Abstract

High-κ dielectric is regarded as an effective material to reduce the operating voltage of the amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). However, the dielectric with high permittivity often has the drawbacks of inducing small conduction band offset energy and high interface trap density. Here a bilayer HfO<sub>2</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> gate dielectric for thin-film transistors (TFTs) is employed to address the issues. Compare to the a-IGZO TFT with solely 15 nm-thick HfO<sub>2</sub> gate dielectric, the TFT with the bilayer HfO<sub>2</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> (10 nm/5 nm) gate dielectric improves the subthreshold swing (SS) from 0.22 to 0.12 V/decade, the mobility from 1.4 to 7 cm<sup>2</sup>/V ⋅ s and current on–off ratio from 9 x 10<sup>6</sup> to 1.3 x 10<sup>9</sup>. Finally, Hooge's parameters (extracted from the low-frequency noise measurement) of a-IGZO TFTs were investigated to understand the defects near the channel/dielectrics interface so that the role of the thin SiO<sub>2</sub> layer can be verified. The device with bilayer HfO<sub>2</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> structure exhibits a value of 2 x 10<sup>-3</sup>, which is an order of magnitude lower than the one with a single HfO<sub>2</sub> layer. The Hooge's parameter of our bilayer dielectric is the lowest among the reported metal–oxide based TFTs on the glass substrate.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, R. Martins, "Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: A review of recent advances," Adv. Mater. 24, 2945-2986 (2012).
  2. P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "The effect of deposition conditions and annealing on the performance of high-mobility GIZO TFTs," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, H248 (2008).
  3. T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mat. 11, (2010).
  4. H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Amorphous oxide channel TFTs," Thin Solid Films 516, 1516-1522 (2007).
  5. L. Y. Su, H. Y. Lin, H. K. Lin, S. L. Wang, L. H. Peng, J. J. Huang, "Characterizations of amorphous IGZO thin-film transistors with low subthreshold swing," IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 32, 1-3 (2011).
  6. N. Su, S. J. Wang, A. Chin, "A low operating voltage ZnO thin film transistor using a high-$\kappa$ HfLaO gate dielectric," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13, H8 (2010).
  7. S. Jeon, A. Benayad, S. E. Ahn, S. Park, I. Song, C. Kim, U. I. Chung, "Short channel device performance of amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 082104 (2011).
  8. J. Robertson, "Band structures and band offsets of high ${\rm K}$ dielectrics on Si," Appl. Surf. Sci. 190, 2-10 (2002).
  9. J. C. Park, S. I. Kim, C. J. Kim, S. Kim, D. H. Kim, I. T. Cho, H. I. Kwon, "Impact of high-$k$${\hbox{HfO}} _{2} $ dielectric on the low-frequency noise behaviors in amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 0205 (2010).
  10. P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Gonçalves, D. Kuscer, M. Kosec, A. Vilà, A. Olziersky, J. R. Morante, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Low-temperature sputtered mixtures of high-$\kappa$ and high bandgap dielectrics for GIZO TFTs," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 762 (2010).
  11. P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Gonçalves, R. Martins, D. Kuš?er, M. Kosec, E. Fortunato, "Performance and stability of low temperature transparent thin-film transistors using amorphous multicomponent dielectrics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H824 (2009).
  12. E. Douglas, A. Scheurmann, R. Davies, B. Gila, H. Cho, V. Craciun, E. Lambers, S. Pearton, F. Ren, "Measurement of ${\hbox{SiO}}_{2}$/${\hbox{InZnGaO}}_{4}$ heterojunction band offsets by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242110 (2011).
  13. H. Cho, E. Douglas, B. Gila, V. Craciun, E. Lambers, F. Ren, S. Pearton, "Band offsets in ${\hbox{HfO}}_{2}$/${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4}$ heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012105-012105-3 (2012).
  14. J. H. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y. G. Mo, H. D. Kim, J. Song, C. S. Hwang, "Origin of subthreshold swing improvement in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide transistors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, H157-H159 (2008).
  15. T. E. Chang, C. Huang, T. Wang, "Mechanisms of interface trap-induced drain leakage current in off-state n-MOSFET's," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 42, 738-743 (1995).
  16. E. Simoen, A. Mercha, L. Pantisano, C. Claeys, E. Young, "Low-frequency noise behavior of ${\hbox{SiO}}_{2}$–${\hbox{HfO}}_{2}$ dual-layer gate dielectric nMOSFETs with different interfacial oxide thickness," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 780-784 (2004).
  17. M. V. Haartman, M. Ostling, Low-Frequency Noise in Advanced MOS Devices (Springer, 2007).
  18. T. C. Fung, G. Baek, J. Kanicki, "Low frequency noise in long channel amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 074518-074518-10 (2010).
  19. J. M. Lee, W. S. Cheong, C. S. Hwang, I. T. Cho, H. I. Kwon, J. H. Lee, "Low-frequency noise in amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 505-507 (2009).
  20. I. T. Cho, W. S. Cheong, C. S. Hwang, J. M. Lee, H. I. Kwon, J. H. Lee, "Comparative study of the low-frequency-noise behaviors in a-IGZO thin-film transistors with ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ and ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$/${\hbox{SiN}}_{x}$ gate dielectrics," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 828-830 (2009).
  21. S. Kim, Y. Jeon, J. H. Lee, B. D. Ahn, S. Y. Park, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, J. Park, D. M. Kim, D. H. Kim, "Relation between low-frequency noise and subgap density of states in amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 1236-1238 (2010).
  22. S. Ju, P. Chen, C. Zhou, Y. Ha, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, S. K. Kim, S. Mohammadi, D. B. Janes, "$1/{f}$ noise of SnO2 nanowire transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243120-243120-3 (2008).
  23. K. S. Jeong, Y. M. Kim, H. J. Yun, S. D. Yang, Y. S. Kim, M. H. Kang, H. D. Lee, G. W. Lee, "Crystal quality effect on low-frequency noise in ZnO TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 1-3 (2011).
  24. H. D. Xiong, W. Wang, J. S. Suehle, C. A. Richter, W. K. Hong, T. Lee, "Noise in ZnO nanowire field effect transistors," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1041-1044 (2009).
  25. H. S. Choi, S. Jeon, H. Kim, J. Shin, C. Kim, U. I. Chung, "The impact of active layer thickness on low-frequency noise characteristics in InZnO thin-film transistors with high mobility," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173501-173501-4 (2012).
  26. S. Ju, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, D. B. Janes, Y. G. Ha, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, "Interface studies of ZnO nanowire transistors using low-frequency noise and temperature-dependent IV measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 022104 (2008).
  27. S. Kim, P. Srisungsitthisunti, C. Lee, M. Xu, P. D. Ye, M. Qi, X. Xu, C. Zhou, S. Ju, "Selective contact anneal effects on indium oxide nanowire transistors using femtosecond laser," J. Phys. Chem. C (2011).

