The innovation in solid state lighting technology has led to revolution in the fields of energy efficiency, display, sensing, and smart lighting applications. The progress in the solid state lighting technology was enabled by the advances in both material and device technologies, as well as the rapid implementation into systems applications. Currently, both the organic and inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have penetrated into many of the consumer electronics, energy-efficiency technologies, and smart device technologies and systems.

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