Abstract

We have demonstrated a vertically stacked device consisting of organic photovoltaic device (OPV) and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) inside a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) cell. In such a device, OLED and PDLC acted as transmissive- (T-) and reflective- (R-) mode, respectively, of a transflective display without the tradeoff of aperture ratio between R- and T-modes in a conventional transflective LC display. OPV functioned as the black background for PDLC operation and increased the contrast ratio of OLED. Electrical characteristics of OLED and OPV in the stacked device were nearly identical to their individual device, which showed the fabrication process had little effect on OLED and OPV performances. However, their optical properties showed a little degradation, coming from the multi-layer structure and hence the suitable optical cavity design was needed. Storage lifetime of OLED increased in the stacked device because LC material helped to prevent the water and oxygen attack. Driving voltage of PDLC increased due to the insertion of passivation layer upon the electrode which was used protect the OLED and OPV underneath.

© 2013 IEEE

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  28. Z. D. Popovic, H. Aziz, "Reliability and degradation of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs)," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 8, 362 (2002).
  29. H. C. Chen, J. H. Lee, C. C. Shiau, C. C. Yang, Y. W. Kiang, "Electromagnetic modeling of organic light-emitting devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2450 (2006).
  30. J. McElvain, H. Antoniadis, M. R. Hueschen, J. N. Miller, D. M. Roitman, J. R. Sheats, R. L. Moon, "Formation and growth of black spots in organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6002 (1996).
  31. C. D. Wang, W. C. H. Choy, "Efficient hole collection by introducing ultra-thin UV–ozone treated Au in polymer solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 904 (2011).
  32. Q. L. Song, M. L. Wang, E. G. Obbard, X. Y. Sun, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, C. M. Li, "Degradation of small-molecule organic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251118 (2006).
  33. S. W. Liu, C. C. Lee, C. F. Lin, J. C. Huang, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "Degradation of small-molecule organic solar cells," J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7800 (2010).
  34. C. Y. Chang, F. Y. Tsai, "Efficient and air-stable plastics-based polymer solar cells enabled by atomic layer deposition," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 5710 (2011).
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2012 (6)

C. L. Lin, C. C. Hung, P. Y. Kuo, M. H. Cheng, "New LTPS pixel circuit with AC driving method to reduce OLED degradation for 3D AMOLED displays," J. Display Technol. 8, 681-683 (2012).

M. Yokoyama, C. M. Wu, S. H. Su, "Enhancing the efficiency and contrast ratio of white organic light-emitting diode using energy-recyclable photovoltaic cells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 032102 (2012).

H. Cho, S. Yoo, "Polarizer-free, high-contrast inverted top-emitting organic light emitting diodes: Effect of the electrode structure," Opt. Express 20, 1816 (2012).

S. W. Liu, C. F. Lin, C. C. Lee, W. C. Su, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "High open-circuit voltage planar heterojunction organic photovoltaics exhibiting red electroluminescence," J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H191 (2012).

C. F. Lin, S. W. Liu, C. C. Lee, J. C. Huang, W. C. Su, T. L. Chiu, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "Open-circuit voltage and efficiency improvement of subphthalocyanine-based organic photovoltaic device through deposition rate control," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 103, 69 (2012).

Y. S. Ha, H. J. Kim, H. G. Park, D. S. Seo, "Enhancement of electro-optic properties in liquid crystal devices via titanium nanoparticle doping," Opt. Express 20, 6448 (2012).

2011 (5)

C. Y. Chang, F. Y. Tsai, "Efficient and air-stable plastics-based polymer solar cells enabled by atomic layer deposition," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 5710 (2011).

C. D. Wang, W. C. H. Choy, "Efficient hole collection by introducing ultra-thin UV–ozone treated Au in polymer solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 904 (2011).

C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, "Bistable reflective polarizer-free optical switch based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1457 (2011).

S. W. Liu, C. C. Lee, K. Y. Wu, J. C. Huang, W. C. Su, C. F. Lin, C. T. Chen, Y. T. Tao, J. H. Lee, "Stamped self-assembled monolayers on electrode for connecting organic light-emitting diode and organic photovoltaic device," J. Display Technol. 7, 229 (2011).

Y. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, W. Song, M. Meng, Z. H. Lu, W. Y. Kim, "High contrast green OLEDs using inorganic metal multilayer," Synth. Met. 161, 2211 (2011).

