Abstract

This work examines the effects of polarization-related electric fields on the energy band diagrams, wavelength shift, wave function overlap, and efficiency droop for InGaN quantum wells on various crystal orientations, including polar (0001) (<i>c</i>-plane), semipolar (20<sup>-</sup>21), semipolar (20<sup>-</sup>2<sup>-</sup>1, and nonpolar (10<sup>-</sup>10) (<i>m</i>-plane). Based on simulations, we show that the semipolar (20<sup>-</sup>2<sup>-</sup>1) orientation exhibits excellent potential for the development of high-efficiency, low-droop light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We then present recent advancements in crystal growth, optical performance, and thermal performance of semipolar (20<sup>-</sup>2<sup>-</sup>1) LEDs. Finally, we demonstrate a low-droop, high-efficiency single-quantum-well blue semipolar (20<sup>-</sup>2<sup>-</sup>1) LED with an external quantum efficiency of more than 50% at 100 A/cm<sup>2</sup>.

© 2013 IEEE

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  3. A. David, M. J. Grundman, "Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103504-103504-3 (2010).
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  6. X. Ni, X. Li, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, "Hot electron effects on efficiency degredation in InGaN light-emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033112-033112-13 (2010).
  7. J. Hader, J. V. Maloney, S. W. Koch, "Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221106-221106-3 (2010).
  8. N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, M. R. Krames, "Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506-243506-3 (2007).
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  18. S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C. C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "High-efficiency green single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar (20-21), GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Express 3, 122102-122102-3 (2010).
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  25. M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, S. Y. Karpov, "Coupled modeling of current spreading, thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 125023-125023-10 (2008).
  26. K. A. Bulashevich, V. F. Mymrin, S. Y. Karpov, I. A. Zhmakin, A. I. Zhmakin, "Simulation of visible and ultra-violet group-III nitride light emitting diodes," J. Comput. Phys. 213, 214-238 (2005).
  27. D. S. Sitzov, R. Bhat, A. Zakharian, K. Song, D. Allen, S. Coleman, C. Zah, "Carrier transport in InGaN MQWs of aquamarine- and green-laser diodes," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17, 1390-1401 (2011).
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  29. A. David, M. J. Grundman, "Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 033501-033501-3 (2010).
  30. E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, C. G. Van de Walle, "Interplay of polarization fileds and auger recombination in the efficiency of nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231107-231107-3 (2012).
  31. M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, B. Hahn, "A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114508-114508-4 (2009).
  32. X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. C. Hsu, A. Matulionis, "Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance," J. Appl. Phys. 111, 063112-063112-9 (2012).
  33. R. F. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001-024001-14 (2011).
  34. V. Liuolia, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevicius, Y. D. Lin, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Carrier localization in m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by scanning near field optical spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151106-033501-3 (2010).
  35. J. Northrup, "GaN and InGaN (11-22) surfaces: Group-III adlayers and indium incorporation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133107-133107-3 (2009).
  36. Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, D. F. Feezell, "Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201108-201108-4 (2012).
  37. C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, D. F. Feezell, "High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Express 5, 062103-062103-3 (2012).
  38. S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, T. Sota, "Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors," Nature Mat. 5, 810-816 (2006).
  39. Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981-983 (1996).
  40. H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, J. I. Shim, "Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131109-131109-4 (2012).
  41. A. David, M. J. Grundman, J. F. Keading, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053502-053502-3 (2008).
  42. Y. R. Wu, R. Shivaraman, K. C. Wang, J. S. Speck, "Analyzing the physical properties of InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes from nano scale structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 083505-083505-4 (2012).
  43. C. C. Pan, T. Gilbert, N. Pfaff, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Reduction in thermal droop using thick single-quantum-well structure in semipolar (20-2-1) blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Express 5, 102103-102103-3 (2012).
  44. D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, J. K. Kim, "Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081106-081106-3 (2012).

2012 (8)

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, C. G. Van de Walle, "Interplay of polarization fileds and auger recombination in the efficiency of nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231107-231107-3 (2012).

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. C. Hsu, A. Matulionis, "Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance," J. Appl. Phys. 111, 063112-063112-9 (2012).

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, D. F. Feezell, "Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201108-201108-4 (2012).

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, D. F. Feezell, "High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Express 5, 062103-062103-3 (2012).

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, J. I. Shim, "Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131109-131109-4 (2012).