2012 (3)

E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, R. Martins, "Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: A review of recent advances," Adv. Mater. 24, 2945-2986 (2012).

H. Cho, E. Douglas, B. Gila, V. Craciun, E. Lambers, F. Ren, S. Pearton, "Band offsets in ${\hbox{HfO}}_{2}$/${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4}$ heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012105-012105-3 (2012).

H. S. Choi, S. Jeon, H. Kim, J. Shin, C. Kim, U. I. Chung, "The impact of active layer thickness on low-frequency noise characteristics in InZnO thin-film transistors with high mobility," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173501-173501-4 (2012).

2011 (5)

S. Kim, P. Srisungsitthisunti, C. Lee, M. Xu, P. D. Ye, M. Qi, X. Xu, C. Zhou, S. Ju, "Selective contact anneal effects on indium oxide nanowire transistors using femtosecond laser," J. Phys. Chem. C (2011).

K. S. Jeong, Y. M. Kim, H. J. Yun, S. D. Yang, Y. S. Kim, M. H. Kang, H. D. Lee, G. W. Lee, "Crystal quality effect on low-frequency noise in ZnO TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 1-3 (2011).

E. Douglas, A. Scheurmann, R. Davies, B. Gila, H. Cho, V. Craciun, E. Lambers, S. Pearton, F. Ren, "Measurement of ${\hbox{SiO}}_{2}$/${\hbox{InZnGaO}}_{4}$ heterojunction band offsets by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242110 (2011).

L. Y. Su, H. Y. Lin, H. K. Lin, S. L. Wang, L. H. Peng, J. J. Huang, "Characterizations of amorphous IGZO thin-film transistors with low subthreshold swing," IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 32, 1-3 (2011).

S. Jeon, A. Benayad, S. E. Ahn, S. Park, I. Song, C. Kim, U. I. Chung, "Short channel device performance of amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 082104 (2011).

2010 (6)

N. Su, S. J. Wang, A. Chin, "A low operating voltage ZnO thin film transistor using a high-$\kappa$ HfLaO gate dielectric," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13, H8 (2010).

