Abstract

This paper proposes a retinex theory-based approach to RGB-to-RGBW conversion that preserves the human color perception within a pre-determined level of color distortion for RGBW displays. The proposed method primarily consists of two procedures. In the first, it searches for the maximum intensity level that induces no color distortion for a given image by extracting the white spectra from the common components of the RGB primary colors and adjusting all the pixels' gains uniformly. In the second, the proposed method applies an additional gain to each pixel based on its chromaticness and controls the color distortions arising from the individual gains using the color perception estimated by retinex theory and a feedback mechanism. Experimental results showed that the proposed method was more effective than conventional methods in terms of intensity increment and color preservation. For Kodak test images, the proposed method increased the average intensity by 1.4987 times with a color-distortion level of 0.0094 compared to reference RGB displays, whereas the conventional methods increased the average intensity by 0.8624–1.3429 times with color-distortion levels of 0.0325–0.0682. The surplus intensity yielded by the proposed method can be used to dynamically reduce the power consumption of a liquid crystal display (LCD) backlight or to provide brighter images on LCDs.

© 2012 IEEE

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2011 (1)

S. Yang, J. Heikenfeld, E. Kreit, M. Hagedon, K. Dean, K. Zhou, S. Smith, J. Rudolph, "Electrofluidic displays: Fundamental platforms and unique performance attributes," J. SID 19, 608-613 (2011).

2009 (4)

M. E. Miller, M. J. Murdoch, "RGB to RGBW conversion with current limiting for OLED displays," J. SID 17, 195-202 (2009).

Y. Xiong, L. Wang, W. Xu, J. Zou, H. Wu, Y. Xu, J. Peng, J. Wang, Y. Cao, G. Yu, "Performance analysis of PLED based flat panel display with RGBW sub-pixel layout," Org. Electron. 10, 857-862 (2009).

S. Kang, Y. H. Kim, "Image integrity-based gray-level error control for low power liquid crystal displays," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55, 2401-2406 (2009).

N. Shlayan, R. Venkat, P. Ginobbi, A. K. Singh, "Energy efficient RGBW pixel configuration for light-emitting displays," J. Display Technol. 5, 418-424 (2009).

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

M. Ito, M. Kon, C. Miyazaki, N. Ikeda, M. Ishizaki, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "Front drive display structure for color electronic paper using fully transparent amorphous oxide TFT array," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90–C, 2105-2111 (2007).

C. Lai, C. Tsai, "A modified stripe-RGBW TFT-LCD with image-processing engine for mobile phone displays," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 53, 1628-1633 (2007).

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

N. Chang, I. Choi, H. Shim, "DLS: Dynamic backlight luminance scaling of liquid crystal display," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 12, 837-846 (2004).

2001 (1)

C. Huang, B. Liao, "A robust scene-change detection method for video segmentation," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 11, 1281-1288 (2001).

1995 (1)

B. L. Yeo, B. Liu, "Rapid scene analysis on compressed video," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 5, 533-544 (1995).

1986 (1)

E. H. Land, "Recent advances in retinex theory," Vision Res. 26, 7-21 (1986).

1971 (1)

E. H. Land, J. J. McCann, "Lightness and retinex theory," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 61, 1-11 (1971).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

S. Kang, Y. H. Kim, "Image integrity-based gray-level error control for low power liquid crystal displays," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55, 2401-2406 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

C. Lai, C. Tsai, "A modified stripe-RGBW TFT-LCD with image-processing engine for mobile phone displays," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 53, 1628-1633 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. (1)

C. Huang, B. Liao, "A robust scene-change detection method for video segmentation," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 11, 1281-1288 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. (1)

B. L. Yeo, B. Liu, "Rapid scene analysis on compressed video," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 5, 533-544 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. (1)

N. Chang, I. Choi, H. Shim, "DLS: Dynamic backlight luminance scaling of liquid crystal display," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 12, 837-846 (2004).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Ito, M. Kon, C. Miyazaki, N. Ikeda, M. Ishizaki, Y. Ugajin, N. Sekine, "Front drive display structure for color electronic paper using fully transparent amorphous oxide TFT array," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90–C, 2105-2111 (2007).

J. Display Technol. (1)

N. Shlayan, R. Venkat, P. Ginobbi, A. K. Singh, "Energy efficient RGBW pixel configuration for light-emitting displays," J. Display Technol. 5, 418-424 (2009).

J. SID (1)

S. Yang, J. Heikenfeld, E. Kreit, M. Hagedon, K. Dean, K. Zhou, S. Smith, J. Rudolph, "Electrofluidic displays: Fundamental platforms and unique performance attributes," J. SID 19, 608-613 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

E. H. Land, J. J. McCann, "Lightness and retinex theory," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 61, 1-11 (1971).

J. SID (1)

M. E. Miller, M. J. Murdoch, "RGB to RGBW conversion with current limiting for OLED displays," J. SID 17, 195-202 (2009).

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (1)

Y. Xiong, L. Wang, W. Xu, J. Zou, H. Wu, Y. Xu, J. Peng, J. Wang, Y. Cao, G. Yu, "Performance analysis of PLED based flat panel display with RGBW sub-pixel layout," Org. Electron. 10, 857-862 (2009).

Vision Res. (1)

E. H. Land, "Recent advances in retinex theory," Vision Res. 26, 7-21 (1986).

Other (11)

E. H. Land, "Recent advances in retinex theory and some implications for cortical computations: Color vision and the natural image," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA (1983) pp. 5163-5169.

S. Y. Noh, J. P. Kim, S. R. Park, J. Y. Yang, M. S. Yang, I. B. Kang, I. J. Chung, "Advanced RGBW panel with high planarization overcoat material," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2009) pp. 735-737.

M. A. Kao, P. Hsieh, H. Lin, "Dynamic backlight control method for RGBW LCD," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2011) pp. 1296-1299.

E. H. A. Langendijk, O. Belik, F. Budzelaar, F. Vossen, "Dynamic wide-color-gamut RGBW display," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2007) pp. 1458-1461.

L. Wang, Y. Tu, L. Chen, "Trade-off between luminance and color in RGBW displays for mobile-phone usage," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2007) pp. 1142-1145.

J. G. R. Mourik, J. H. C. J. Stessen, Method of driving displays comprising a conversion from the RGB color space to the RGBW color space U.S. Patent2008/0204480 A1 (2008).

S. Lee, C. Kim, Y. Seo, C. Hong, "Color conversion from RGB to RGB+white while preserving hue and saturation," Proc. IS&T/SID 10th Color Imag. Conf. (2002) pp. 287-291.

L. Chen, Y. Tu, L. Wang, F. Li, "Perceptual evaluation of sub-pixel rendering in a four-primary display system," 2nd Int. Congr.Image and Signal Process. (2009) pp. 1-5.

H. Qin, S. Wang, H. Lu, X. Chen, "Human-inspired order-based block feature in the HSI color space for image retrieval," IEEE Int. Conf. on Robot. Biomimetics (2009) pp. 1978-1982.

S. Juric, V. Klepac, "Gamma and gamma correction in television production," Int. Symp. ELMAR (2009) pp. 83-86.

I. K. Sethi, N. Patel, "A statistical approach to scene change detection," SPIE (1995) pp. 329-338.

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