2010 (3)

S. Chen, J. Xie, Y. Yang, C. Chen, W. Huang, "High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a Ni/ZnS/CuPc/Ni contrast-enhancing stack and a ZnS anti-reflection layer," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 365101 (2010).

C. F. Lin, S. W. Liu, W. F. Hsu, M. Zhang, T. L. Chiu, Y. Wu, J. H. Lee, "Modification of silver anode and cathode for top-illuminated organic photovoltaic device," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 43, 395101 (2010).

S. W. Liu, C. C. Lee, C. F. Lin, J. C. Huang, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "Degradation of small-molecule organic solar cells," J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7800 (2010).

2009 (2)

H. M. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, Y. F. Dai, D. G. Ma, "The structural composite effect of Au-WO3-Al interconnecting electrode on performance of each unit in stacked OLEDs," Organ. Electron. 10, 402-407 (2009).

T. L. Chiu, K. H. Chuang, C. F. Lin, Y. H. Ho, J. H. Lee, C. C. Chao, M. K. Leung, D. H. Wan, C. Y. Li, H. L. Chen, "Low reflection and photo-sensitive organic light-emitting device with perylene diimide and double-metal structure," Thin Solid Films 517, 3712-3716 (2009).

2007 (3)

B. R. Yang, K. H. Liu, H. P. D. Shieh, "Emi-flective display device with attribute of high glare-free-ambient-contrast-ratio," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7418 (2007).

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C.-L. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Organic light-emitting devices integrated with solar cells: High contrast and energy recycling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007).

H. K. Kim, S. W. Kim, D. G. Kim, J. W. Kang, M. S. Kim, W. J. Cho, "Thin film passivation of organic light emitting diodes by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition," Thin Solid Films 515, 4758 (2007).

2006 (4)

Q. L. Song, M. L. Wang, E. G. Obbard, X. Y. Sun, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, C. M. Li, "Degradation of small-molecule organic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251118 (2006).

H. C. Chen, J. H. Lee, C. C. Shiau, C. C. Yang, Y. W. Kiang, "Electromagnetic modeling of organic light-emitting devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2450 (2006).

J. H. Lee, K. Y. Chen, C. C. Hsiao, H. C. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, "Radiation simulations of top-emission organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures," J. Display Technol. 2, 130 (2006).

C. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Chen, T. C. Lin, C. C. Hsiao, J. H. Lee, "Recombination zone in mixed-host organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163511 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, S. T. Wu, "High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device," Opt. Exp. 13, 9431-9438 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, Y. Chang, "High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPC as electron transport material," Synth. Met. 144, 279 (2004).

P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, J. Hauch, C. J. Brabec, "Simulation of light intensity dependent current characteristics of polymer solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2816 (2004).

2002 (2)

Z. D. Popovic, H. Aziz, "Reliability and degradation of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs)," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 8, 362 (2002).

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, "Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 797 (2002).

2001 (1)

T. Douseki, T. Yamada, J. Yamada, K. Ito, K. Nishi, "Photovoltaic display module in a mobile GPS," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 67, 543 (2001).

1996 (1)

J. McElvain, H. Antoniadis, M. R. Hueschen, J. N. Miller, D. M. Roitman, J. R. Sheats, R. L. Moon, "Formation and growth of black spots in organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6002 (1996).

1989 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. Vanslyke, C. H. Chen, "Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610 (1989).

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C.-L. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Organic light-emitting devices integrated with solar cells: High contrast and energy recycling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007).

C. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Chen, T. C. Lin, C. C. Hsiao, J. H. Lee, "Recombination zone in mixed-host organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163511 (2006).

Q. L. Song, M. L. Wang, E. G. Obbard, X. Y. Sun, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, C. M. Li, "Degradation of small-molecule organic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251118 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

Z. D. Popovic, H. Aziz, "Reliability and degradation of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs)," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 8, 362 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J. McElvain, H. Antoniadis, M. R. Hueschen, J. N. Miller, D. M. Roitman, J. R. Sheats, R. L. Moon, "Formation and growth of black spots in organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6002 (1996).

P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, J. Hauch, C. J. Brabec, "Simulation of light intensity dependent current characteristics of polymer solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2816 (2004).

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, "Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 797 (2002).

C. W. Tang, S. A. Vanslyke, C. H. Chen, "Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610 (1989).

J. Display Technol. (3)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S. W. Liu, C. F. Lin, C. C. Lee, W. C. Su, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "High open-circuit voltage planar heterojunction organic photovoltaics exhibiting red electroluminescence," J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H191 (2012).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

S. W. Liu, C. C. Lee, C. F. Lin, J. C. Huang, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "Degradation of small-molecule organic solar cells," J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7800 (2010).