Y. R. Wu, R. Shivaraman, K. C. Wang, J. S. Speck, "Analyzing the physical properties of InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes from nano scale structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 083505-083505-4 (2012).

C. C. Pan, T. Gilbert, N. Pfaff, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Reduction in thermal droop using thick single-quantum-well structure in semipolar (20-2-1) blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Express 5, 102103-102103-3 (2012).

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, J. K. Kim, "Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081106-081106-3 (2012).

2011 (6)

R. F. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001-024001-14 (2011).

D. S. Sitzov, R. Bhat, A. Zakharian, K. Song, D. Allen, S. Coleman, C. Zah, "Carrier transport in InGaN MQWs of aquamarine- and green-laser diodes," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17, 1390-1401 (2011).

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, "Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells," Phys. Stat. Solidi (b) 248, 638-646 (2011).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107-161107-3 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082104-082104-3 (2011).

2010 (8)

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C. C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue semipolar (10-1-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique," Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101-102101-3 (2010).

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C. C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "High-efficiency green single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar (20-21), GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Express 3, 122102-122102-3 (2010).

A. David, M. J. Grundman, "Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103504-103504-3 (2010).

X. Ni, X. Li, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, "Hot electron effects on efficiency degredation in InGaN light-emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033112-033112-13 (2010).

J. Hader, J. V. Maloney, S. W. Koch, "Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221106-221106-3 (2010).

J. Piprek, "Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes," Phys. Stat. Solid. (a) 207, 2217-2225 (2010).

A. David, M. J. Grundman, "Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 033501-033501-3 (2010).

V. Liuolia, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevicius, Y. D. Lin, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Carrier localization in m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by scanning near field optical spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151106-033501-3 (2010).

2009 (2)

J. Northrup, "GaN and InGaN (11-22) surfaces: Group-III adlayers and indium incorporation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133107-133107-3 (2009).

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, B. Hahn, "A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114508-114508-4 (2009).

2008 (3)

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, S. Y. Karpov, "Coupled modeling of current spreading, thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 125023-125023-10 (2008).

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, "Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241109-241109-3 (2008).

A. David, M. J. Grundman, J. F. Keading, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053502-053502-3 (2008).

2007 (6)

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, K. Fujito, "Study of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181120-181120-3 (2007).

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284-L286 (2007).

M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "High power and high external efficiency m-plane InGaN light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L126-L128 (2007).

Y. Shen, G. O. Muller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, "Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141101-141101-3 (2007).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507-183507-3 (2007).

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, M. R. Krames, "Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506-243506-3 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, J. S. Speck, "Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023522-023522-10 (2006).

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, T. Sota, "Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors," Nature Mat. 5, 810-816 (2006).

2005 (1)

K. A. Bulashevich, V. F. Mymrin, S. Y. Karpov, I. A. Zhmakin, A. I. Zhmakin, "Simulation of visible and ultra-violet group-III nitride light emitting diodes," J. Comput. Phys. 213, 214-238 (2005).

2000 (2)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, "Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes," Nature 406, 865-868 (2000).

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 413-416 (2000).

1999 (1)

S. H. Park, S. L. Chuang, "Crystal-orientation effects on the piezoelectric field and electronic properties of strained wurtzite semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 59, 4725-4737 (1999).

1998 (1)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, "Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8849-8858 (1998).

1997 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, D. Vanderbilt, "Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides," Phys. Rev. B 56, R10024-R10027 (1997).

1996 (1)

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981-983 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Express (5)

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082104-082104-3 (2011).

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C. C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue semipolar (10-1-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique," Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101-102101-3 (2010).

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C. C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "High-efficiency green single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar (20-21), GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Express 3, 122102-122102-3 (2010).

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, D. F. Feezell, "High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Express 5, 062103-062103-3 (2012).

C. C. Pan, T. Gilbert, N. Pfaff, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Reduction in thermal droop using thick single-quantum-well structure in semipolar (20-2-1) blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Express 5, 102103-102103-3 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (18)

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, J. K. Kim, "Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081106-081106-3 (2012).

V. Liuolia, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevicius, Y. D. Lin, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Carrier localization in m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by scanning near field optical spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151106-033501-3 (2010).

J. Northrup, "GaN and InGaN (11-22) surfaces: Group-III adlayers and indium incorporation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133107-133107-3 (2009).

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