Compared to the OLED with planar substrate, the luminous current efficiency and luminous power efficiency of the device are shown 25% and 36% enhancement, respectively, by attaching the microlens array film (MAF) having a fill factor of 0.788 and a height ratio of 0.46. Both the luminous current efficiency and luminous power efficiency of the organic light-emitting device (OLED) increased monotonically with increasing the fill factor of MAFs, regardless of their arrangements. However, the curve-fitting equation of the luminous power efficiency has a negative second-order term, which shows a saturation phenomenon. Based on the experimentally verified configuration, simulation showed that the luminous current and power efficiencies also increase along with increasing height ratio and they were found to have more pronounced saturation phenomena. As for the spectral characteristics, the peak wavelength of the planar OLED spectra got blue-shift and the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of its spectra decreased with increasing the viewing angles due to the microcavity theories. After MAFs are attached to the OLED, the FWHM of the OLED spectra decreased linearly by increasing the fill factor of the MAFs. We also observe blue shifts at different viewing angles which is the evidence that the waveguiding modes are being extracted. The saturation phenomena of efficiency enhancement imply that high fill factor and large height ratio of MAFs will certainly benefit for efficiency enhancement, however, full factor cases are not always the most desirable. Optimal fill factor and height ratio, which may be less than unity, will gain the best efficiency enhancement, suffer from less color deviation, and make fabrication easier.
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