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mat. 11, (2010).

T. C. Fung, G. Baek, J. Kanicki, "Low frequency noise in long channel amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 074518-074518-10 (2010).

J. C. Park, S. I. Kim, C. J. Kim, S. Kim, D. H. Kim, I. T. Cho, H. I. Kwon, "Impact of high-$k$${\hbox{HfO}} _{2} $ dielectric on the low-frequency noise behaviors in amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 0205 (2010).

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Gonçalves, D. Kuscer, M. Kosec, A. Vilà, A. Olziersky, J. R. Morante, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Low-temperature sputtered mixtures of high-$\kappa$ and high bandgap dielectrics for GIZO TFTs," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 762 (2010).

S. Kim, Y. Jeon, J. H. Lee, B. D. Ahn, S. Y. Park, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, J. Park, D. M. Kim, D. H. Kim, "Relation between low-frequency noise and subgap density of states in amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 1236-1238 (2010).

2009 (4)

H. D. Xiong, W. Wang, J. S. Suehle, C. A. Richter, W. K. Hong, T. Lee, "Noise in ZnO nanowire field effect transistors," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1041-1044 (2009).

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Gonçalves, R. Martins, D. Kuš?er, M. Kosec, E. Fortunato, "Performance and stability of low temperature transparent thin-film transistors using amorphous multicomponent dielectrics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H824 (2009).

J. M. Lee, W. S. Cheong, C. S. Hwang, I. T. Cho, H. I. Kwon, J. H. Lee, "Low-frequency noise in amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 505-507 (2009).

I. T. Cho, W. S. Cheong, C. S. Hwang, J. M. Lee, H. I. Kwon, J. H. Lee, "Comparative study of the low-frequency-noise behaviors in a-IGZO thin-film transistors with ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ and ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$/${\hbox{SiN}}_{x}$ gate dielectrics," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 828-830 (2009).

2008 (4)

J. H. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y. G. Mo, H. D. Kim, J. Song, C. S. Hwang, "Origin of subthreshold swing improvement in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide transistors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, H157-H159 (2008).

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "The effect of deposition conditions and annealing on the performance of high-mobility GIZO TFTs," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, H248 (2008).

S. Ju, P. Chen, C. Zhou, Y. Ha, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, S. K. Kim, S. Mohammadi, D. B. Janes, "$1/{f}$ noise of SnO2 nanowire transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243120-243120-3 (2008).

S. Ju, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, D. B. Janes, Y. G. Ha, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, "Interface studies of ZnO nanowire transistors using low-frequency noise and temperature-dependent IV measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 022104 (2008).

2007 (1)

H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Amorphous oxide channel TFTs," Thin Solid Films 516, 1516-1522 (2007).

2004 (1)

E. Simoen, A. Mercha, L. Pantisano, C. Claeys, E. Young, "Low-frequency noise behavior of ${\hbox{SiO}}_{2}$–${\hbox{HfO}}_{2}$ dual-layer gate dielectric nMOSFETs with different interfacial oxide thickness," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 780-784 (2004).

2002 (1)

J. Robertson, "Band structures and band offsets of high ${\rm K}$ dielectrics on Si," Appl. Surf. Sci. 190, 2-10 (2002).

1995 (1)

T. E. Chang, C. Huang, T. Wang, "Mechanisms of interface trap-induced drain leakage current in off-state n-MOSFET's," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 42, 738-743 (1995).

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, R. Martins, "Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: A review of recent advances," Adv. Mater. 24, 2945-2986 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. Jeon, A. Benayad, S. E. Ahn, S. Park, I. Song, C. Kim, U. I. Chung, "Short channel device performance of amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 082104 (2011).

E. Douglas, A. Scheurmann, R. Davies, B. Gila, H. Cho, V. Craciun, E. Lambers, S. Pearton, F. Ren, "Measurement of ${\hbox{SiO}}_{2}$/${\hbox{InZnGaO}}_{4}$ heterojunction band offsets by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242110 (2011).

H. Cho, E. Douglas, B. Gila, V. Craciun, E. Lambers, F. Ren, S. Pearton, "Band offsets in ${\hbox{HfO}}_{2}$/${\hbox{InGaZnO}}_{4}$ heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012105-012105-3 (2012).

S. Ju, P. Chen, C. Zhou, Y. Ha, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, S. K. Kim, S. Mohammadi, D. B. Janes, "$1/{f}$ noise of SnO2 nanowire transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243120-243120-3 (2008).

