz, M. Korytov, P. Vennegues, A. D. Drager, A. Hangleiter, "Indium incorporation dynamics into AlInN ternary alloys for laser structures lattice matched to GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081116 (2008).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007).

A. Knauer, H. Wenzel, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, G. Trankle, "Effect of the barrier composition on the polarization fields in near UV InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191912 (2008).

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101 (2010).

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, C. P. Hsu, "Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211107 (2011).

N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "The role of hole-leakage in 1300-nm InGaAsN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1500-1502 (2003).

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261103 (2008).

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, "On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121107 (2008).

X. F. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, "Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171113 (2008).

M. Maier, K. Kohler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, "Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041103 (2009).

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, "Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141101 (2007).

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, M. R. Krames, "Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506 (2007).

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. V. d. Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109 (2009).

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, C. Sone, "Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161106 (2012).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221105 (2010).

J. Zhang, "Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2668-2670 (2000).

X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, "Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1936-1938 (2001).

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, "Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091110 (2007).

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, J.-W. Kim, "Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 063507 (2009).

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011104 (2008).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131114 (2010).

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, M. A. Banas, "Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231114 (2007).

M. F. Schubert, "Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).

J. Xu, "Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN multi quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, S. L. Chuang, "Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN– GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1175-1182 (2007).

Y. K. Kuo, T. H. Wang, J. Y. Chang, "Blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple GaN-InGaN Barriers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 946-951 (2012).

S. L. Chuang, "Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1791-1800 (1996).

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, "Self-consistent analysis of strain compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 66-78 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J.

G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, N. Tansu, "Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. .

L. F. Xu, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni, J. Y. Yeh, L. J. Mawst, N. Tansu, "Experimental evidence of the impact of nitrogen on carrier capture and escape times in InGaAsN/GaAs single quantum well," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2262-2271 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

M. Farahmand, "Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: Binaries and ternaries," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 535-542 (2001).

IET Optoelectron.

H. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Wang, L. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, A. Dempewolf, M. Muller, F. Bertram, J. Christen, "An improved carrier rate model to evaluate internal quantum efficiency and analyze efficiency droop origin of InGaN based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023107 (2012).

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II `W' InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 043104 (2008).

C. T. Liao, M. C. Tsai, B. T. Liou, Y. K. Kuo, "Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well," J. Appl. Phys. 108, (2010).

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, W. C. Mitchel, "Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1832-1835 (2000).

Y.-C. Lu, "Carrier trapping effects on photoluminescence decay time in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with nanocluster structures," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063511 (2007).

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, "Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3675-3696 (2003).

N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054502 (2005).

J. Crys. Growth

T.-S. Yeh, J.-M. Wu, W.-H. Lan, "Electrical properties and optical bandgaps of AlInN films by reactive sputtering," J. Crys. Growth 310, 5308-5311 (2008).

J. Cryst. Growth

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 340, 66-73 (2012).

J. Display Technol.

J. Vacuum Sci. & Technol. B

S. F. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, M. Sugiyama, T. Kitamura, Y. Ishida, H. Okumura, H. Nakanishi, T. Sota, T. Mukai, "Optical and structural studies in InGaN quantum well structure laser diodes," J. Vacuum Sci. & Technol. B 19, 2177-2183 (2001).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2L74-L76 (1996).

L. Y. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, G. Borghs, "Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, (2012).

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, S. Nakamura, "Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3976-3981 (1999).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Lee, J. Park, "Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells," Opt. Quantum Electron. 41, 779-785 (2009).

Optics Lett.

J. Y. Chang, Y. K. Kuo, "Influence of polarization-matched AlGaInN barriers in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes," Optics Lett. 37, 1574-1576 (2012).

Phys. Rev. B

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, A. Schleife, F. Bechstedt, C. G. Van de Walle, "Free-carrier absorption in nitrides from first principles," Phys. Rev. B 81, (2010).

H. Schneider, K. V. Klitzing, "Thermionic emission and Gaussian transport of holes in a GaAs/AlGaAs As multiple-quantum-well structure," Phys. Rev. B 38, 6160-6165 (1988).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (a)

M. A. Khan, "AlGaN multiple quantum well based deep UV LEDs and their applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 203, 1764-1770 (2006).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)

J. K. Son, "Radiative and non-radiative transitions in blue quantum wells embedded in AlInGaN-based laser diodes," Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) 4, 2780-2783 (2007).

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

S. L. Chuang, C. S. Chang, "A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 252-263 (1997).

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, (2012) Art. 024001.

Semiconductors

A. Efremov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, D. Lavrinovich, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkhin, Y. Shreter, "Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs," Semiconductors 40, 605-610 (2006).

Solid-State Electron.

H. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

Other

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronics Devices (Wiley, 1995).

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, Nitride Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2009) pp. 13-48.

S. Hernandez, K. Wang, D. Amabile, E. Nogales, D. Pastor, R. Cusco, "Structural and optical properties of MOCVD InAlN epilayers," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2005) pp. 0892-FF23.

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