C. Y. Chang, F. Y. Tsai, "Efficient and air-stable plastics-based polymer solar cells enabled by atomic layer deposition," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 5710 (2011).

J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. (1)

C. F. Lin, S. W. Liu, W. F. Hsu, M. Zhang, T. L. Chiu, Y. Wu, J. H. Lee, "Modification of silver anode and cathode for top-illuminated organic photovoltaic device," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 43, 395101 (2010).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Chen, J. Xie, Y. Yang, C. Chen, W. Huang, "High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a Ni/ZnS/CuPc/Ni contrast-enhancing stack and a ZnS anti-reflection layer," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 365101 (2010).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. R. Yang, K. H. Liu, H. P. D. Shieh, "Emi-flective display device with attribute of high glare-free-ambient-contrast-ratio," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7418 (2007).

M. Yokoyama, C. M. Wu, S. H. Su, "Enhancing the efficiency and contrast ratio of white organic light-emitting diode using energy-recyclable photovoltaic cells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 032102 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, S. T. Wu, "High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device," Opt. Exp. 13, 9431-9438 (2005).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Organ. Electron. (1)

H. M. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, Y. F. Dai, D. G. Ma, "The structural composite effect of Au-WO3-Al interconnecting electrode on performance of each unit in stacked OLEDs," Organ. Electron. 10, 402-407 (2009).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

C. D. Wang, W. C. H. Choy, "Efficient hole collection by introducing ultra-thin UV–ozone treated Au in polymer solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 904 (2011).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. (1)

C. F. Lin, S. W. Liu, C. C. Lee, J. C. Huang, W. C. Su, T. L. Chiu, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "Open-circuit voltage and efficiency improvement of subphthalocyanine-based organic photovoltaic device through deposition rate control," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 103, 69 (2012).

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells (1)

T. Douseki, T. Yamada, J. Yamada, K. Ito, K. Nishi, "Photovoltaic display module in a mobile GPS," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 67, 543 (2001).

Synth. Met. (2)

Y. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, W. Song, M. Meng, Z. H. Lu, W. Y. Kim, "High contrast green OLEDs using inorganic metal multilayer," Synth. Met. 161, 2211 (2011).

J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, Y. Chang, "High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPC as electron transport material," Synth. Met. 144, 279 (2004).

Thin Solid Films (2)

T. L. Chiu, K. H. Chuang, C. F. Lin, Y. H. Ho, J. H. Lee, C. C. Chao, M. K. Leung, D. H. Wan, C. Y. Li, H. L. Chen, "Low reflection and photo-sensitive organic light-emitting device with perylene diimide and double-metal structure," Thin Solid Films 517, 3712-3716 (2009).

H. K. Kim, S. W. Kim, D. G. Kim, J. W. Kang, M. S. Kim, W. J. Cho, "Thin film passivation of organic light emitting diodes by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition," Thin Solid Films 515, 4758 (2007).

Other (5)

C. C. Wu, C. F. Lin, J. H. Lee, W. F. Chang, T. L. Chiu, S. W. Liu, "Fully Integration of Transflective Hybrid Device Consisting of PSCT and In-cell OLED," SID 11 Dig. (2011) pp. 1602-1605.

S. T. Wu, D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

T. Nakamura, H. Hayashi, M. Fuchi, M. Tada, T. Imai, H. Nakamura, K. Shigehiro, S. Hirota, S. Maruyama, A. Saitoh, H. Kimura, "Display architecture suitable for multiple ambient light-sensor integration using LTPS technology," SID 08 Dig. (2008) pp. 720-723.

S. H. Kim, E. B. Kim, H. Y. Choi, D. H. Kang, W. H. Park, J. H. Oh, E. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, D. H. Oh, K. H. Kim, M. H. Kang, J. H. Hur, J. Jang, J. W. Lee, J. R. Choi, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Hong, "A 2 inch a-Si:H TFT-LCD with backlight control TFT sensors," SID 07 Dig. (2007) pp. 1093-1096.

H. Hayashi, T. Nakamura, N. Tada, T. Imai, M. Yoshida, H. Nakamura, "Optical sensor embedded input display usable under high-ambient-light conditions," SID 07 Dig. (2007) pp. 1105-1108.

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