H. S. Choi, S. Jeon, H. Kim, J. Shin, C. Kim, U. I. Chung, "The impact of active layer thickness on low-frequency noise characteristics in InZnO thin-film transistors with high mobility," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173501-173501-4 (2012).

S. Ju, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, D. B. Janes, Y. G. Ha, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, "Interface studies of ZnO nanowire transistors using low-frequency noise and temperature-dependent IV measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 022104 (2008).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. Robertson, "Band structures and band offsets of high ${\rm K}$ dielectrics on Si," Appl. Surf. Sci. 190, 2-10 (2002).

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (3)

N. Su, S. J. Wang, A. Chin, "A low operating voltage ZnO thin film transistor using a high-$\kappa$ HfLaO gate dielectric," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13, H8 (2010).

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "The effect of deposition conditions and annealing on the performance of high-mobility GIZO TFTs," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, H248 (2008).

J. H. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y. G. Mo, H. D. Kim, J. Song, C. S. Hwang, "Origin of subthreshold swing improvement in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide transistors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, H157-H159 (2008).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (4)

J. M. Lee, W. S. Cheong, C. S. Hwang, I. T. Cho, H. I. Kwon, J. H. Lee, "Low-frequency noise in amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 505-507 (2009).

I. T. Cho, W. S. Cheong, C. S. Hwang, J. M. Lee, H. I. Kwon, J. H. Lee, "Comparative study of the low-frequency-noise behaviors in a-IGZO thin-film transistors with ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ and ${\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$/${\hbox{SiN}}_{x}$ gate dielectrics," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 828-830 (2009).

S. Kim, Y. Jeon, J. H. Lee, B. D. Ahn, S. Y. Park, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, J. Park, D. M. Kim, D. H. Kim, "Relation between low-frequency noise and subgap density of states in amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 1236-1238 (2010).

K. S. Jeong, Y. M. Kim, H. J. Yun, S. D. Yang, Y. S. Kim, M. H. Kang, H. D. Lee, G. W. Lee, "Crystal quality effect on low-frequency noise in ZnO TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 1-3 (2011).

IEEE Electron Devices Lett. (1)

L. Y. Su, H. Y. Lin, H. K. Lin, S. L. Wang, L. H. Peng, J. J. Huang, "Characterizations of amorphous IGZO thin-film transistors with low subthreshold swing," IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 32, 1-3 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

T. E. Chang, C. Huang, T. Wang, "Mechanisms of interface trap-induced drain leakage current in off-state n-MOSFET's," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 42, 738-743 (1995).

E. Simoen, A. Mercha, L. Pantisano, C. Claeys, E. Young, "Low-frequency noise behavior of ${\hbox{SiO}}_{2}$–${\hbox{HfO}}_{2}$ dual-layer gate dielectric nMOSFETs with different interfacial oxide thickness," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 780-784 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. C. Fung, G. Baek, J. Kanicki, "Low frequency noise in long channel amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 074518-074518-10 (2010).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Gonçalves, R. Martins, D. Kuš?er, M. Kosec, E. Fortunato, "Performance and stability of low temperature transparent thin-film transistors using amorphous multicomponent dielectrics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H824 (2009).

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

H. D. Xiong, W. Wang, J. S. Suehle, C. A. Richter, W. K. Hong, T. Lee, "Noise in ZnO nanowire field effect transistors," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1041-1044 (2009).

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

S. Kim, P. Srisungsitthisunti, C. Lee, M. Xu, P. D. Ye, M. Qi, X. Xu, C. Zhou, S. Ju, "Selective contact anneal effects on indium oxide nanowire transistors using femtosecond laser," J. Phys. Chem. C (2011).

J. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Gonçalves, D. Kuscer, M. Kosec, A. Vilà, A. Olziersky, J. R. Morante, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Low-temperature sputtered mixtures of high-$\kappa$ and high bandgap dielectrics for GIZO TFTs," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 762 (2010).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. C. Park, S. I. Kim, C. J. Kim, S. Kim, D. H. Kim, I. T. Cho, H. I. Kwon, "Impact of high-$k$${\hbox{HfO}} _{2} $ dielectric on the low-frequency noise behaviors in amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 0205 (2010).

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mat. (1)

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mat. 11, (2010).

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Amorphous oxide channel TFTs," Thin Solid Films 516, 1516-1522 (2007).

Other (1)

M. V. Haartman, M. Ostling, Low-Frequency Noise in Advanced MOS Devices (Springer, 2007).

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